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Absorptivity and Emissivity

Alas, this simple and unambiguous equation has been translated, unnecessarily, by some textbook writers into a mantra, a good absorber is a good emitter , which is as useless as it is misleading. Whether something is good or bad cannot be determined until criteria for goodness or badness are specified. Steam pipes in power plants are wrapped with aluminum sheeting, and insulation for houses is coated with aluminum foil. Metals such as aluminum, especially when highly polished, have low spectral emissivities over the range of frequencies that encompass most of the integrated Planck function at typical terrestrial temperatures. To reduce the rate of radiative cooling of the contents of pipes (or of anything) they are wrapped with a bad emitter, which is good. Do you wrap hot sandwiches with aluminum foil If so, you are making use of the good properties of a bad emitter (low emissivity).

Mid Twentieth Century Advances 19561972

Early post-IGY surveys of glacial deposits in the McMurdo Sound region by Pewe (1960), Bull et al. (1962), Nichols (1964) and others described the features they found in terms of four glacial episodes within the Quaternary Period, perhaps influenced by the prevailing view prior to the IGY in the Northern Hemisphere (Flint, 1957) and a lack of suitable fossil material or radiometric techniques for a sound chronology. Indeed, Nichols (1964) in his review of the status of Antarctic glacial geology stated, ''This writer believes that as yet there is no good evidence for Tertiary Antarctic glaciation''.

Relations Before The Modern

We are the absolute masters of that which the earth produces. We enjoy the mountains and the plains, the rivers are ours. We sow the seed and plant the trees. We fertilize the earth we stop, direct, and turn the rivers, in short, by our hands we endeavor, by our various operations in this world, to make, as it were, another nature. (Cicero, c. 106-43 bce, Roman statesman and writer, describing the Roman world-view)2

Perm I Trias I Jurassic I Cret

Clusters benthonically, perhaps attached to sessile structures. The recent description of clusters of ammonitellae by Tanabe et al. (1993) may best be interpreted as such a cluster. S. M. Etches of Kimmeridge has kindly shown the writer a less ambiguous example from the Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay of Dorset. Then there are the examples known from the soles of turbidites where many scattered ammonitellae can occur, as in the Namurian Reticuloceras Zone of Pinhay Quarry, Exeter, Devon. The last can only satisfactorily be explained if the ammonitellae were benthonic, either recently hatched or detached from a mature egg cluster. The development of extreme dimorphism in some later ammonoid groups suggests that broods may be retained within the extremely large macroconch body chamber after fertilization it is difficult otherwise to envisage a reason for such extremes of dimorphic size dimorphism has been claimed in Devonian Manticoceras, Tornoceras and Cheiloceras by Makowski (1962). If this...

The Ambiguity of Religions

The Abrahamic religions are focused on God and salvation, sin and atonement. The Decalogue, the source of all Judeo-Christian ethics, is concerned with the majesty of God and interhuman relations it does not contain any ecological commandment. The Hebrew Bible condemns the worship of nature deities practiced by the people of Canaan. Paul, the most influential voice in early Christianity, held the whole of nature mortally afflicted with Adam's original sin, and groaning to be redeemed by Christ. The writers of the Gospels saw the proof of Jesus'

Cultural And Historical Perspectives Of The Present Agrolandscape

The Roman writer Cicero termed what is currently considered the cultural landscape a second nature (alteram naturam). This cultural landscape, or second nature, comprised all the elements introduced into the physical world by humankind to make it more habitable. Hunt (1992) interprets Cicero's phrase, a second nature, as implying a first, or primal nature before humans invaded, altered, or augmented the unmediated world.

Its life Jim but not as we know it

As this quote from Mr Spock of the original Star Trek TV series highlights, science fiction writers (and scientists) have imagined many different forms of extraterrestrial life. These range from life consisting of 'pure energy', to life in the thermonuclear furnace of a star, to life within a few degrees of absolute zero which uses superconductivity to provide its energy. It may be rather hard to gain concrete evidence for the existence of such life, at least given our present abilities, even if such things do exist. Perhaps we would be better sticking to life as we know it. In this chapter, I will focus on what our knowledge of organisms in extreme environments might tell us about what is perhaps the greatest unanswered question in science is there life elsewhere in the universe

The George W Bush Administration

Most notably, the newly minted chairwoman of the Senate's Environment and Public Works Committee, Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) replaced James Inhofe (R-OK), who held a grand total of five hearings on climate change in four years as head of that committee, including science-fiction writer Michael Crichton as his star witness. Senator Inhofe was also well known for labeling global warming as the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people. Senator Boxer promptly held five hearings on climate change in her first three months at the helm and proposed what will likely become the centerpiece of a renewed national debate with Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-VT). This bill, formerly known as S-309 but more popularly referred to as the Global Warming Pollu

Selected Bibliography

Climate Code Red The Case for Emergency Action. David Spratt and Philip Sutton. Scribe Publications, 2008. The writers and publisher are Australian, and the book has had far too little attention in the United States. See www.climatecodered.net for excerpts, updates, and what Spratt has to say about the Arctic challenge.

Biodiversity conservation in perspective

Factors impinge on the success or failure of biodiversity conservation, most of which act simultaneously. Two key aspects have been mentioned by some writers that could influence the enhancement of biodiversity conservation. One concerns the incentive to create an economic value for tropical medicinal plants by investing in drug development programmes with potential financial spin-offs. For instance, it has been noted that pharmaceutical firms have not been part of the programme to save tropical forests largely because financial and institutional incentives are lacking. The second component hinges on the relaxation of the drug approval process by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Presently, FDA requirements insist on new drugs being single molecular entities and pure isolates that have been completely elucidated. The trial drug must also pass the clinical tests of efficacy and safety. Plant-derived concoctions, however, are whole crude extracts containing many molecular...

The North Atlantic Current

There does seem to be some possibility that ice-water melt might affect the North Atlantic Current. Science writer John Roach reported that a survey of scientists found that some believed there to be a more than 50 percent chance that the North Atlantic Current might shut down, while others said that there was no chance of such a failure.20 An even more prevalent end-of-the-world scenario involves sea-level rise. Thus, as just one example, in the graphic novel JLA American Dreams by writer Grant Morrison and illustrators John Dell and Howard Porter, published in 1997, there is a scene set in the near future that shows the superhero Aquaman swimming past an almost entirely submerged Statue of Liberty. Only the statue's upraised arm breaks the surface the head is completely underwater. The scene is meant to suggest that global warming has caused the seas to rise and cover the earth.

Living In The Age Of Ecocide

The bitter irony of this ecocidal predicament is that our species constitutes the most adaptable of all known creatures that have ever existed on Earth. As science writer Colin Tudge put it, humans are an all-purpose animal that in principle can solve any problem. 6 The acquisition of language - enabling our genus to negotiate our environment in ways unlike those of any other species - was perhaps the most decisive factor.7 Reason and insight, the great human features, have given us the power to forge a world to fit our own comfort. Both divided and united, we carve the planet's surface into fields and streets, shopping malls and parking lots, with little regard for what was there before. We replace wilderness with structures that offer a more immediate, short-term benefit.8

Evolution of Production Methods

Gaius Plinius Secundus Natural History

12Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, A.D. 23-79), Roman naturalist, encyclopedist and writer born in Verona. He served a cavalryman in Germany and from his experiences wrote his first book On the Use of the Javelin by Cavalry'', the beginning of a literary career of enormous output. His famous Natural History (Historia Naturalis) was published in the year 77 A.D., two years before his death and is the only work of Pliny to survive. The work in 37 volumes is encyclopedic in coverage and includes information on astronomy, chemistry, geography, natural history, agriculture, medicine, astrology, and mineralogy. A popular translation covers five volumes, each of about 500 pages. Over 400 different authors are cited. Pliny was a compiler and the work is a monumental collection of science, technology, and ignorance. Although Pliny appears overly credulous, his encyclopedic coverage is the best known and most widely referred source book of classical natural history. Pliny is also a rich...

Archaeology Of The Arctic Scandinavian Settlement Of The North Atlantic

The Scandinavian emigrant communities in the North Atlantic, in the words of the saga writers, were established primarily by a Norwegian peasant aristocracy, which at the end of the 9th century was forced to flee Norway as a result of their opposition to King Harald Finehair's attempts to gain sovereign supremacy over all Norway. According to the Saga of Harald Finehair, this happened following the so-called Battle of Hafrsfjord, outside Stavanger in Southwest Norway, which is supposed to have taken place c.AD 872. The saga states In the discontent when King Harald seized on the lands of Norway, the out-countries of Iceland and the Faroe Isles were discovered and peopled. The Northmen had also a great resort to Shetland, and many men left Norway, flying the country on account of King Harald, and went on viking cruises into the West Sea.

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

It should also be mentioned that there are some writers, with some scientific training, who may describe themselves as nuclear consultants, who amass and distort scientific data in such a way as to support the anti-nuclear case. To the uninitiated it appears scientific and convincing, and only a real scientist can see how the data have been twisted, exaggerated or ignored in order to present their case. Their writings are of course used as a source of data and are widely quoted by journalists and all who oppose nuclear power. Well-informed critiques of nuclear power have at least the merit of providing the opportunity to continue factual discussions. More damaging is the tendency of some writers to ignore nuclear power or to brush it aside with a few dismissive and often erroneous remarks. Thus Al Gore in his valuable and wide-ranging book 'Earth in the Balance' devotes barely a page to nuclear power. He notes 'the political difficulties involved in building new nuclear reactors' and...

The Risks of Prediction

Wells predicted that long before the year A.D. 2000, and very probably before 1950, a successful aeroplane will have soared and come home safe and sound and he predicted such a device would become an important weapon in warfare. He also suggested that in the year 2000, cooks would no longer labor with crimsoned faces and blackened arms over open fires, but rather over a neat little range, heated by electricity and provided with thermometers, with absolutely controllable temperatures and proper heat screens. 3 The speed of technological change today is another unprecedented and global trend. If the present rate of change continues, computers will approximate the power of the human brain within twenty-five years twenty-five years after that, one computer could have the processing power of all human brains. 6 What that might mean is the province of science fiction writers. Nanotechnology, the construction and manipulation of materials at a molecular level, may...

Grabau Amadeus William 18701946 German American Geologist Paleontologist

He was a great contributor to systematic paleontology and strati-graphic geology and also a respected professor and writer. He spent half of his professional life in the United States and the last 25 years in China. Grabau studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and received a master of science and a doctorate of science degree at Harvard University, then returned as faculty at MIT from 1892 to 1897. He moved to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, from 1899 to 1901, and became a professor in paleontology at Columbia University in New York City in 1901. In 1912 Grabau married Mary Antin, a Russian immigrant from a shtetl who wrote a best-selling autobiography, The Promised Land. In World War I Grabau defended Germany's actions, which led to his divorce from Mary and his being fired from Columbia University. In 1919 Grabau moved to China and became a professor at Peking National University (now called Peking University).

In search of possible causes of mass extinctions

There are in fact only a few geological phenomena that can plausibly be invoked. The problem is to discriminate between them one particular phenomenon can have multiple environmental effects on a global scale. Impacts by comets or asteroids, sea-level changes, and volcanism can all affect climate, and climatic change can affect sea level and the degree of oxygenation of the ocean water. Disentangling the critical factor can be difficult, and some people have been tempted to throw up their hands and admit a role for every factor that might be relevant. This can be called the Murder on the Orient Express scenario, after the celebrated Agatha Christie whodunnit in which the final resolution turns out to be that everybody did it. Other writers have promoted one factor as the dominant, if not the only, cause of all mass extinctions, both major and minor. The approach preferred here is to attempt to steer a course, Odysseus-like, between the Scylla of one overriding cause and the Charybdis...

Romanticism And Conservation

Perhaps the most significant work to bridge Romanticism and conservation as a physical and biological science and a social science came from Aldo Leopold, a forester, writer, astute observer of nature and human activities, teacher, and internationally-known conservationist and ecologist. Leopold's contribution to conservation comes from his conceptualization of healthy land and its relationship to human communities. Leopold did not separate the land from human activities. Rather, he extended the definition of community to include not only the places where people reside and interact with each other, but also the surrounding ecology in the landscape. Leopold added a rich component to conservation by giving it an ethical basis.

Agricultural Solutions To Climate Change

Finally, some writers argue for a move away from large-scale industrial agriculture to place more emphasis on so-called civic agriculture as a way to slow global warming. Civic agriculture includes local food systems and organic foods. Local food systems reduce greenhouse gases by reducing transportation costs. Traditional food supply chains can stretch thousands of miles from the point of production to the place of consumption. Local food advocates suggest that food could be grown and consumed locally. Organic agriculture reduces the use of greenhouse gases because organic farmers cannot use petroleum-based herbicides or pesticides.

A discourse perspective

It is also important to recognise the way in which speakers and writers linguistically construct their arguments and undermine those of others. This linguistic construction can be understood by focussing on four aspects (Dryzek, 1997). Firstly, one needs to question the 'ontology' underlying a discourse, that is, what entities are recognised or posited as 'real'. Thus, for example, when economists speak of 'interventions' in free markets they are implicitly reinforcing the idea that the market in question is in fact 'free'. Similarly in the UK 'fuel poverty' is constructed as a real phenomenon by some while others argue it is simply one aspect of 'poverty'. Secondly, one can examine what kinds of relationships are presented as natural are members of society inevitably locked into a Darwinian struggle with one another, or are people naturally co-operative beings, for example Thirdly, it is necessary to question assumptions about 'agency' and 'motivation' for example, are climate...

Center for Science and Environment India

THE Center FOR Science and Environment (CSE) was established in 1980 by a group of engineers, scientists, journalists, and environmentalists to increase public awareness of science, technology, environment, and development in New Delhi, India. The center became functional with a small group of writers in 1981, and, in its first year, it was involved in producing an information service on science and society-related issues such as energy, environment, health, human settlements, and the impact of science and technology at the grassroots level.

The International Geophysical Year 195758

The International Geophysical Year also became a cultural starting point for looking at planet Earth as a whole. In particular, the Soviet Sputnik satellite in 1957 together with later American space launches marked the beginning of the space race.58 Several writers have pointed out that the changed awareness brought on by looking at Earth from the outside has been fundamental for our culture, similar to a scientific revolu-

Shifting Values in Response to Climate Change

Tamsen Butler was living the busy life of a mother of two, a college student, and a freelance writer when her 15-month-old son could no longer breathe properly. She carried him into the ambulance, clutching my son in one arm while I used my other arm to balance my laptop bag. After a couple of nights in a Nebraska hospital tending to her son and staying up late trying to meet writing deadlines, she had an epiphany My son was in the hospital and I was a fool. Rather than working while her son slept, Butler realized she should have been resting. Rather than clutching my son with only one arm I should have had both arms wrapped around him. When her son recovered, Butler and herfamily began spending less time rushing from here to there and reorganized their lives around their health and their time together. They also gave to charity the many extra toys and clothes they had accumulated.1

The Issue Of Noncompliance

His obligation, on Murphy's principle, is limited to the total good divided by the number of agents there are who can do something about it - in this case, emitters who are in a position to stop and or curtail their emissions. Let us suppose for the sake of argument that a 10 reduction in emissions would do the trick, and that this would require of GW that he simply buy a hybrid car and make modest adjustments to his standard of living. But one implication of Murphy's principle is that GW is not obligated to do more if others fail in their obligations - indeed, that is the point of Murphy's principle, to get people off the moral hook in these cases. But writers like Mulgan believe that this approach leads to the view that a person's level of obligation, even in the face of disaster, is determined by how many others there are to share it with, and this seems counterintuitive. Suppose that Mary and Susan see two people drowning in a lake. Suppose also that Mary jumps in, swims out and...

Structure ofindex insurance contracts

Tte terminology used to describe features of index insurance contracts resembles that used for futures and options contracts rather than for other insurance contracts. Rather than referring to the point at which payments begin as a trigger, for example, index contracts typically refer to it as a strike, ttey also pay in increments called ticks. Consider a contract being written to protect against deficient cumulative rainfall during a cropping season, tte writer of the contract may choose to make a fixed payment for every one millimetre (mm) of rainfall below the strike. If an individual purchases a contract where the strike is one hundred millimetres of rain and the limit is fifty mm, the amount of payment for each tick would be a function of how much liability is purchased, ttere are fifty ticks between the one hundred mm strike and fifty mm limit, ttus, if 50,000 of liability were purchased, the payment for each one mm below one hundred mm would be equal to 50,000 (100 - 50), or...

Is there a relationship between impacts and other massextinction horizons

After the success of the impact research agenda for the K-T boundary, great enthusiasm was expressed by some scientists that they had perhaps found the key, not just to the K-T event, but to all mass extinctions. This was certainly Luis Alvarez's hope, if not expectation, before he died, and the view of at least one distinguished palaeontologist, Dave Raup. In fact bolide impact was seized upon by many neo-catastrophists as a kind of deus ex machina. This Latin phrase, usually translated as 'god out of the machine', actually derives from the ancient Greek theatre. Machina means 'scaffolding' as well as 'machine', and in the appropriate context 'god out of the scaffolding' is the better translation, because it refers to actors playing gods descending to the stage. Thus a writer finding difficulties in

The Enslavement Of Land And Nature

The introduction of slavery to support the plantation economies in the Americas had its cultural correlate in the treatment of land. The land became a slave of the new system of export crop production. Planters cleared it of trees, making it more prone to drought and erosion. In 1690, trees still covered more than two-thirds of Antigua by 1751, every acre suitable for cultivation had been stripped of forest cover.34 Intensive cultivation of sugar cane mined the soil, robbing it of its nutrients. What Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano wrote of the northeast of Brazil was true of most of the Caribbean islands as well

Programs and activities

Among the many activities of the National Academies and its member organizations is the Keck Futures Initiative, a 15-year undertaking to stimulate interdisciplinary research, particularly cutting-edge research, and to increase interaction among researchers, universities, funding institutions, and the general public. The National Academies Keck Futures Initiative incorporates the following annual activities Futures Conferences, Futures Grants, and National Academies Communication Awards. As of 2003, the National Academies annually bestow three 20,000 Communication Awards recognizing writers, journalists, and producers who have demonstrated excellence in communicating about science, engineering, and or medicine to the general public through different media formats. In 2006, Elizabeth Kolbert, staff writer for the New Yorker, won the Newspaper Magazine Internet award for her three-part series The Climate of Man. Additional 2006 finalists in the category, writing about climate change,...

Biography

Ipellie, Alootook, Telling Tales A Nomad Learns to Write and Draw. In Echoing Silence Essays on Arctic Narrative, edited by John Moss, Ottawa University of Ottawa Press, 1996 Kennedy, Michael P.J., Southern exposure belated recognition of a significant Inuk writer-artist. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 15(2) (1995) 347-361

Why I Blog

From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to abandon this idea, but I did so with the consciousness that I was outraging my true nature and that sooner or later I should have to settle down and write books I knew I did not want to be a professional writer once I saw how hopeless it was to make a living that way. My father was the editor of a small newspaper (circulation under 10,000) that he turned into a medium-sized newspaper (70,000) but was paid dirt, even though he managed the equivalent of a large manufacturing enterprise while simultaneously writing three editorials a day that in any other industry would pay five times as much. My mother pursued freelance writing for many years, an even more difficult way to earn a living. I give all this background information because I do not think one can assess a writer's motives without knowing something of his early...

Leslie carol roberts

The essay Entire Earth and Sky was originally published in On Nature Great Writers on the Great Outdoors, Lee Gutkind, ed. (New York Jeremy P. Tarcher Putnam, a member of the Putnam Penguin Group, 2002). 2002. My family has always supported me, and I have my father, Edwin, a great writer, as my model and guide. My mother, Barbara, and three sisters, Beth, Amy, and Jackie, are ready to offer kind words as spur. On the homefront, I am grateful for Ed. Also, Scott, for tireless support and faith, and Bob Halliday for his wit.

Situated knowledge

My position is one of living outside the Arctic but with a keen interest in the region and with professional and friendship ties to people who have worked at the science-policy interface of Arctic international collaboration.31 In relation to the issue of global climate change, I have a long professional interest as a science journalist covering both scientific and political aspects as the discussions have developed since the early 1990s. I thus approach the question of Arctic climate change with many pre-understandings. This has created some advantages for the research, such as helping me gain access to meetings and people as well as knowing from first-hand experience some of the issues that came up in the Arctic Council. My previous involvement with Arctic Council work includes the role of science writer for two assessments of pollution issues in the Arc-tic.32 While I was doing my research on the ACIA, I was involved as scientific editor for an assessment on Arctic human...

Volcanic activity

Of all the geological phenomena that make an impression on the general public, volcanic eruptions must be the most spectacular. The sight of incandescent lava being spewed into the air or creeping down hillsides is a regular standby of television documentaries dealing with the natural world, and the invocation by Old Testament writers of fire and brimstone in their portraits of hell indicates how vivid is the image of volcanic activity that has persisted throughout recorded history. How significant, though, are erupting or exploding volcanoes as killers

Media Internet

A comparison in 2000, climate change coverage in major newspapers found that global warming received three times more coverage in the United Kingdom than in the United States. In the United States, Andrew Revkin of the New York Times has been praised as one writer who has covered global warming steadily. Additionally, it was not until 2004 that the Weather Channel began citing global warming in relationship to its projections. In recent years, however, awareness of global warming has grown and the media have begun to cover climate change more expansively. In those countries with greater media coverage, the public are more concerned about the effects of global warming. A 2007 study found that citizens in Brazil, where media coverage of global warming is regular, are among those most concerned about global warming in the developing world South Korea's citizens are among the least concerned.

Pamela P McVety

On climate change and energy issues, frequently lecturing on the science of global climate change and energy. She also helped found the Big Bend Climate Action Team, a citizen group of scientists and writers working with local governments, businesses and citizens to abate climate change by reducing fossil fuel use and promoting energy conservation, efficiency and renewable fuels in power plants, buildings and vehicles.

Aron From Kangeq

Aron from Kangeq, an indigenous figure in Greenland in the 19th century, is considered a forerunner among Greenlandic pictorial artists. His illustrations of the oral storytelling tradition have gained status as a symbol of the new artistic tradition developed in Greenland in the mid-19th century. In addition to his oeuvre of watercolors, woodcuts, and drawings, Aron was also a dedicated writer of the oral tradition. stories, Aron began to write his own texts, eventually distinguishing himself as an indigenous writer. Aware of the essential differences between the oral and the written medium, Aron remained sensitive to the written context and focused on creating comprehensible and coherent narratives as compared to many of the other writers who contributed to Rink's collection. Aron sensitively described his characters' inner life moreover, his descriptions were also often more detailed than was the case with the other writers. The recording of oral narratives necessarily entailed the...

Petroleum Products

Other major penguin populations lie south of, or remote from, major shipping routes, and are unlikely to be subjected to other than occasional oil pollution. However, there are a disturbing number of oiling reports from higher southern latitudes, which fortunately to date have involved only a few individuals. Although Croxall et al. (1984) has noted that oil pollution is not a problem for seabirds around the Antarctic Peninsula, isolated instances of fouling of Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) in the vicinity of Palmer Station are known (Parker, 1971). From South Georgia, Jehl et al. (1979) have reported freshly oiled Gentoo Penguins (Pygoscelis papua), while Copestake et al. (1983) recorded the oil staining of a single King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonica). At Marion Island, several hundred oiled Rockhopper Penguins (Eudyptes crestatus) have been seen (Kerley and Erasmus, 1987). Minor oil pollution has occurred at Biae du Marin, lie de la Possession, Crozet Islands, and also at...

Freuchen Peter

Danish journalist, writer, and explorer Peter Freuchen was enchanted by tales of Arctic exploration as a youth. As a university student, he persuaded Ludwig Mylius-Erichsen to allow him to join the Danish expedition to explore and map the coast of northeastern Greenland north of Kap Bismarck. Freuchen accompanied N.I.J. Br0nlund and H.A.O. Bistrup on a preliminary trip to Greenland's west coast to secure dog teams, then returned to Copenhagen, where he joined the expedition ship Danmark, which sailed on June 24, 1906. Also aboard were two zoologists, a botanist, a meteorologist, a physician, and two artists. When the Danmark arrived in Iceland, via the Faroe Islands, it proved too small to stow all the waiting supplies, including those to support Freuchen's secondary observation post. He was therefore reassigned to assist meteorologist Alfred Wegener, accompanying him on monthly excursions inland to record observations.

Franklin Sir John

As an officer in one and leader of three Arctic expeditions between 1818 and 1845, Sir John Franklin was directly responsible for mapping a considerable amount of the northern coastline of North America. Although he died prior to the completion of his final expedition (1845-1848 ), the search for his whereabouts, which consumed the years 1849-1859, removed from the map nearly all the remaining blanks in the long-sought North West Passage. The mysteries attending the disappearance of his last expedition have proven to be of enduring interest, inspiring writers from Charles Dickens to Margaret Atwood.

Alootook Ipellie

Among non-Inuit, Ipellie has become best known as a writer of short fiction. His stories have appeared in northern publications such as Inuit Today and Inukshuk and also in southern periodicals such as The Beaver and anthologies such as Paper Stays Put (1980), Northern Voices Inuit Writing in English (1988, 1997), and An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English (1992, 1998). He also served as coordinator of the Baffin Writers' Project (1989-1992) and editor of Kivioq Inuit Fiction Magazine (1990, 1992), thus lending his knowledge and experience to new writers in the North. Perhaps his most notable short fiction is among the 20 stories contained in Arctic Dreams and Nightmares (1992), which marked Ipellie as the first Canadian Inuk to produce an entire collection of short stories in English. This collection emerged as the most controversial thus far, in that he employed magical plot situations to combine traditional Inuit myths and legends with contemporary people and events...

Kuroshio Current

THE KUROSHIO CURRENT is the second largest ocean current in the world, and flows in the western Pacific from the east coast of Taiwan island, northwards to Japan, and then beyond Hokkaido past the Kuril Islands, where it merges with the North Pacific Current. In many ways, it is similar to the Gulf Stream in the Atlantic Ocean, which also carries warm tropical waters toward the polar region. The Japanese call it the Kuroshio Current, with some early English geographers translating this to the Black Stream, the name coming from the deep blue of the water a few writers referring to it as the Japan Current. A branch of the Kuroshio Current, known as the Tsushima Current, passes through the Tsushima Straits between Japan and Korea, into the Sea of Japan.

List of Contributors

Nnimmo Bassey is a Nigerian human environmental rights activist. He is the executive director of Environmental Rights Action (ERA) - Nigeria's foremost environmental rights advocacy group. He is also chair of Friends of the Earth International - the world's largest federation of grassroots organizations fighting for environmental and social justice. Friends of the Earth groups are found in 77 countries. Bassey is a member of the international steering committee of Oilwatch International. He is also a practising architect in Nigeria as well as a published writer and poet. Richard Sherman serves as the programme manager for the International Institute for Sustainable Development Reporting Services' (IISD RS) Africa Regional Coverage Project. He was a former team leader and writer from 2002 to 2005. In addition, Sherman works as a consultant to Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future and the South African Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, with a particular focus on...

Other activities

In addition to the overview, another popular science document was released from the ACIA process, called Impacts of a Warming Arctic Highlights232 As the title suggests, this document further condensed some of the information in the overview and presented it in a way intended to reach readers who may not read the entire overview. It is distributed free of charge. The cover looks very similar to ACIA's overview documents and ACIA's logo is prominently featured. It is written by the same science writer consultant who wrote the overview.233 At the conference, this document generated a highly contentious discussion among lead authors during a behind scenes-closed door meeting with ACIA's chair. The lead authors claimed they had not had any opportunities to review this document or have input into how the highlights were selected. Some strong words were exchanged about the lack of due process for its production.234 According to ACIA's chair, the funding for producing the document had come...

Taking shape

The implementation plan lays out how the summary document is to be produced This volume will be prepared by the ASC Assessment Steering Committee in concert with a scientific editor and lead authors in a simple, jargon-free language meant for policymakers and the broader public, and will be subjected to peer review guided by the ASC. In ACIA's jargon, this document later became the overview document. The responsibility for writing it was placed with a science writer, who worked closely together with the ACIA graphics expert.89 Formally, the responsibility for the overview was placed with the Assessment Integration Team. By the cross-fertilization meeting in New Hampshire in March 2003, the science writer and graphics expert were part of the ACIA process and this meeting marked their first interaction with the authors working on the scientific report. Based on these discussions and drafts of the science chapters, a list of key findings was developed that later became a structuring...

Filling the outline

For about a year, the scientific report process disappeared from the formal ACIA documentation. This does not mean there was a lack of activity. Rather, the authors and contributors were busy writing. Moreover, a new group had been established based on a recommendation from the Executive Committee The Assessment Integration Team. This group consisted of the Executive Committee with three added members from the Assessment Steering Committee and was charged with guiding the preparation of the introductory and the summary chapters of the scientific report. As discussed in section 5.3 of this chapter, the Assessment Steering Committee was also to guide the preparation of the overview document. The Assessment Integration Team also organized a cross-fertilization meeting, which was held in New Hampshire in March 2003.69 Several participants in the process have described this meeting as an important event because chapter authors had the chance to discuss together across the division into...

The review process

One whole day of the two-and a half day meeting in Copenhagen was devoted to a discussion of the review comments and how to incorporate them into the overview document. The comments ranged from general notes about structure, references, and content to specific suggestions for changes in wording. Most countries had provided the summaries as a national review. The exception was the Unites States, where the comments were given by individuals. In total, the compilation of review comments was over 150 pages.103 At the review comments meeting, the science writer and a person in the Assessment Integration Team presented their perceptions of the comments and how they could be met, after which there was a more detailed discussion. Most of this stemmed from a memo from the science writer, where she had suggested changes to meet the major criticisms.104

Foxe Luke

Luke Foxe was denied a berth as mate on John Knight's 1606 East India Company voyage to find the North West Passage, but his diligent pursuit of cartographic and hydrographic knowledge of the Arctic led to his acquaintance with nautical writer and stationer John Tapp, globe maker Thomas Sterne, and Henry Briggs, Professor of Astronomy at Oxford. Briggs instilled in Foxe his unwavering conviction of the existence of a North West Passage, instructed him in applying advanced mathematics to navigation, and in 1629 supported Foxe's petition to the Crown for aid to mount an expedition. Thomas Button lent his support when the Lords of the Admiralty consulted him about the feasibility of the proposal. Thus, Foxe was given use of the 70-ton Charles, which was refitted for the voyage, although too late to embark during 1630. The death of Briggs and the dwindling of Foxe's financial backers might have ended the venture, but word of a similar expedition, under the command of Thomas James and...

The texts

The ACIA overview document is a 145-page summary of the scientific report. It is framed as part of the scientific content of the ACIA but aimed at a different audience policy makers and the broader public. It is specifically designed for these audiences, richly illustrated with graphic representations of issues and processes as well as a large number of photographs. It is written in language of popular science and references are made to chapters in the scientific report and are in summary form rather than the more traditional reference style used for the scientific report. The report is thus a different genre, even if the purpose is to convey the same base of knowledge as the scientific report. The author of the overview report is a professional science writer but its final content is also the result of collaborations with a graphics artist, the lead authors of the scientific report, and the Assessment Integration Team.

Dependency

Once the protective ice-foot disintegrates and disappears from these beaches in summer, they would be wide open to oil spill contamination. In the porous, coarse gravels of the intertidal zone and wave-swept active beach face, stranded oil could rapidly penetrate, possibly to the depth of the impervious ice or permafrost core. It could also be buried by rapid changes in beach morphology induced by wave action or ice-push. The irregularly hummocky relief and large hollows left by melting blocks of stranded ice would also provide sumps for the oil. Preliminary estimates suggest vast quantites of oil could be retained in these beaches (Table 11.4) to be released slowly by sediment redistribution and erosion over subsequent decades. Repeated fouling long after the spill occurred is likely. Recent observations following an experimental oil spill on a sheltered beach at Cape Hatt, Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic (cf. Owens et al., 1987 Owens and Robson, 1987)...

Snowball

In the 4th century BC, the Greek philosopher Theophrastus believed that the number of spots he counted on the Sun's surface could explain the changing rainfall. During the Age of Enlightenment in the 18 th century, gentlemen scholars noticed that many Classical writers described a climate different from their own day Edward Gibbon, for instance, noted in his 1776 weighty tome The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that the 3rd century AD must have been cooler, citing the frequently frozen Rhine and Danube rivers in support of his idea. After this, things really gathered pace. By the mid-19th century it was realized that ice ages had been common in our planet's past. The nice cosy image of a stable world disappeared forever.

Part four

Weyiouanna searched the kitchen for the right stone for his ulu sharpening, then told me that, although he'd given up the transportation planning job and his lead role with the coalition for a part-time position as the village's grant writer, he couldn't turn his back on the dire situation, the future of his family and community. It was just very frustrating to have so many entities involved in such a confusing and uncoordinated way and so little progress, and now the media had lost interest and was on to other, fresher stories. Senator Ted Stevens, so successful at delivering federal funds to Alaska's villages, had lost his seat, and who knew how that was going to play out I want us to use as little fossil fuel as we can, Weyiouanna said. He had told me earlier that both gasoline and fuel oil were presently priced, in Shishmaref, at 7.50 per gallon. Subsistence is an important part of our lives we don't have an economic base. It's important that, in our planning, we ask, 'How can we...

Water for Crops

Despite the hopeful signs, however, the short-term and medium-term outlook is worrisome, according to a 2008 article by U.S. News & World Report writer Kent Garber. Discussing a U.S. government report on the impact of global warming on crops, Garber notes that, in the United States, Some crop yields are predicted to drop growing seasons will get longer and use more water weeds and shrubs will grow faster and spread into new territory, some of it arable farmland and insect and crop disease outbreaks will become more frequent. 23 Garber notes that government action might mitigate problems in the long term, but over the next 30 years at least, America and the world will have to face the fact that higher temperatures may reduce crop yields.

Stakeholders

A more common definition for stakeholders is all those social agencies that, in one way or another, have a recognised power to decide or to influence decisions regarding a certain subject, such as local or central administrators, politicians, environmental associations, citizens' associations, scientific centres, etc In an even more restricted meaning we can also consider the so called opinion makers to be stakeholders, such as specialised journalists, eminent scientists or writers, singers or actors etc.

Conclusion

That being said, it is a separate issue as to what realistic measures can be taken to encourage U.S. policy to change in a more favorable direction. I favor, myself, the pragmatic approach one that would allow the U.S. to use emissions trading schemes as a way to maintain its emissions output, in balance with the rest of the world. Singer (2002, p. 46) has noted that some view this approach as unfair, since it allows the U.S. to avoid its burdens too easily '' However, he adds, the point is not to punish nations with high emissions, but to produce the best outcome for the atmosphere. Another strategy would be to allow the creation of carbon sinks to count against emissions produced. Yet another would be to figure out a mechanism by which the U.S. could trade on its technological strengths to get credit for making technological advances that would reduce the effect of emissions. Of course, not being a specialist on the technical aspects I leave this issue to other writers. My aim has...

Box

Some conservative intellectuals are beginning to recognize the seriousness of climate destabilization. A notable example is that of Richard Posner, a judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and a prolific and often brilliant writer on the law, literature, and politics. He is perhaps best known as an advocate for the use of economic standards as both a legal tool and a yardstick by which to measure judicial decisions. Judge Posner advocates wealth creation as a reliable standard for legal reasoning, along with great deference to prevailing practices and behaviors. Applied to politics, Posner's pragmatism comes close to views once proposed by the economist Joseph Schumpeter, himself no flaming reformer. Posner's position has been so forcefully and consistently stated for so long that it is surprising to read his book Catastrophe (2004), in which he concludes that the odds of one or more catastrophes are growing quickly. Among these he includes the prospect of rapid...

Recent times

The Even alphabet was created in 1931 on the basis of the Latin alphabet and in 1936 on the basis of the Russian alphabet. The written language is based on the Olsk dialect. Even poets and writers (e.g., Nikolai S. Tarabukin and A.A. Cherkanov) began to write in their native language, and Even was taught in schools.

Future Perspectives

We should pause here to consider for a moment the time scales of the perspectives of different writers. As noted earlier, the main theme of Malthus' essay was that population increases by a geometrical progression, but food supply increases arithmetically. Therefore, at some point population numbers must exceed food supply. The examples Malthus used were mostly of events within living memory, and so the timescale he was considering was that of a human lifetime. Politicians' timescales are largely limited to the days or months to the next election, whereas scientists' timescales tend to be much longer. Hence, in drawing attention to the problems of food security, scientists are mostly struggling to convince politicians of the immediacy of the need to provide further financial support.

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