f P0

where T is wind stress, and We,0 is the amplitude of Ekman pumping rate. From the base of the main pycnocline, the upwelling associated with thermohaline circulation drives a volumetric flux Tu. In order to estimate this volumetric flux we need to find the scale of the vertical velocity. Assuming that the vertical diffusion is balanced by vertical diffusion wpz = Kpzz (5.311)

where k is the turbulent diapycnal diffusivity. This equation leads to the scale of the vertical velocity

MOC vs BPD

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