World War Ebooks Catalog

Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

Alive after the Fall Review Summary

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My Alive after the Fall Review Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this e-book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.

World War II in the Aleutians

The US Geological Survey specifically for the project in 1946. For by the beginning of World War II, the Aleutian Islands were conceived as strategic location for the US military. In fact, by the war's end, the islands would have hosted over 500,000 troops military presence began in 1940 as part of the defense of Alaska. The Aleutians represented a vulnerable entry into North American soil by both the Japanese and the Soviets, and the military constructed bases at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, concurrently with the bases in Anchorage and Fairbanks. By the end of the war, major military activity took place (from east to west) on Amaknak, Unalaska, Umnak, Atka, Great Sitkin, Adak, Tanaga, Amchitka, Kiska, Shemya, and Attu. Nevertheless, the geography of the Aleutian Islands was troublesome for the military the weather postponed invasions and caused more casualties than actual combat. Windstorms could tear up tents and cause pilots extreme difficulty. The Japanese bombed both Dutch Harbor and...

Nuclear Attack

One of the most popular ideas for deflecting asteroids away from a potential collision with Earth is to fire many nuclear missiles at the asteroid, with the idea that the blast would vaporize the asteroid, eliminating the danger. However, the energy requirements may not be attainable with the world's current arsenal of nuclear weapons, as there are currently no nuclear weapons that release enough energy to destroy an asteroid only a half mile (1 km) in diameter. If enough blasts or a large enough blast could be directed at an incoming asteroid, it is likely that the blasts would simply fragment the asteroid into many pieces, which would then fall to Earth along with the radiation from the nuclear explosions.

Tsujii Introduction

The limitation in agricultural technology improvements and in natural resources is clearly represented by the sharp decline in the growth rates in grain yields across the globe during the post-Second World War years. According to the FAO data, the annual growth rate of the yield has declined continuously from about 3 during the 70s to about 1 during 1985 and 1996. Agricultural research expenditures in the international and national research institutions have been decreasing considerably. Yield decline or constraint for grain due to increase in cropping intensity has been reported in many parts of Asia. In order to cope with the exploding population, the grain yield must grow at 3 annually, and this seems very difficult to attain in the near future.

The Iconification Of Animals

These values were popularized with the rise of car culture after World War II, as large numbers of North Americans began visiting wild places in their leisure time, as explained by Roderick Neumann. They also became enshrined by the Walt Disney-style nature films that became popular during this period, and by the dramatic international success of Bernard Grizmek's book Serengeti Shall Not Die For the most part, middle-class and formally-educated people embraced these values. Some species have become icons for conservation, while others have been neglected, even though their species may be under threat of extinction. The iconic value of some species is rising, while the iconic value of others is falling. In the 1980s and 1990s, for instance, many environmental movements and nongovernmental organizations used images of whales to promote their conservation campaigns. In the context of anti-global warming, however, polar bears and penguins have come to assume pole-position in the effort...

From the Cold War to the Modern

While during World War II the Aleutians were considered a bridge to Japan, during the Cold War the Aleutians were instead perceived as a bridge to Russia or, more frequently, a dead end that allowed the military to conduct nuclear testing on Amchitka Island. The US Atomic Energy Commission needed a place more isolated than either the Nevada Test Site or Point Hope, Alaska (where the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) attempted to carry out Project Chariot), to conduct some of the largest underground nuclear tests in US history. Beginning in 1967, the AEC instituted an extensive bioenvironmental program on Amchitka, and within a few years had completed Project Milrow, In fact, the present-day livelihoods of residents, both Aleut and nonnative, continue to rely on the resources of the sea. Over 5000 people live in the islands year-round, supported primarily by walleye pollock, cod, and halibut commercial fisheries, all based in Dutch Harbor. A burgeoning tourist industry exists, based on...

Earlier energy crises

In 1973 4 a combination of Middle East conflict and concerted action by OPEC pushed up oil prices dramatically - almost five-fold in two years. Prices doubled in just one month at the end of 1973. Oil had been relatively cheap since the Second World War, and industrialised nations had become dependent on supplies from international markets. The price increase had serious short-term economic effects, and also raised

Climate protection is affordable inaction is not

Lord Nicholas Stern, the former chief economist of the World Bank, has shown that, ultimately, neglecting climate protection would lead to devastating consequences (Stern et al, 2006). He placed the global costs of an unchecked climate change at an annual 5 to 20 per cent of the gross world product - an economic damage greater than the impacts of World War I and II and the Great Depression combined. The costs of climate protection, on the other hand, would be only 1 per cent of the gross world product. The question, therefore, is no longer whether we can afford climate policy. The question is can we afford climate change

First Antarctic Drilling 19721975

The period following World War II was marked by an expansion in both the scientific exploration of the oceans and the search for oil on the world's continental shelves. Echo-sounding techniques developed in war time were applied to marine seismic surveys for science and industry, and ship-based drilling for oil offshore attracted the attention of scientists for drilling through the Earth's crust. By the mid-1960s, the main features and gross chronology of most of the world's continental shelves were known by the oil

Liquid Fuels Synthesis

Two, commercially proven technologies for converting the synthesis gas to liquid transportation fuels are considered. One of the technologies, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, was developed in Germany in the 1920s, and several commercial plants were constructed to produce transportation fuels during World War II. The technology was commercialized by Sasol in South Africa in the 1950s and expanded in the early 1980s to produce about 150,000 bpd of transportation fuels from coal. Early versions of the technology used iron-based catalysts, which produce a broad range of products from methane to high molecular-weight waxes, but also produce a range of oxygenated materials. Figure 3.2 schematically shows the process layout of a Fischer-Tropsch process.

Resources and Economy

A unique installation of national importance is the Plisetsk space center. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it is the sole site of operation for the Russian space program equipped with complete facilities for launching space vehicles. Another unique object is the chief nuclear weapons testing ground on Novaya Zemlya, where nuclear tests have been conducted since the 1950s. In 1990, Russia announced and still observes the moratorium on nuclear testing. However, the Novaya Zemlya test site continues to be used for basic and applied research. Belushiya Guba, founded in the late 19 th century, is the administrative center of the testing ground and in fact the capital of Novaya Zemlya.

The Study Of Permafrost

In a similar way, prospectors and explorers were aware of permafrost in the northern regions of North America for many years, but it was not until after World War II that systematic studies of perennially frozen ground were undertaken by scientists and engineers in the United States and Canada. Since exploitation of the great petroleum resources on the northern continental shelves began in earnest in the 1970s, investigations into subsea permafrost have progressed even more rapidly than have studies of permafrost on land. Alpine permafrost studies had their beginning in the study of rock glaciers in the Alps of Switzerland. Although ice was known to exist in rock glaciers, it was not until after World War II that investigation by geophysical methods clearly demonstrated slow movement of perennial ice that is, permafrost. In the 1970s and 1980s, detailed geophysical work and temperature and borehole examination of mountain permafrost began in Russia,

Challenges to a nuclear renaissance

The fact that employment of nuclear energy has not been fully embraced points to unanswered questions and interrelated challenges in its implementation. For some, it is a question of feasibility. Can nuclear expansion occur quickly enough and on a scale commensurate with the need For others it is a question of economics. Comparative to other energy supply options, is it worth the investment Will future development have to rely on massive government subsidies Others cite the continuing quest for an acceptable approach to management of long-lived wastes and uncertainty about risks to human health and the environment. Whether nuclear power is dangerous remains a question for many. The fears and insecurities generated by Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have only intensified post-9 11. The threat of terrorism and the nuclear weapons ambitions of certain states have led to speculation that the international regime may not be robust enough to counter the inherent proliferation risks.

Its Start and Impacts

After World War II most of the Asian countries attained independence from colonialism. At the same time, the limit for extension of farming was evident, due to population increase, particularly in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. In the pre-green revolution years,

The Warming of the Earth

When Keeling first began measuring CO2 on Mauna Loa, the term global warming was relatively unknown. With the exception of a few articles scattered throughout scientific publications, there was no publicity about global warming and most people were not aware of it. That is no longer the case, however. Today, global warming has become an environmental issue that makes news headlines nearly every day, and whose significance the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) describes as follows As an Internet search on global warming now attests, the subject has become as rooted in our public consciousness as Madonna or microwave cooking. Perhaps all this attention is deserved. With the possible exception of another world war, a giant asteroid, or an incurable plague, global warming may be the single largest threat to our planet.1 Some scientists insist that this warming trend is due to natural occurrences. Since the earth has existed, its climate has constantly changed, shifting...

The prerevolutionary period 19001916

This period covers the last years of the Russian Empire. From the point of view of economic development, the pre-war period presents a continuation of the process of reform in Russian society which started with the abolition of serfdom in 1861. The process of the modernization of the country was at times held up by more conservative moves. An unprecedented growth in the population and a shortage of land in the central regions made reform very urgent. In 1904 and 1905 there were numerous incidents of peasant unrest in many provinces in European Russia. From 1906, more radical reforms were launched in order to transform the country from an agrarian society based on patriarchal peasant communes into a capitalist society with a class of free farmers. By the early 1910s, the market economy was already affecting the lives of millions of Russian peasants. However, the main characteristic of the period as a whole is that Russia remained a poor country in which the majority of the population...

Proliferation Concerns

The same enrichment technologies used to increase the amount of uranium 235 from 0.7 to 3-5 may also be used to increase the enrichment of uranium 235 to that needed for a nuclear weapon. Because of this, there is great concern an increase in the use of nuclear energy will lead to the spread of nuclear weapons. A classic example currently in the news is that of Iran. The danger here is not the construction of the reactor or its operation. The fear of proliferation from commercial nuclear reactors is based on the assumption that fuel for a commercial nuclear reactor can be used in a nuclear weapon. It cannot. The concentration of uranium 235 atoms in commercial fuel is around 3-5 and this concentration is simply too small to create a nuclear weapon the concentration of uranium 235 atoms must be increased to levels in excess of 20 . It is true that several countries used the cover of civilian nuclear programs to hide clandestine activities designed to produce weapons grade uranium and...

Later scientific contributions

World War I broke out in 1914 and Maric moved to Zurich while Einstein moved to Berlin, where he became a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences and professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin, and served as director to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics from 1914 to 1932. He also accepted a position as an extraordinary professor at Leiden University, and he traveled to Holland regularly to lecture between 1920 and 1930. Meanwhile, in Germany, a campaign by German physicists including Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark was mounted to try to discredit Einstein's work as Jewish physics, and there were attempts made to claim his work was done instead by Aryan physicists. Einstein was granted U.S. citizenship, then teamed up with the Hungarian Jewish refugee and physicist Leo Szilard to persuade U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to develop an atomic weapon before the Germans did, and by 1942 this effort developed into the Manhattan Project. By 1945 the United States had...

Radical shifts in energy governance in the past

It is instructive to recall that radical changes to the governance of energy have occurred in the past (see also Chapter 1). In many countries, a patchwork of local energy systems, created under municipal and private ownership during the early twentieth century, were consolidated and centralised through policy processes. In countries such as the UK and others, this process culminated in large nationalised energy industries after the Second World War. Up until the 1990s energy problems were confronted, understood, and addressed through the state bureaucratic machinery. Governments, faced with an energy policy problem, could, through their energy ministries, draw upon administrative lines of control over specialist policy departments, research labs and functionally distinct units in the nationalised industries. Governments in some cases enjoyed corporatist relations with unions. The state dominated investment and

Weather observations and early international coordination

Ing.19 The Brussels conference became a starting point for further international collaboration, and at the First International Meteorological Congress in Geneva 1873, the International Meteorological Organization (IMO) was created. This brief look at the history of meteorology shows how the practical needs of weather forecasting were an important driver in making formal connections among actors in different countries, with the actors being the meteorological offices. The initially fragile actor networks became increasingly formal structures. The IMO was a non-governmental organization and active until the end of World War II, when its role was taken over by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as a special agency of the United Nations. The IMO can thus be seen as a model for the norms of international coordination and sharing of data, which later became central for structuring global climate science under the auspices of the WMO.

The Trends and Fluctuations of Changes

The gradual increase in the greenhouse effect which may be observed over the last century, and after the Second World War in particular, has led to a growth in interest in year-to-year climatic variability. As the calculations show, the climatic conditions of the 1980s were globally the warmest over the period of instrumental observations (Jones 1994 Parker et al. 1994), and this prompted many scientists to investigate the problem of global warming. Hundreds of articles addressing this issue have been published in numerous academic journals in recent years.

The Emergence Of Neoliberal Capitalism

While knowledge of climate change firmed up between the 1970s and the 1990s, large changes were also underway in the global economy. In the 1970s, the world economy experienced a series of crises. Since the end of the Second World War the world economy had been governed by what academics and policymakers call the 'Bretton Woods system' the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).13 In 1971, a key part of this, the system through which Western countries fixed their exchange rates to each other, thus providing stability for exporters and investors, collapsed, and the international financial system went into a period of much greater volatility. During the late 1960s and into the 1970s, economic growth went into a slowdown after the sustained expansion of the post-war period. The management of the economy along broadly 'Keynesian' lines (named after the British economist John Maynard Keynes) - using state expenditures and...

Department of Energy uS

Department of Energy is to advance the national, economic, and energy security of the United States to promote scientific and technological innovation in support of that mission and to ensure the environmental cleanup of the national nuclear weapons complex. To achieve this mission, the Department of Energy (DOE) has outlined five strategic themes energy security, nuclear security, scientific discovery and innovation, environmental responsibility, and management excellence. The Office of Policy and International Affairs, a part of the Department of Energy, is the watchdog office for climate change. Within this Office, there are six initiatives regarding global warming and climate change. These initiatives are the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, the Clean Energy Initiative, Climate VISION, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Guidelines, the Security and Prosperity Partnership North American Energy Working Group , and the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program.

Growing international cooperation

After the World War II, there were converging needs from the scientific and political communities. Scientifically, it had become increasingly clear that studies of many geophysical phenomena required international collaborations - the natural world did not pay attention to national borders. Moreover, at least the natural sciences were increasingly fostering an international rather than national identity, with the ICSU as an example. Politically, there was a need to bind people together again. The dangers of national

World Meteorological Organization WMO

Meteorology was an area in which international collaboration was already organized at the end of World War II, but not through governmental cooperation. However, in 1947, representatives of 31 countries attending the Eighth Conference of Directors of the IMO endorsed the transformation of IMO into the intergovernmental World Meteorological Organization (WMO), which was created in 1950. In 1951 the WMO became a special agency under the United Nations.45

Scientific developments

Scientifically, the question of global warming was not a major issue at the time of the International Geophysical Year. Rather, the general understanding at the time was that the oceans would absorb almost all the excess carbon that humans may put in the atmosphere. Moreover, the war years had unusually cold weather, which made it less pertinent to discuss global warming. If anything was on the agenda, it was the perpetual question of the ice ages and the potential of a returning ice age on Earth. However, experiences of the vast impact of technology from using atom bombs had raised the legitimacy of ideas that people were able to affect the climate. There are examples of both scientists and politicians mentioning nuclear weapons and climate change as comparable threats to civilization. A popular belief was that fallout from the bombs could cause climate cooling.60 This theme resurfaced in the environmental debate in the early 1980s under the rubric of nuclear winter.61 61 Constance...

Modeling The Economics Of Climate Change

The energy intensity of most industrialized economies has dropped significantly since World War II. This is partially due to improved energy efficiency of capital, but also due to a structural shift of these economies away from manufacturing toward the production of services. Much of manufacturing, which is thought to be more carbon intensive, has shifted to the developing world. Predicting the future path of energy efficiency and structural composition of the worlds' larger economies is a difficult task. This is especially true for technological innovation, which often progresses in discrete leaps that are virtually impossible to predict.

Government And Markets

Tools to shift assets to long-term value aligned with ecological health. But many, in Peter Senge's words, fail to summon the imagination and courage to face the fact that they are selling the wrong products . . . to the wrong customers (Senge, 2008, p. 310). Few will, without strong, imaginative, and farsighted government leadership of the kind we associate with the founding of the United States, Lincoln's response to the secession of the Southern states, and Franklin Roosevelt's leadership in the 1930s and during World War II. Corporations acting in disorganized or unregulated markets will not act consistently for the public good when it no longer serves their short-term shareholder interests. To do otherwise would be fatal to the management of underperforming companies. The cardinal rule of capitalism is to make money, and no amount of greenwashing can hide that fact.

Environmental Pressures On Agriculture

And forest resources (Pinstrup-Andersen and Pandya-Lorch, 1998 Price et al., 1999a, 1999b). In the post-World War II period, approximately 23 of the world's agricultural and forest lands were classified as degraded by the U.N. Environment Programme (Oldeman et al., 1991). Irrigated land is particularly vulnerable, although the expansion of irrigation is slowing.

Advanced Noncarbon Technologies

Nuclear fission is an existing technology that could help stabilize climate. In some countries (e.g., France) nuclear power generates a substantial fraction of electricity, thus displacing CO2 emissions that might otherwise occur. Fission involves generating electricity by splitting heavy atomic nuclei, most commonly U235, into lighter atomic nuclei. Present nuclear reactor technology provides CO2-free electricity while posing unresolved problems of waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. The supply of fissile material, which depends on price, can be extended greatly through the use of breeder reactors however, such reactors could greatly exacerbate nuclear weapons proliferation. Fission can potentially play a large role in providing carbon-free energy, if the issues of safety, waste disposal, weapons proliferation, resource availability, and public acceptance can be adequately addressed.

Environmental Pressures on Agriculture and Forest Resources

The degradation of environmental assets, especially soils, air and water, severely challenges the productivity of agriculture and forest resources (Pinstrup-Andersen and Pandya-Lorch, 1998, Price et al., 1999a,b). In the post-World War II period, approximately 23 of the world's agricultural and forestlands were classified as degraded by the United Nation's Environment Programme (Oldeman et al., 1991). Irrigated land is particularly vulnerable, although the expansion of irrigation is slowing.

Conclusions of postwar development and politics of the atmosphere

The period after World War II up until the 1990s and the firm establishment of climate science and policy into international governance can be characterized as a time of strong drive towards multilateralism as a political ideal and internationalization of science. The drivers for the internationalization of science were both political and scientific. Geopoli-tically the United States, in particular, has at times used these ideals as tools in promoting liberal democracy and keeping communism at bay, not least in relation to poor

Sea Lanes and Strategy

His purchase, for the nominal price of just seven dollars, was the port facilities at Churchill, a tiny, windswept outpost on the southwest coast of Hudson Bay, below the Arctic Circle, that almost no one wanted to buy and almost everyone was anxious to avoid. It was home to only around 1,000 people who depended upon hunting, fishing and an influx of tourists who arrive every winter to watch and photograph polar bears. True, it had had its moment of glory during the Second World War, when the Canadian government had made good use of its facilities to ship to Russia thousands of tons of grain that were desperately needed to sustain the war effort. But once the conflict was over, the port had gradually fallen into disuse, having been made virtually redundant by the far more efficient, privately run operations in Thunder Bay and Vancouver. In the post-war years it had become largely forgotten, particularly since it had no roads linking it to the rest of Canada, and was highly dependent...

Impact of Climate Change on Fuel Types

This EIA projection provides a useful policy-neutral reference case for analyzing the pressures that climate change will exert on patterns of energy production and consumption. There will be significant foreign policy and national security implications for energy exporters and importers alike, including the following a strengthened geopolitical hand for natural gas-exporting countries and, potentially, biofuel-exporting countries as well a weakened hand, both strategically and economically, for importers of all fuel types, who will find themselves increasingly vulnerable to supply disruption growing nuclear safety and proliferation threats and a steady increase in the economic and environmental cost of delaying the implementation of global carbon reduction policies.

Persistent Organic Pollutants POPs

The discovery and extensive use of organochlorine pesticides such as aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, endrin, heptachlor, lindane and toxaphene began during and after World War II. Although chemists were aware that these compounds are very stable, there was little concern about possible long-term environmental effects. In 1962 the book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson raised public concern, drawing a link between the use of organochlorine insecticides and declining bird populations as a result, in the following years intense research was carried out on the environmental fate and biological effects of what we now call POPs. Since then many books have been published on POPs (e.g. Edwards 1973 Hutzinger et al. 1974 Kurtz 1990 Mackay 1991 Howard 1991 Mackay et al. 1992 Beek 2000).

The collectivization of Soviet agriculture 19291940

In contrast with the previous decade, this period saw a very centralized, autocratic development of the economy. During the 1930s, a Socialist economic system was being constructed, the first in the world. This new system was characterized by the priority it gave to the development of heavy industry, its extremely centralized management, the drafting of detailed five-year plans for all industrial and agricultural branches, strong administrative control over the realization of these plans, and the rapid mobilization of massive human and material resources when needed for the most important Soviet projects. Simultaneously, the actual performance of the Soviet economy became more difficult for outsiders to interpret as Soviet statistics were increasingly distorted. On the eve of World War II the country became richer due to its accelerated industrialization, but the majority of the Soviet people still lived in villages and found themselves poorer and consuming less than in the 1920s.

Legislative And Regulatory History

Following the passage of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and amendments in 1948 and 1956, the state and federal governments gradually began to assume a larger role in providing funds for water pollution control. Following World War II, the State of New York initiated a water pollution control program in 1949 that was

Greenpeace International

Greenpeace international IS an environmental organization that uses creative confrontation, usually in the form of media spectacles, to draw attention to specific environmental problems. Abrupt climate change caused by human-induced global warming is atop the organization's list of concerns. Scientists predict that if humans continue to burn fossil fuels at present rates, global warming will have catastrophic effects on existing ecosystems, natural landscapes, plant and animal populations, and human life. Greenpeace, which is a nongovernmental organization sup ported by charitable grants and membership fees, is at the forefront in the struggle to convince governments, businesses, and individuals that global warming is a real threat, and in finding ways to lessen human dependence on fossil fuels. From its headquarters in Amsterdam, the Stiching Greenpeace Council gathers almost three million supporters, directs activities in 27 national and regional offices located throughout the...

Trends in World Motor Vehicle Production

Overall growth in the production of motor vehicles, especially since the end of World War II, has been quite dramatic, rising from about 5 million motor vehicles per year to over 60 million. As shown in Fig. 6.1, between 1970 and 2005, approximately 1 million more vehicles have been produced each year compared to the year before with almost 66 million vehicles produced in 2005 1 . Data regarding motorcycle production is less precise but one major producer 2 estimates that global production exceeded 30 million units in 2003 and is increasing by approximately one million units each year.

International scientific collaboration

International collaboration has been a theme in climate data gathering and analysis. During the war years, it was hampered by geopolitical circumstances and relatively weak institutional structures at the international level. For example, both the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), and the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU) were non-governmental organizations. After World War II, the international scene changed. Powerful state interests favored the building of international regimes under the umbrella of the United Nations and around a number of specific issues, including meteorology and climate science as well as the environment more generally. Organizationally, the emerging global climate regime is now represented by entities such as the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The...

History of Climatology

The second major impetus for change in climatology in the 20th century was World War II. World War II demonstrated the advantage to modern warfare of predictive meteorology when, for example, it was used to forecast the weather for June 6, 1944, the day of the invasion by the Allies of Nazi-occupied France. These conventional military applications, along with the need to understand weather patterns and climates as they related to the possibility of nuclear war and the expanding agricultural, industrial, communication, and transportation technologies, led to increased funding for training, research, and education in climatology.

Interpretation Of The Data

Though Teisserence deBort began using kites and balloons to gather temperature data in 1899, it was not until the 1940s that radiosones (balloons) began daily measurements of temperature, humidity, and pressure of the upper-air. World War II fighter pilots discovered the jet stream, and later, surplus military radars began to measure precipitation. Doppler radar began replacing conventional radar in the 1990s. The first weather satellite, TIROS I (Television Infrared Observation Satellite), was launched in 1960. change from man-made ozone depleting gases. The United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) responded by creating (in 1988) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and tasking it with studying the hypothesized phenomenon. The IPCC determined that the Earth had warmed over the last 150-year period, and that that warming was due, in part, to human activity. In executive summary of the report, the panel concluded that most of the observed global...

Ice Component of Models

CLIMATE MODELS HAVE developed from mathematical formulas used in the 19th century to try to predict the weather. The lack of accurate and comprehensive data and the need to rely on manual calculation techniques made these approaches very difficult, and ultimately, they were abandoned as it became clear that the results of the equations did not match real-world conditions. During World War II, military expediencies demanded that more data be collected about the atmosphere, and this capacity remained in force after the war. The quantity of data available enabled researchers to check their calculations against real-world conditions. The advent of computers reduced the time needed to complete calculations. As global warming and climate change continue to intensify, the amount of ice on the Earth's surface will continue to decrease. Estimates suggest that, if current trends continue, Himalayan ice will have disappeared within three decades, while polar ice is breaking up and melting at an...

New agricultural production modes

The green agricultural revolution, which began after the Second World War, has led to a strong increase in agricultural production, thus helping to avoid famines in numerous regions worldwide and especially in Asia. However, this revolution has been accomplished by using high amounts of energy, fertilisers and pesticides. Similar to what has occurred in other economic sectors, this has had a negative impact upon the environment and has increased the dependence of agricultural production upon energy supplies.

The Problem With Lead

In 1912 Imperial College offered Holmes a position as a demonstrator in geology, and in July 1914 the 23-year-old geologist married Margaret Howe. Holmes kept busy lecturing and researching the pet-rographical material he brought back from Mozambique. When World War I broke out in August, the military declared Holmes unfit for military service because of his recurring bouts of malaria. His contributions toward the war effort included making scaled topography maps for naval intelligence and researching alternative sources of potash, an ingredient of fertilizer formerly supplied to Great Britain by Germany.

Agricultural intensification

Modern farming systems Field specialisation in food crops, particularly cereals, typifies much of modern (i.e. post-World War II) agriculture in many parts of the world. These systems represent the ultimate reduction in biodiversity the genetically uniform, continuous cultivation of a monocrop. This form of agriculture relies on mechanised (petrol driven) tillage, crop management and harvest. Soil and pest management are chemically regulated, with consequent effects on the biodiversity of microbes and invertebrate animals both above and below ground (Figure 11.1). This level

Postwar International Activities

Following World War II, it was decided to hold an International Geophysical Year (IGY), July 1957-December 1958. Considerable emphasis was placed on Antarctic observations, but in the Arctic some specific programs were carried out. For example, McGill University operated the first station in the interior of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago at Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island (Jackson, 1959), whereas the permanent weather stations in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago were all at coastal sites. Ice Station Alpha in the Arctic Ocean was the first US drifting station with a large, multidisciplinary research program. Russian scientific expeditions were mounted to study the glacial meteorology of the ice caps of Franz Josef Land (Krenke, 1961).

Postwar National Programs

Following World War II, France resumed glaciological and geophysical work on the Greenland ice sheet. The Expedition Polaire Francaise (Mission P.E. Victor) operated from Station Centrale at the Eismitte site (70.9 N 40.7 W, 3000 m) during 1949-1950. This set the stage for the French-German-Swiss Expedition Glaciologique Internationale au Groenland (EGIG), which in 1959 surveyed a section through the ice sheet. Resurvey on the two EGIG flow lines in 1969 produced the first evidence of an ongoing change in the ice sheet shape. Important work on the radiation and energy balance of the ice sheet (Ambach, 1963) was also carried out. Station Northice (78.1 N 38.5 W, 2343 m) of the British North Greenland Expedition was occupied from November 1952 to August 1954. Its observations, together with the Station Centrale and EGIG data and the prewar records, provided the bulk of the information on ice sheet climate until the advent of automatic weather stations in the 1980s (Putnins, 1969).

Major developments in agriculture

During World War II, Soviet agriculture experienced a severe decline. In the autumn of 1941, as the Germans invaded the south and west of the country, two-fifths of the whole Soviet wheat harvest and two-thirds of the potato crop area was lost. In 1942, the total amount of agricultural production under Soviet control had fallen by one-third. Because of the loss of the Ukraine and part of the Volga region, the cultivation of field crops shifted onto the inferior soils of the northern and eastern regions, although agriculture here was also subject to decline. The 1943 growing season was relatively unfavorable in terms of climate, and in spite of an increase in the sowing area, yields declined further (Harrison, 1994). In 1944, Soviet agriculture recorded the lowest figures in all agricultural production sectors since the beginning of the war. During the war, livestock numbers experienced a dramatic decline. The number of horses dropped by 50 percent, that of pigs by 65 percent, and that...

Biodiversity And The Design Of Agricultural Systems

In the last decade cortccrrts for sustainability have replaced the maximisation of productivity as the target for agricultural development. This has generated increased interest in agroecosystem design, a more holistic concept than the commodity-led technology development paradigm which has dominated the post-world-war period of agricultural development. The fundamental features of this sustainability agenda, are that productivity should meet the aspirations of the farmers and society, whilst at the same time conserving resources and environments for the future. It has been hypothesised that the inclusion of biodiversity is a key feature of such sustainable agroecosystem design (izac and Swift 1994). Agroecosystem design should thus draw on scientific information derived from the study of complex agroecosystems rather than simply on reductionist information drawn from the study of crop plants in isolation. Fundamental to this information base are the principles associated with the...

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William Barton Rogers founded MIT in 1861, in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States. Although based upon German and French polytechnic models of an institute of technology, MIT's founding philosophy of learning by doing made it an early pioneer in the use of laboratory instruction, undergraduate research, and progressive architectural styles. As a federally-funded research and development center during World War II, MIT scientists developed defense-related technologies that would later become integral to computers, radar, and inertial guidance. After the war, MIT's reputation expanded beyond its core competencies in science and engineering into the social sciences, including economics, linguistics, political science, and management. MIT's endowment and annual research expenditures are among the largest of any American university. MIT graduates and faculty are noted for their technical acumen (63 Nobel Laureates, 47 National Medal of Science recipients, and...

Coastal connections and resource conflicts

Much of The Netherlands was reclaimed from the sea and the small land area has been protected for centuries by systems of dikes and canals that were significantly strengthened after World War II. More recently, given sea-level rise forecasts, The Netherlands is exploring floating housing systems and other alternatives to adapt to the changing sea level as their engineers have determined that raising the dikes is no longer practical (Kolbert, 2006).

Is international action possible

The US - even with a strong domestic consensus for action - is not in the position it was in 1957 when President Eisenhower launched a major initiative within the United Nations to halt the spread of nuclear weapons, even though the threat is comparable. With India, China and Brazil growing at unparalleled rates, economic dynamism has expanded far beyond the industrial West. China and India combined already consume more power than the European Union and their domestic demand will only continue to grow - and both countries are currently heavily committed to using domestic coal. Developing countries contend, with some justification, that developed countries caused the problem and the wealthier states must take action. Had the international community accepted this proposition and initiated action in 1992 when voluntary commitments were adopted to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000, we would be in a better position to pursue step-by-step incremental action.

Climate Forcing Scenarios

The IPCC added climate forcing in the next 50 years is 1-3 W m2 for CO2 and 2-4 W m2 with other gases and aerosols included. Even their minimum added forcing, 2 W m , would cause DAI with the climate system, based on our criterion. Further, IPCC studies suggest that the Kyoto Protocol, designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from developed countries, would reduce global warming by only several percent. Gloom and doom seem unavoidable. However, are the IPCC scenarios necessary or even plausible There are reasons to believe that the IPCC scenarios are unduly pessimistic. First, they ignore changes in emissions, some already underway, due to concerns about global warming. Second, they assume that true air pollution will continue to get worse, with O3, CH4 and BC all greater in 2050 than in 2000. Third, they give short shrift to technology advances that can reduce emissions in the next 50 years. The two most important GHGs, with CFCs on the decline, are CO2 and CH4. The growth rate of...

Russian national security

The Kremlin was equally concerned about the possibility of a NATO assault from the west. During the Second World War the Germans had tried and very nearly succeeded in cutting off the Baltic sea lanes and Allied shipping that sustained the Russian war effort in 1942, despite the immense difficulty of sailing into ice-laden seas, the German ship, Admiral Scheer, even managed to sail into the Kara Sea and succeeded in sinking the Russian icebreaker, Sibiryakov. Moscow was later convinced that its Cold War enemies would prioritize the elimination of its fleet and attack its northern coasts. Russian planners always responded quickly to match NATO's efforts to build up its naval presence in the northern Atlantic and the Norwegian seas, and in the event of war would probably have tried their utmost to seize the Svalbard islands on the pretext that the United States had already broken the ninth article of the Spitsbergen Treaty, which guarantees the demilitarization of the archipelago.31...

Office of Naval Research

Robofly is the Navy's stealth robotic flyer the size of an actual fly, capable of searching for chemical and biological warfare agents. Robofly is the Navy's stealth robotic flyer the size of an actual fly, capable of searching for chemical and biological warfare agents.

Americas Arctic Destiny

The rumours added an even stronger sense of mystery to a place that is, by any standards, supremely intriguing. Located in a wilderness region in the far north-west of the island, the giant air base at Thule has always been closely guarded (and the subject of constant speculation) ever since the Americans had moved into the area in 1953, giving local Inuits just a few weeks' notice to leave their traditional lands and resettle elsewhere. In the intervening years, it had been at the frontline of the Cold War and the setting for numerous top-secret flights and deployments that the Danish, Greenlandic and American authorities had always done their best to hush up. For example, there were numerous allegations of a cover-up when, in January 1968, a B52 bomber carrying four nuclear weapons had crashed a short distance away, creating a big explosion that fragmented the nuclear payload and spread plutonium all over the surrounding ice. Officially there were supposed to be no nuclear weapons...

Indigenous Education in Arctic Canada

After World War II and the movement of Inuit into settlements, northern administrators established community councils. Initially, the councils had little real power they functioned more as intermediaries, carriers of complaints and questions, than as partners in the governing of communities. With the establishment of provincial schools in Arctic Qu bec, government administrators created parent committees, something that federal schools had not initiated. However, in reality, the parent committees made few decisions, and wielded little impact on the day-to-day operations of the schools and none on the instructional program or overall policy. School administrators invited Inuit to participate, but set limits on community involvement.

Box 52 Gene bank for a warming world

The vast collection is intended as insurance against disaster so food production can be restarted anywhere should it be threatened by a regional or global catastrophe. When the depository was originally conceived in the early 1980s, the perceived threats came from nuclear war and geopolitical uncertainty. When the idea resurfaced in 2002, following the adoption by the UN of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, concerns about genetic resource loss from climate change brought new urgency and motivation to the concept.

Resource Recovery and Waste Minimization

Chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents and chlorofluorocarbons are used extensively in cleaning operations in the Department of Energy (DOE) defense program, the nuclear weapons complex, the Department of Defense (DOD) weapons refurbishment facilities, and in industry. A Solvent Utilization Handbook has been published by their joint task force to provide guidelines for the selection of nontoxic environmentally safe substitute solvents for these operations. The information contained will include cleaning performance, corrosion testing, treatability operations, recycle recovery techniques, volatile organic compound emissions and control techniques, as well as other information. The Handbook will be updated on an annual basis with information on new solvent substitutes that appear in the marketplace. The handbook database is under revision. Toxicological information, handling and disposal, and economics of solvent usage will also be included in the updated handbook.

Ttansportation Corridors

In the context of global change, one of the major concerns is researchers' ability to predict the movements of populations and communities. It is accepted that the area of Arctic ecosystems will decrease under a warming climate, but it is not clear how plants and animals will migrate north, either individually or collectively. This concern has prompted a debate over the role of transportation corridors in plant movement and migration. Roads, railways, and rivers are widespread throughout the Arctic, connecting people and resources to the south more often than to the east or west. Such transportation corridors are dynamic areas in terms of concentrating settlements and human activities in otherwise remote lands, and many different types of surface disturbance regimes are associated with them. Among the proven disadvantages, perhaps the strongest empirical data are those supporting the role of corridors as avenues of successful nonnative flora introduction. Weedy or ruderal plants...

Jussi Paivinen and Marja Hokkanen

Around two thirds of Finland's land area is covered by forest. For hundreds of years, slash-and-burn agriculture and tar burning have influenced the structure of forests. Also, the intensive forestry practised after the Second World War has caused significant changes in forest habitats. Few natural forests remain, and they are fragmented and now found mainly in protected areas.

Does one size fit all

Climate change is most often framed as a global issue that has to be managed at the global level through international agreements. The climate system is seen as a truly global phenomenon that cannot be understood using only site-specific knowledge. Because emissions of greenhouse gases mix well in Earth's atmosphere, claims are often made that it does not matter where they come from. The logic has, therefore, been that climate change should be managed through a global convention. With such a framing, the question of fit between the governance system and the problem at hand could be neatly wrapped up as a case of perfect fit between the spatial scale of the problem, as seen through the eyes of natural science, and the governance solution. However, my review of the historical developments of climate science provided in Chapter 4 of this dissertation shows that the global scale should not be accepted as an unchallenged given. Rather, it is a framing that has historically gained power...

Richardson Lewis Fry 18811953

Richardson was working for the Meteorological Office as superintendent of the Eskdalemuir Observatory at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Because of his Quaker beliefs, he declared himself a conscientious objector and could not, therefore, be drafted into the military. This choice implied that he would never be able to qualify for university posts. While Richardson was not involved in military operations, from 1916 to 1919 he served in the Friends Ambulance Unit, attached to the 16th French Infantry Division, where his work earned him praise. After the war, Richardson returned to his position in the Meteorological Office, but had to resign from it in 1920 when the Meteorological Office became part of the Air Ministry. His pacifist beliefs could not allow him to continue to work for an institution which was part of the military. Richardson then went back to teaching. From 1920 to 1929 he headed the Physics Department at Westminster Training College, and from 1929 to 1940, he was...

Royal Dutchshell group

Shell Transport began in 1833 with a British shopkeeper importing oriental shells, leading to an export import business importing oil. Royal Dutch Petroleum Company began producing petroleum in the Dutch East Indies. A partnership was formed in 1907, expanded rapidly, and was the main fuel supplier to the British in World War I, and the world's leading oil company by 1930. During this period, it also began developing its global network of service stations. Demand for petroleum exploded after World War II. During the 1960s, Shell strengthened its presence in the Middle East, and discovered reserves in the North Sea. The 1973 oil crisis led Shell to diversify into other energy sources such as coal and nuclear power, with little economic success. Shell also acquired 50 percent of an Australian solar energy company, and began producing renewable softwoods that could be used for paper, construction, and fuel. Shell is the world's leading biofuels distributor.

Themes and Periodization

Throughout the Arctic, scholars have investigated diverse themes in a historical perspective, such as interethnic relations (including alliances, trade, and war), consequences of commercial whaling and the fur trade, Christianization, migrations, responses to environmental change, health, etc. In North America, the concept of dependency has loomed central in some interpretations. In such historical reconstructions, for the purpose of narration time was divided up into periods of sufficient stability to be described synchroni-cally, separated by so-called watersheds in which most of the social, political, and historical change emerged. The changes identified correspond to further losses of independence in relation to the incoming non-Native population. These scenarios usually include a first period during which, despite some contacts and trade, the Native cultures remain traditional. Some events, such as an epidemic or a famine, which may have been caused by changes in the exploitation...

What if any guides do we have to survive these multiple shocks

Time magazine recently called for a 'War on climate change' (Time, 2007), and, interestingly, Cuba's experience echoed what America achieved in a more distant time of hardship during World War II. Eleanor Roosevelt then led the 'victory gardening movement' to produce between 30 to 40 per cent of vegetables for domestic consumption, and public education campaigns warned that wasting fuel was like fighting for the enemy. During the 1930s President Roosevelt launched his New Deal5 to tackle the excesses of a reckless domestic financial sector and to lay the foundations of economic recovery, which also put the US in a position, a few years later, to enter and help win World War II.

Sverdrup Harald Ulrik 18881957

In 1936, Sverdrup accepted the position of director of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography in La Jolla, at the University of California, remaining there for almost 12 years. During his tenure as director, Sverdrup expanded the Scripps Institute, making it an institute with a research program, and developing closer ties between Scripps and the University of California, Los Angeles. During World War II, Sverdrup was involved in the U.S. war effort, although he did not directly work for the University of California Division of War Research. He worked on problems related to forecasting surf conditions for military beachhead assaults. His current and wave forecasting methods were applied by military weathermen to predict landing conditions for Allied invasions.

Vulnerability And Betrayal

And assuming again that we are generation 1, this seems to be the situation of the people in generation 7, who are utterly and asymmetrically vulnerable to us. Their very existence is in our hands and the hands of the intermediate generations if we unleashed a massive nuclear winter (less likely for now than it once was) or failed to control some virulently contagious and fatal epidemic, the people of generation 7 might never live. And the quality of the lives of whoever are born in that generation is under our control to a profound degree, in completely familiar ways. Whether they can enjoy beautiful forests and great universities depends upon whether we leave them any - a single generation cannot grow a magnificent forest (although they can plant one) or suddenly throw together a great university. These things take time If one generation is to have them, earlier generations must see to it. There is no express route.

The Interaction Of Human Engineers With Ecological Engineers The Case Of Pesticides

Pesticide-based agriculture emerged from the problems of overproduction generated by the end of World War II (WWII). The new agriculture was even referred to as chemical agriculture in some propaganda pieces. Problems with this new technology were evident from the start, but received massive public attention only after the publication of Rachael Carson's Silent Spring in 1962, which documented the fact that

S Wayne Rosenbaum Recontek

Hie First World War resulted in American economic dominance in extracting metallurgy and refining also provided pyronetadlurgy with a dominant market position over the carpeting hydranetallurgical techniques. This was primarily due to America's abundant sources of cheap fossil fuels.

Ecocide And Modern Warfare

World War II contains further examples. In addition to the two Japanese cities obliterated by atomic weapons, scores of pristine Pacific atolls were blasted, burned, and pulverized under intensive air and naval bombard-ments.27 More than 450,000 acres of Libyan farmland were riddled with 5 million land mines. Nazi troops flooded 17 per cent of Dutch farmlands -200,000 hectares (494,000 acres) - with sea water. European bison were slaughtered to near-extinction to supply the mess kitchens of German and Soviet troops in eastern Poland.28 German civilian administrators with the occupying forces in Poland excessively exploited the Polish forests for timber, greatly diminishing the resource base of Poland.29 Soviet armed forces carried out retaliatory deforestation in the wake of World War II in occupied It was not until the US-Vietnam conflict, however, that an offensive army utilized deliberate large-scale ecologically destructive technologies.30 Carrying 20 tons of bombs into the...

Impact of Breeder Reactor on Fuel Supply

Another concern is the large amount of plutonium that is produced in a breeder. Since the plutonium may be separated from the uranium using chemical processes, there is concern that the large quantities of plutonium 239 produced in a breeder might lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The plutonium 239 produced in a breeder although not weapons grade may, like uranium 235, be used to make a crude nuclear weapon.

Ionizing And Nonionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation includes any radiation process in which individual quanta of energy are capable of ionizing atoms or molecules within the material that absorbs the radiation. Ionizing radiation is produced by the natural radioactive decay of rocks and radioactive materials, by cosmic rays, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and by similar processes that occur in nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, X-ray equipment, and high-energy physics experiments. Ionizing radiation can cause chemical changes to the material and can damage biological tissues as well as rock and structural materials.

Archaeology Of The Arctic Canada And Greenland

Erik Holtved's (1944, 1954) excavations of Thule culture winter sites in North Greenland during the 1930s and 1940s provided the first clear evidence of Thule culture activities at the major crossroads between High Arctic Canada and Greenland. His work established a close link between early Thule in the Far North and contemporaneous maritime cultures in Northwest Alaska. The excavations yielded a number of Norse artifacts thought at the time to indicate intertribal trade originating in West Greenland. After the end of World War II, the pace of archaeological investigations increased significantly. Meldgaard's investigation of the Mosegaard 1948 collection from Saqqaq resulted in the formal recognition of two Paleo-Eskimo complexes Saqqaq and Early Dorset. Excavations by Larsen and Meldgaard (1958) at the Sermermiut site located near Jacobshavn (Ilulissat) provided an important chronological framework consisting of three components Saqqaq, Dorset, and Thule. Numerous Saqqaq...

Millions of Years Ago

Beginning in 1911, astronomer Milutin Milankovitch made a series of laborious hand calculations of the amount of solar radiation received by latitude and by season over the entire Earth during the last several hundred thousand years. His calculations continued in a jail cell where he was imprisoned by the Austrians during World War I and then afterward when he was paroled. He took into account the two factors that Isaac Newton had centuries ago shown to be the major controls on solar radiation (1) the varying angle of incoming solar radiation relative to the surface of the Earth (the effect of tilt), and (2) Earth's distance from the Sun (the combined effects of eccentricity and precession). These laborious calculations, now done with much greater accuracy by computers in just minutes, laid the groundwork for many discoveries, the most important of which are covered in the next two chapters.

The Birth of Modern Recycling Programs

Garbage Barge Mobro 4000

Even though recycling was commonly practiced by all households during pre-industrial ages, large-scale recycling programs did not arise until the twentieth century. The first organized programs were created in the 1930s and 1940s, when a worldwide depression limited people's ability to purchase new goods and the outbreak of World War II dramatically increased demands for certain materials. Throughout the war, goods such as nylon, rubber, and various metals were recycled and reused to produce weapons and other materials needed to support the war effort. After the war ended in 1945, however, the United States and other countries experienced a postwar economic boom that produced many new products and caused recycling to fade into oblivion for several decades.

The Planet As National Sacrifice Zone

Even in peacetime, as indicated above, modern military industrial activities are particularly dangerous to species and the environment. For example, the process of creating and maintaining the world's stockpile of over 50,000 nuclear weapons is, as one US General Accounting Office (GAO) report put it, one of the more potentially dangerous industrial operations in the world.40 Not only does nuclear weapons production involve the intricate manipulation and transportation of enormous quantities of radioactive materials it also creates great volumes of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. And because all operations are carried out under strict secrecy, civilian environmental agencies and citizen watchdog groups are kept in the dark.41 Moreover, the military enterprises are also the least regulated hazardous industries in the world. Because of the extensive military use of electronics and fire extinguishers, the ozone damage of military endeavors is extensive. The US Defense Department,...

Ecology And Modern Warfare

The history of modern industrial warfare is the history of a movement from limited to unlimited, or total, war - a war without mercy. This holds true also for relations between society and nature. For most people today, the two world wars seem a long time ago. Still, these massive conflicts were the first international wars in which the ecological and social resources of nations were mobilized.15 The two world wars set ominous precedents for the remainder of the twentieth century. Among other developments, they reflected the brutal face of modernity in the tacit acceptance of biological and chemical warfare, not to speak of nuclear weapons.16 The Cold War represented the logical next step of a capitalist modernity that produced a military-industrial complex and an arms race of previously inconceivable proportions.17 According to a US army medical doctor who oversaw the physical examinations of the irradiated indigenous people of Rongelap Atoll, a nuclear test site in Micronesia Those...

December 26 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

Although the energy of the tsunami was much less than that of the earthquake, it still had a remarkably high energy equivalent of about five megatons of TNT. For comparison, this is more than double the amount of energy released by all the bombs and explosions (including the atomic bombs) in all of World War II.

Mitigating The Dangers Of Future Impacts

Time, rockets could be installed on the meteorite and fired to try to steer it out of its impact trajectory. However, many asteroids rotate rapidly, and rockets mounted on these asteroids would not be so effective at changing their course. other proposals have been made, including firing massive missiles at the asteroid, transferring kinetic energy to move it out of its collision course. However, if the object is very large it is likely that even all of the nuclear weapons or bombs on the planet would not have a significant effect on altering the trajectory of the meteorite or asteroid. Strategies for preventing catastrophic collisions of meteorites with Earth fall into two general categories those that attempt to destroy or fragment the asteroid into small pieces that would burn up upon passing though the Earth's atmosphere, and those that attempt to divert the asteroid and move it out of its trajectory toward Earth. In some cases it may be enough to simply delay the arrival time of...

The Planet As Sacrifice Zone

By World War II, as Manicas notes, class war had been diverted toward international war. The people, habituated in the class struggle to appeals calling them to fight for their rights and for better opportunities, to strike at privilege and oppression, now were told by the leaders of the hypernationalist and irrational modern mass movement known as fascism that they must continue to fight, not as traitorous members of a class but as patriots in a national cause. The German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels shrewdly mobilized on chauvinist-racial grounds by invocations of national-socialism. Class-oriented industrial production techniques of labor organization, such as the scientific management associated with Taylorism, became the shared ideological co-ordinates and performance principles ofboth the Stalinist East and the West. See Manicas, War and Democracy, p. 3 79. Laurence Badash, Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons From Fission to Limited Test Ban Treaty,...

Ion Exchange And Carbon Adsorption

The history of carbon adsoprtion in the pruification of water dates back to ancient times. Adsorption on porous carbons was described as early as 1550 B.C. in an ancicnt Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, mainly for medicinal purposes. In the 18th century, carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for the purification of liquids. All of these materials, which can be considered as precursors of activated carbons, were only available as powders. The typical technology of application was the so-called batch contact treatment, where a measured quantity of carbon and the liquid to be treated were mixed and, after a certain contact time, separated by filtration or sedimentation. At the beginning of the 19th century the decolourisation power of bone char was detected and used in the sugar industry in England. Bone char was available as a granular material which allowed the use of percolation technology, where the liquid to be treated was continuously...

Methods of drug development

Microbial diversity is a rich source of natural products chemistry, a source which has seen a consistent level of exploitation by industry's R& D departments since World War II. Penicillin, a host of subsequent antibiotics and many other products have been produced from microbial sources. Mevacor, a breakthrough cholesterol-lowering drug with sales of over 100 million in 1991, is just one of four products recently developed by the microbial screening program at Merck (Merck & Co., 1992). While the extent of microbial diversity is largely unknown, microbial diversity may equal or exceed that of all other diversity currently expected to be in the order of from 10 to 100 million species. Recent improvements in screening technologies complement the 'chemical inventiveness' of microorganisms in generating many new leads for drug development (Nisbet, 1992).

Commission For Scientific Research In Greenland

The Commission's historical emphasis on natural sciences continued with modernization in Greenland after World War II it even became clear that there was a tremendous need for insight into the social and cultural consequences of these changes. Especially after the establishment of Home Rule in Greenland (1979), pressure from the Greenland government articulated the need for a stronger focus on the social sciences and

Secondary plant metabolites and the chemical industry

The ingenuity of synthetic chemists allowed not only the reproduction of naturally-occurring molecules, but also the production of unnatural derivatives of natural compounds, as well as completely novel unnatural substances. Wholly synthetic molecules began to make a dramatic impact on the quality of human life in the twentieth century. The pesticide DDT, for example, rid urban slums of insect pests and helped change the fortunes of combat troops during World War II. Synthetic polymers changed life everywhere. Although interest in some natural products persisted, notably those of microorganisms in the search for new antibiotics following the discovery of penicillin, living higher plants were all but abandoned as a source of inspiration or raw material for an industry confident that synthetic molecules would satisfy all needs.

Mitigation of Damages from Downslope Flows

After World War II, large earthwork projects were employed in the United States, particularly associated with construction started as a result of the Interstate Highway Act of 1955. At this time, a new style of landslide mitigation became common, that of excavating the entire slipped area, installing subdrainages, then refilling and compacting the slopes with the excavated material. These so-called buttress fills are still the most common form of landslide repair in the United States, and are moderately effective in most cases. Slopes can be modified and slip surfaces removed, and the subdrainages keep pore water pressures to a minimum.

The Third International Polar Year International Geophysical Year 19571958

Lawrence Donnell Young

On 5 April 1950, in Silver Spring, Maryland, a small group of eminent physicists gathered to meet in an informal meeting in Van Allen's home. Among these were the house owner James Van Allen (1914-2006), Lloyd Viel Berkner (1905-1967), Siegfried Frederick Singer (born in 1924) and Sidney Chapman (1888-1970) (Fig. 2.6), all of whom had been involved in research for military applications during the World War II. They realised the potential of the new technologies such as rockets, radar and numerous other geophysical techniques perfected during the war, and hoped to

Major Reservoir Development Programs

Hydroelectric power in Canada Hydroelectric power generation in Canada began in the last decades of the 19th century, with construction of facilities near waterfalls in Ontario, and grew steadily in the 20th century. Dam construction slowed in Canada during the Depression of the 1930s, but increased rapidly in the years following World War II. Several large reservoirs were constructed in the Ottawa River system bordering Ontario and Quebec. In the 1960s, a few very large hydroelectric dams were built in British Columbia, including a 244-m high dam that impounds Kinbasket Lake, and dams forming the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes. The most extensive Small impoundments In addition to the thousands of large reservoirs that have been built in North America, millions of small impoundments dot the landscape (refer to 'see also' section), especially in the United States. The earliest of these were those associated with the water power, mentioned earlier. By the early 20th century a new form of...

Milankovitch Milutin 18791958

After World War I, Serbia joined with other Balkan countries to become part of Yugoslavia. The political environment of the Balkan area remained in flux, including involvement in the Balkan War, World War I, and World War II. In spite of the unrest in the region, and an arrest and imprisonment as a prisoner of war, Milutin Milankovitch continued his work to determine, mathematically, the cycles of ice ages. He built on the theory that the ice ages were cyclical, and the work on astronomical rhythms by Scottish geologist James Croll.

Etymology and definition

While the term geoengineering is an invention of the last few decades, explicit consideration of intentional large-scale manipulation of the environment has a history measured in centuries. This review focuses on the post-World War II history of weather and climate modification as a direct precursor to current thinking about geoengineering. Modern understanding of the CO2-climate problem emerged at a time when climate and weather modification was an While the focus here is post-World War II, the link between scientific understanding of the CO2-climate connection and proposals for its manipulation extends to the beginning of the twentieth century. Writing around 1905, Arrhenius speculated about a virtuous circle in which CO2 emissions from a growing fossil-fueled civilization would warm the climate, pushing back the northern limits of agriculture and so enhancing agricultural productivity as required to sustain the growth in population (Arrhenius, 1908). Similarly, Eckholm discussed...

History Of Exploitation

The ensuing slaughter was so effective that by 1823 elephant seals were almost extinct in the Scotia Sea, and sealers began moving into the Pacific, especially the islands to the south of New Zealand and Australia (McNab, 1907 Hindell and Burton, 1988a). Hunting of seals continued in these areas until after the Second World War, with some population extinctions. Surveys of fur seals and sea lions over the past 20 years have shown, however, that at least on the islands of the southwestern Pacific, the numbers are generally recovering (Croxall and Gentry, 1984 papers in Ridgway and Harrison, 1981a, b). Around the turn of the century, knowledge of the zoology of the Southern Ocean, particularly its whales and krill, increased markedly as a result of a number of scientific expeditions from Belgium, Germany and Britain (Deacon, 1984). The study of Antarctic natural history was further enhanced by investigations carried out in conjunction with the Heroic Age of Antarctic land exploration...

The Growth Of Environmental Awareness

1970s Environmental Disaster

Another factor that has helped focus attention on global warming in recent years is the growth of environmental awareness. Over the last few decades, there have been several notable anthropogenic environmental disasters. These have made the public more aware of environmental damage sometimes permanent. One of the worst anthropogenic disasters was the explosion at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986. A reactor exploded during a failed cooling system test and ignited a massive fire that burned steadily for 10 days. The accident released radioactivity 400 times more intense than that of the Hiroshima bomb in World War II. The accident affected a huge area the plume drifted over Europe, One topic that has been in the news recently that has made an impression on the public is the melting of the polar ice. Time magazine has run several special editions covering the melting of glaciers, rising seas, and diminishing icepack (April 9, 2001, April 3, 2006, April 9,...

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

One might hope that politicians would have the courage to take the hard decisions that are required to safeguard our long-term future. They have before them the evidence of countless scientific studies and reports by the Royal Society and the Federation of British Industry. However the next election looms larger in their minds than the future of mankind. The evidence for climate change is now so compelling that Governments have to be seen doing something about it. They dare not risk offending public opinion by choosing nuclear power. Instead they fasten on the renewables, especially wind power as a safe political choice, in spite of the arguments showing its futility. Conferences are arranged to consider the problem of global warming and climate change and consider all means of preventing these harmful emissions such as improved energy efficiency, carbon emission taxes and wind and solar power, except the one source that is demonstrably the only practicable way to solve the problem....

North Africa and the Middle East

Efforts to design a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian struggle will be abandoned for the indefinite future because of a collective conclusion that the problem of sharing water supplies must be regarded as permanently intractable. War between Israel and Jordan over access to water is conceivable. Moreover, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey are likely to be enmeshed in an escalating struggle over the latter's command of waters feeding the Tigris and Euphrates systems. In the Gulf countries there will be a rapid expansion of nuclear power for desalinization. This in turn will become a contributing factor in the regional proliferation of nuclear weapons as insurance against predation.

Principles Of Ozone Effluent Treatment

Over 100 years ago it had been demonstrated that ozone (03), the unstable triatomic allotrope of oxygen, could destroy molds and bacteria and by 1892 several experimental ozone plants were in operation in Europe. In the 1920s, however, as a result of wartime research, during World War I, chlorine became readily

Climatic Data Nature of the data

World War II provided the equipment and capability for collecting data, while it was the failure to complete satisfactory models on a regional or geographically-limited basis that did not properly integrate global effects that stimulated the increase in the scope of data collection. Nevertheless, GISS models provide datasets in the following categories temperature radiation vertical heat fluxes salt water pressure height velocity and horizontal mass fluxes. Radiation is a crucial data element because the heat exchange of the atmosphere determines global warming and, hence, climate change to a large extent. Data are collected on the amount of solar energy reflected nd absorbed by the surface of the Earth. The nature and extent of cloud cover is monitored, as is the extent of energy rebounding off that cloud cover. Aggregate and grid-specific releases of energy data are collected one measure of atmospheric clarity that is employed is Boucher's Sulfate Burden, measured in milligrams per...

Effect of atmospheric solar absorption on pure radiative equilibrium

Sunlight in addition to being radiatively active in the thermal infrared. Strong solar absorption also would occur in the high-altitude dust and soot cloud that would be lofted in the wake of a global thermonuclear war or asteroid impact (the Nuclear Winter problem). If ts > 1 the temperature decreases with height, and if ts < 1 the temperature increases with height. Defining the skin temperature as Tskin ( (1-a)S))1 4 the temperature at the top of the atmosphere is (1 + 1 ts)Tsfcm, which reduces to the skin temperature when ts is large and becomes much greater than the skin temperature when ts is small. If the atmosphere is deep enough that essentially all solar radiation is absorbed before reaching the ground, then the exponential term vanishes in the deep atmosphere and the deep atmosphere becomes isothermal with temperature (1 + ts)Tskin. Thus, when ts is small, all the solar radiation is absorbed within a thin layer near the top of the atmosphere. The temperature increases...

Grabau Amadeus William 18701946 German American Geologist Paleontologist

He was a great contributor to systematic paleontology and strati-graphic geology and also a respected professor and writer. He spent half of his professional life in the United States and the last 25 years in China. Grabau studied at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and received a master of science and a doctorate of science degree at Harvard University, then returned as faculty at MIT from 1892 to 1897. He moved to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York, from 1899 to 1901, and became a professor in paleontology at Columbia University in New York City in 1901. In 1912 Grabau married Mary Antin, a Russian immigrant from a shtetl who wrote a best-selling autobiography, The Promised Land. In World War I Grabau defended Germany's actions, which led to his divorce from Mary and his being fired from Columbia University. In 1919 Grabau moved to China and became a professor at Peking National University (now called Peking University).

Penetrating polar ice

The prospect of trekking up to Greenland, drilling into its ice sheet, and extracting a core to bring back and analyze in a freezing laboratory was an idea that, in the pre-World War II United States, attracted no one. Midwesterners know winter cold about as well as anybody, of course, but the country as a whole has no particular cultural affinity for the world of glaciers. European boys like Alfred Wegner may have grown up dreaming of heroic exploits on the polar ice, but the dreams of American youth were more likely to be set in warmer climes.Whatever territorial claims to the far north of Greenland that the polar expeditions of the American Robert Peary had established at the turn of the century were bartered away at the first opportunity in a telling transaction with Denmark in 1917. The United States ceded to the Danes all interests in northern Greenland and paid an additional 25 million in gold in exchange for the Virgin Islands. Norwegian hunters and fishermen kicked up a fuss...

Measuring Earthquakes

Seismographs are used in series, some set up as pendulums and others as springs, to measure ground motion in many directions. Engineers have made seismographs that can record motions as small as one hundred millionth of an inch, about equivalent to being able to detect the ground motion caused by a car several blocks away. The ground motions recorded by seismographs are very distinctive, and geologists who study them have methods of distinguishing between earthquakes produced along faults, earthquake swarms associated with magma moving into volcanoes, and even between explosions from different types of construction and nuclear blasts. Interpreting seismograph traces has therefore become an important aspect of nuclear test-ban treaty verification. Many seismologists are employed to monitor earthquakes around the world and to verify that countries are not testing nuclear weapons.

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