Ministry Letters

The Church Growth Kit

Get Instant Access

Adcroft, A., Scott, J. R. and Marotzke, J. (2001). Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1735-1738.

Alford, M. H. (2003). Improved global maps and 54-year history of wind-work on ocean inertial motions. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1424, doi:10.1029/2002GL016614.

Anderson, D. L. T. and Gill, A. (1975). Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with applications to upwelling. Deep Sea Res., 22, 583-596.

Anderson, D. L. T. and Moore, D. W. (1979). Cross-equatorial inertial jets with special relevance to very remote forcing of the Somali current. Deep Sea Res., 26, 1-22.

Blandford, R. R. (1965). Notes on the theory of the thermocline. J. Mar. Res., 23, 18-29.

Blanke, B. and Raynaud, S. (1997). Kinematics of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent: An Eulerian and Lagrangian approach from GCM results. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1038-1053.

Broecker, W. S. (1991). The great ocean conveyor. Oceanogr., 4, 79-89.

Broecker, W. S. (1998). Paleocean circulation during the last deglaciation: A bipolar seesaw? Paleoceanography, 13, 119-121.

Bromley, L. A. (1968). Relative enthalpies of sea salt solutions at 25°C. J. Chemi. Eng. Data. 13, 399-402.

Bryan, F. (1986). High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations. Nature, 323, 301-304.

Bryan, F. (1987). Parameter sensitivity of primitive equation ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 970-985.

Bryan, K. (1969). Climate and the ocean circulation. III: The ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 806-827.

Bryan, K. and Cox, M. (1967). A numerical investigation of the oceanic general circulation. Tellus, 19, 54-80.

Bryden, H. L. and Brady, E. C. (1985). Diagnostic study of the three-dimensional circulation in the upper equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 1255-1273.

Bryden, H. L. and Imawaki, S. (2001). Ocean heat transport. In Ocean Circulation and Climate, ed. G. Siedler, J. Church and J. Gould, International Geophysical Series, Academy Press, New York, pp. 455-474.

Bryden, H. L. and Kinder, T. H. (1991). Steady two-layer exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar. Deep Sea Res., 38, (Suppl. 1), S445-S463.

Bryden, H. L. and Stommel, H. M. (1984). Limiting processes that determine basic features of the circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol. Acta, 7, 289-296.

Cahn, A. (1945). An investigation of the free oscillations of a simple current system. J. Meteorol., 2, 113-119.

Cane, M. A. (1989). A mathematical note on Kawase's study of the deep-ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 548-550.

Carmack, E. C. and Killworth, P. D. (1978). Formation and interleaving of abyssal water masses off Wilkes Land, Antarctica. Deep Sea Res., 25, 357-369.

Carton, J. A. and Giese, B. S. (2008). Areanalysis of ocean climate using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA). Month. Wea. Rev., 136, 2999-3017.

Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., Cao, X. and Giese, B. S. (2000a). A Simple Ocean Data Assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-1995. Part 1: Methodology. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 30, 294-309.

Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G. and Cao, X. (2000b). A Simple Ocean Data Assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-1995. Part 2: Results, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 311-326.

Cessi, P. (1988). A stratified model of the inertial recirculation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 662-682.

Cessi, P., Ierley, G. and Young, W. (1987). A model of the inertial recirculation driven by potential vorticity anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1640-1652.

Charney, J. G. (1955). The Gulf Stream as an inertial boundary layer. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 41,731-740.

Chelton, D. B. and Schlax, M. G. (1996). Global observations of oceanic Rossby waves. Science, 272, 234-238.

Chelton, D. B., de Szoeke, R. A. and Schlax, M. G. (1998). Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 433-460.

Chelton, D. B., Schlax, M. G., Samelson, R. M. and de Szoeke, R. A. (2007). Global observations of large oceanic eddies. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15606, doi:10.1029/2007GL030812.

Chereskin, T. K. (1995). Direct evidence for an Ekman balance in the California Current. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 18,261-18,269.

Chereskin, T. K. and Price, J. F. (2001). Ekman transport and pumping. In Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, ed. J. H. Steele, K. K. Turekian and S. A. Thorpe, Academic Press, New York, pp. 809-815.

Christopher, E. and Pedlosky, J. (1995). The influence of distributed sources and upwelling on the baroclinic structure of the abyssal circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2259-2284.

Chu, P.C. (1995). P-vector method for determining absolute velocity from hydrographic data. Mar. Techn. Soc. J., 29, 3-14.

Clarke, R. A. and Gascard, J. C. (1983). The formation of Labrador Sea Water, Part I: Large-scale processes, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1764-1778.

Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., Garcia, H. E., O'Brien, T. D., Boyer, T. P., Stephens, C. and Antonov, J. I. (2002). World Ocean Atlas 2001: Objective Analysis, Data Statistics, and Figures, CD-ROM Documentation. National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD, 17 pp.

Cox, M. D. (1985). An eddy-resolving numerical model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 1312-1324.

Cox, M. D. and Bryan, K. (1984). A numerical model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 674-687.

Craig, P. D. and Banner, M. L. (1994). Modeling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surface layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2546-2559.

Cummins, P. F. and Foreman, M. G. G. (1998). A numerical study of circulation driven by mixing over a submarine bank. Deep Sea Res., I, 45, 745-769.

Cushman-Roisin, B. (1987). Subduction. In: Dynamics of the oceanic surface mixed layer. Proceedings Hawaiian Winter Workshop, 181-196.

Cushman-Roisin, B. (1994). Introduction to Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Prentice Hall Press, 320 pp.

Da Silva, A. M., Young, C. C. and Levitus, S. (1994). Atlas of surface marine data 1994: Volume 1: Algorithms and procedures. US Dept. of Commerce. Washington, DC. NOAAAtlas NESDIS 6, 83 pp. [G1046 .C1 N33 v.1]

Defant, A. (1961). Physical Oceanography, Vol. 1, Elsevier, New York, 728 pp.

DeLaughter, J. E., Stein, C. A. and Stein, S. (2005). Hotspots: A view from the swells. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 388.

Deser, C., Alexander, M. A. and Timlin, M. S. (1996). Upper-ocean thermal variability in the North Pacific during 1970-1991. J. Climate, 9, 1840-1855.

Dewar, W. K (1986). On the potential vorticity structure of weakly ventilated isopycnals: a theory of subtropical mode water maintenance. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1204-1216.

Dewar, W. K. and Huang, R. X. (1995). Fluid flow in loops driven by freshwater and heat fluxes. J. Fluid Mech., 297, 153-191.

Dewar, W. K. and Killworth, P. (1990). On the cylinder collapse problem, mixing, and the merger of isolated eddies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 1563-1575.

Dewar, W. K., Bingham, R. J., Iverson, R. L., Nowacek, D. P., St Laurent, L. C. and Wiebe, P. H. (2006). Does the marine biosphere mix the ocean? J. Mar. Res., 64, 541-561.

Dewar, W. K., Samelson, R. M. and Vallis, G. K. (2005). The ventilated pool: a model of Subtropical Mode Water. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 137-150.

Dickson, R. R., Gmitrowicz, E. M. and Watson, A. J. (1990). Deep-water renewal in the Northern North Atlantic. Nature, 344, No. 6269, 848-850.

Doscher, R., Boning, C. W. and Herrmann, P. (1994). Response of circulation and heat transport in the North Atlantic to changes in thermohaline forcing in northern latitudes: A model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2306-2320.

Eden, C. and Willebrand, J. (1999). Neutral density revisited, Deep Sea Res. II, 46, 33-54.

Edwards, C. A. and Pedlosky, J. (1998). Dynamics of nonlinear cross-equatorial flow. Part I: Potential vorticity transformation. J. Phys., Oceanogr., 28, 2382-2406.

Edwards, N. R. (1996). Unsteady similarity solutions and oscillating ocean gyres. J. Mar. Res., 54, 793-826.

Egbert, G. D., Ray, R. D. and Bills, B. G. (2003). Numerical modelling of the global semidiurnal tide in the present day and in the last glacial maximum. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C03003, doi:10.1029/2003JC001973.

Ekman, V. W. (1905). On the influence of the earth's rotation on ocean currents. Arch. Math. Astron. Phys., 2, 1-52.

Emanuel, K. (2001). Contribution of tropical cyclones to meridional heat transport by the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D14), 14771-14781.

Faller, A. (1966). Sources of energy for the ocean circulation and a theory of the mixed layer. Proceedings of the Fifth US National Congress of Applied Mechanics, Minnesota, pp. 651-672.

Feistel, R. (1993). Equilibrium thermodynamics of seawater revisited. Prog. Oceanogr., 31, 101-179.

Feistel, R. (2003). A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Prog. Oceanogr, 58, 43-114.

Feistel, R. (2005). Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Ocean Science Discussion, 1 (2004), 1-19,, Ocean Science 1 (2005), 9-16,

Feistel, R. and Hagen, E. (1995). On the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Prog. Oceanogr., 36, 249-327.

Feng, C. Y., Wang, W. and Huang, R. X. (2006). Meso-scale available gravitational potential energy in the world oceans. Oceanology Bulletin Sinica, 25, No.5, 1-13.

Ferrari, R. and Wunsch, C. (2009). Ocean circulation kinetic energy: Reservoirs, sources, and sinks. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 41, 253-282.

Fieux, M., Schott, F. and Swallow, J. C. (1986). Deep boundary currents in the western Indian Ocean revisited. Deep Sea Res., 33, 415-426.

Filippov, U. G. (1968). Application of group analysis for the solution of certain ocean flow problems. Meteorology and Hydraulics, 9, 53-62.

Fine, R., Reid, J. L. and Ostlund, H. G. (1981). Circulation of tritium in the Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 3-14.

Fine, R. A., Peterson, W. H. and Ostlund, H. G. (1987). The penetration of tritium into the tropical Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 553-564.

Flament, P. (2002). A state variable for characterizing water masses and their diffusive stability: Spiciness. Progr. Oceanogr., 54, 493-501.

Fofonoff, N. P. (1954). Steady flow in a frictionless homogeneous ocean. J. Mar. Res., 13, 254-262.

Fofonoff, N. P. (1962). Physical properties of seawater. In The Sea: Ideas and

Observations on Progress in the Study of the Seas, 1: Physical Oceanography, ed. M. N. Hill, Wiley, Interscience, New York, pp. 323-395.

Foster, T. D. and Carmack, E. C. (1976). Temperature and salinity structure in the Weddell Sea. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 36-44.

Fox-Kemper, B. and Pedlosky, J. (2004). Wind-driven barotropic gyre I: Circulation controlled by eddy vorticity fluxes to an enhanced removal region. J. Mar. Res. 62, 169-193.

Frankignoul, C. and Reynolds, R. W. (1983). Testing a dynamical model for mid-latitude sea surface temperature anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1131-1145.

Fratantoni, D. M., Johns, W. E., Townsend, T. L. and Hurlburt, H. E. (2000). Low-latitude circulation and mass transport pathways in a model of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 1944-1966.

Gaffen, D. J., Rosen, R. D., Salstein, D. A. and Boyle, J. S. (1997). Evaluation of tropospheric water vapor simulations from the atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. J. Climate, 10, 1648-1661.

Gan, Z., Yan, Y. and Qi, Y. (2007). Climatological mean distribution of specific entropy in the oceans. Ocean Science Discussion, 4, 129-144.

Garrett, C. (1991). Marginal mixing theories. Atmos. Ocean, 29, 313-339.

Garrett, C., MacCready, P. and Rhines, P. (1993). Boundary mixing and arrested Ekman layers: rotating stratified flow near a sloping boundary. Annual Rev. Fluid Mech., 25, 291-323.

Gaspar, P. (1988). Modeling the seasonal cycle of the upper ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 161-180.

Gent, P. R. and McWilliams, J. (1990). Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 150-155.

Gent, P. R., Willebrand, J., McDougall, T. J. and McWilliams, J. (1995). Parameterizing eddy-induced tracer transports in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 463-474.

Gill, A. E. (1971). Ocean Models. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 270, 391-413.

Gill, A. E. (1977). The hydraulics of rotating-channel flow. J. Fluid Mech., 80, 641-671.

Gill, A. E., Green, J. S. A. and Simmons, A. J. (1974). Energy partition in the large-scale ocean circulation and the production of mid-ocean eddies. Deep Sea Res., 21, 499-528.

Gnanadesikan, A. (1999). A simple predictive model for the structure of the oceanic pycnocline. Science, 283, 2077-2079.

Goldsbrough, G. (1933). Ocean currents produced by evaporation and precipitation. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 141, 512-517.

Godfrey, J. S. (1989). A Sverdrup model of the depth-integrated flow for the world ocean allowing for island circulations. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 45, 89-112.

Godfrey, J. S. (1993). The effect of the Indonesian throughflow on ocean circulation and heat exchange with the atmosphere: A review. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12,217-12,237.

Gordon, A. L. (1978). Deep Antarctic convection west of Maud Rise. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8, 600-612.

Gordon, A. L. (1982). Weddell deep water variability. J. Mar. Res., 40, 199-217.

Gordon, A. L. (2002). Bottom water formation. In Encyclopedia of ocean sciences, ed. J. H. Steele, K. K. Turkrekian and S. A. Thorpe, Academic Press, New York, pp. 334-340.

Gordon, A. L. and Nowlin, W. D. (1978). Basin waters of Bransfield Strait, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 8, 258-264.

Gordon, A. L. and Tchernia, P. (1972). Waters of the continental margin off the Adelie Coast Antarctic. In Antarctic Oceanology II: The Australian-New Zealand Section. Antarctic Res. Ser, 19, ed. D. E. Haynes, Amer. Geophys. Union, 59-69.

Gouriou, Y. and Toole, J. (1993). Mean circulation of the upper layers of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 22,495-22,520.

Greatbatch, R. J., Fanning, A. F., Goulding, A. D. and Levitus, S. (1991). A diagnosis of interpentadal circulation changes in the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 22,009-22,023.

Gu, D. and Philander, S. G. (1997). Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the tropics and extratropics. Science, 275, 805-807.

Guan, Y. P. and Huang, R. X. (2008). Stommel's box model of thermohaline circulation revisited - The role of mechanical energy supporting mixing and wind-driven gyration. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 909-917.

Hallberg, R. and Gnanadesikan, A. (2001). An exploration of the role of transient eddies in determining the transport of a zonally reentrant current. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3312-3330.

Hallberg, R. and Gnanadesikan, A. (2006). The role of eddies in determining the structure and response of the wind-driven Southern Hemisphere overturning: Results from the modeling eddies in the Southern Ocean (MESO) project. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 2232-2252.

Hanawa, K. and Talley, L. D. (2001). Mode waters. In Ocean Circulation and Climate, ed. G. Siedler, J. Church and J. Gould, International Geophysical Series, Academy Press, New York, pp. 373-386.

Haney, R. L. (1971). Surface thermal boundary condition for ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 1, 241-248.

Hayes, S. P. (1982). A comparison of geostrophic and measured velocities in the Equatorial Undercurrent. J. Mar. Res., 40, (Suppl.), 219-229.

Helland-Hansen, B. (1912). The ocean waters, An introduction to physical oceanography. Intern. Rev. d. Hydrobiol. (Suppl.) Bd. III, Ser. 1, H. 2, 1-84.

Hellerman, S. and Rosenstein, M. (1983). Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1093-1104.

Hendershott, M. C. (1987). Single-layer models of the general circulation. In General Circulation of the Ocean, ed. H. D. A. Abarbanel and W. R. Young, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 202-267.

Hogg, N. G. and Johns, W. E. (1995). Western boundary currents. US National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991-1994, Rev. Geophys., (Suppl.), 1311-1334.

Hogg, N. G. and Owens, W. B. (1999). Direct measurement of the deep circulation within the Brazil Basin. Deep Sea Res., II, 46, 335-353.

Hogg, N., Biscaye, P., Gardner, W. and Schmitz, W. J., Jr. (1982). On the transport and modification of Antarctic Bottom Water in the Vema Channel. J. Mar. Res., 40, (Suppl.), 231-263.

Holton, J. R. (2004). An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Volume 88, Fourth edition (International Geophysics), Academic Press, New York, 535 pp.

Hood, S. and Williams, R. G. (1996). On frontal and ventilated modes of the main thermocline. J. Mar. Res., 54, 211-238.

Hough, S. S. (1897). On the application of harmonic analysis to the dynamical theory of the tides. - Part I. On Laplace's "Oscillations of the First Species", and on the dynamics of ocean currents. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, 189, 201-257.

Hsiung, J. (1985). Estimates of global oceanic meridional heat transport. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 1405-1413.

Hua, B. L., Moore, D. and Le Gentil, S. (1997). Inertial nonlinear equilibration of the equatorial flows. J. Fluid Mech. 331. 345-371.

Huang, B. and Liu, Z. (1999). Pacific subtropical-tropical thermocline water exchange in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11,065-11,076.

Huang, N. E. (1979). On surface drift currents in the ocean. J. Fluid Mech., 91, 191-208.

Huang, R. X. (1988a). On boundary value problems of the ideal-fluid thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 619-641.

Huang, R. X. (1988b). Ideal-fluid thermocline with weakly convective adjustment in a subpolar basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 642-651.

Huang, R. X. (1989a). The generalized eastern boundary conditions and the three-dimensional structure of the ideal fluid thermocline. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 4855-4865.

Huang, R. X. (1989b). Sensitivity of a multilayered oceanic general circulation model to the sea surface thermal boundary condition. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 18,011-18,021.

Huang, R. X. (1990a). On the three-dimensional structure of the wind-driven circulation in the North Atlantic. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 15, 117-159.

Huang, R. X. (1990b). On the structure of inertial western boundary currents with two moving layers. Tellus, 42A, 594-604.

Huang, R. X. (1990c). Matching a ventilated thermocline model with inertial western boundary currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 1599-1607.

Huang, R. X. (1991a). The three-dimensional structure of wind-driven gyres: ventilation and subduction. US National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1987-1990, Rev. Geophys., (Suppl.), 590-609.

Huang, R. X. (1991b). A note on combining wind and buoyancy forcing in a simple one-layer ocean model. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 1S, 535-540.

Huang, R. X. (1993a). A two-level model for the wind and buoyancy-forced circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 104-115.

Huang, R. X. (1993b). Real freshwater flux as a natural boundary condition for the salinity balance and thermohaline circulation forced by evaporation and precipitation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 2428-2446.

Huang, R. X. (1994). Thermohaline circulation: Energetics and variability in a single-hemisphere basin model. J. Geophys. Res, 99, 12,471-12,485.

Huang, R. X. (1998a). On the energy balance of the oceanic general circulation. Chinese J. Atmos. Science, 22, 452-467.

Huang, R. X. (1998b). Mixing and available potential energy in a Boussinesq ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 669-678.

Huang, R. X. (1999). Mixing and energetics of the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 727-746.

Huang, R. X. (2GGGa). Parameter study of a continuously stratified model of the ideal-fluid thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 3O, 1372-1388.

Huang, R. X. (2GGGb). Climate variability inferred from a continuously stratified model of the ideal-fluid thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 3O, 1389-14G6.

Huang, R. X. (2001). An analytical solution of the ideal-fluid thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2441-2457.

Huang, R. X. (2005a). Available potential energy in the world oceans. J. Mar. Res., 63, 141-158.

Huang, R. X. (2GG5b). Contribution of oceanic circulation to the poleward heat flux. J. Ocean Uni. China, 4, 277-287.

Huang, R. X. and Bryan, K. (1987). A multi-layer model of the thermohaline and wind-driven ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 1T, 1909-1924.

Huang, R. X. and Chou, R. L. (1994). Parameter sensitivity study of the saline circulation. Climate Dyn., 9, 391-409.

Huang, R. X. and Dewar, W. K. (1996). Haline circulation: Bifurcation and chaos. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 26, 2093-2106.

Huang, R. X. and Flierl, G. R. (1987). Two-layer models for the thermocline and current structure in subtropical/subpolar gyres. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 1T, 872-884.

Huang, R. X. and Jin, F. F. (2GG3). The asymmetric nature of the equatorial undercurrent in the Pacific and Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1083-1094.

Huang, R. X. and Jin, X.-Z. (2002a). Deep circulation in the South Atlantic induced by bottom-intensified mixing over the mid-ocean ridge. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1150-1164.

Huang, R. X. and Jin, X.-Z. (2GG2b). Sea surface elevation and bottom pressure anomalies due to thermohaline forcing: Part I: isolated perturbations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2131-2150.

Huang R. X. and Jin, X.-Z. (2GG6). Gravitational potential energy balance for the thermal circulation in a model ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 36, 142G-1429.

Huang, R. X. and Jin, X.-Z. (2GG7). On the natural boundary conditions applied to the sea-ice coupled model. J. Geophys. Res, 112, doi:lG.lG29/2GG6JCG03735.

Huang, R. X. and Pedlosky, J. (1999). Climate variability inferred from a layered model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 779-79G.

Huang, R. X. and Pedlosky, J. (2000a). Climate variability of the equatorial thermocline inferred from a two-moving-layer model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 3O, 2610-2626.

Huang, R. X. and Pedlosky, J. (2000b). Climate variability induced by anomalous buoyancy forcing in a multilayer model of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 3009-3021.

Huang, R. X. and Qiu, B. (1994). Three-dimensional structure of the wind-driven circulation in the subtropical North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1608-1622.

Huang, R. X. and Russell, S. (1994). Ventilation of the subtropical North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 2589-2605.

Huang, R. X. and Schmitt, R. W. (1993). The Goldsbrough-Stommel circulation of the world oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 1277-1284.

Huang, R. X. and Stommel, H. M. (1990). Cross-sections of two-layer inertial Gulf Stream. J. Phys. Oceanogr, 20, 907-911.

Huang, R. X. and Stommel, H. M. (1992). Convective flow patterns in an eight-box cube driven by combined wind stress, thermal, and saline forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 2347-2364.

Huang, R. X. and Wang, Q. (2001). Interior communication from the subtropical to the tropical oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3538-3550.

Huang, R. X. and Wang, W. (2003). Gravitational potential energy sinks in the oceans: Near-boundary processes and their parameterization. Proceedings, Hawaii Winter Workshop, pp. 239-247.

Huang, R. X., Cane, M. A., Naik, N. and Goodman, P. (2000). Global adjustment of the thermocline in response to deepwater formation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 759-762.

Huang, R. X., Huang, C. J. and Wang, W. (2007). Dynamical roles of mixed layer in regulating the meridional mass/heat fluxes. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C05036, doi:10.1029/2006JC004046.

Huang, R. X., Jin, X.-Z. and Zhang, X.-H. (2001). An ocean general circulation model in pressure coordinates. Adv.Atmos. Sci., 18, 1-22.

Huang, R. X., Luyten, J. M. and Stommel, H. M. (1992). Multiple equilibrium states in combined thermal and saline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 231-246.

Huang, R. X., Wang, W. and Liu, L. L. (2006). Decadal variability of wind energy input to the world ocean, Deep Sea Res II, 53, 31-41.

Huthnance, J. M. (1984). Slope currents and "JEBAR". J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 795-810.

Ierley, G. R. and Sheremet, V. A. (1995). Multiple solutions and advection-dominated flows in the wind-driven circulation. Part I: Slip. J. Mar. Res., 53, 703-737.

Ierley, G. R. and Young, W. R. (1983). Can the western boundary layer affect the potential vorticity distribution in the Sverdrup interior of a wind gyre? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1753-1763.

Iselin, C. O'D. (1939). The influence of vertical and lateral turbulence on the characteristics of the waters at mid-depths. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 20, 414-417.

Iselin, C. O'D. (1940). Preliminary report on long-period variations in the transport of the Gulf Stream. Papers in Physical Oceanography and Meteorology, 8: 1, 40 pp.

Jackett, D. R. and McDougall, T. J. (1997). Neutral density variable of the world's oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 237-263.

Jacobs, S. S. and Georgi, D. T. (1977). Observations on the southwest Indian/Antarctic Ocean. In A Voyage of Discovery, George Deacon 70th Anniversary Volume, ed. M. Angel, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 43-84.

Jacobs, S. S., Amos, A. F. and Bruchhause, P. M. (1970). Ross Sea oceanography and antarctic bottom water formation. Deep Sea Res., 17, 935-962.

Jayne, S. R., Hogg, N. G. and Malanotte-Rizzoli, P. (1996). Recirculation gyres forced by a beta-plane jet. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 492-504.

Jeffreys, H. (1925). On fluid motions produced by differences of temperature and humidity. Quart. Jour. R. Meteor. Soc., 51, No. 216, 347-356.

Jenkins, A. (1987). Wind and wave induced currents in a rotating sea with depth-varying eddy viscosity. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 938-951.

Jiang, H., Huang, R. X. and Wang, H. (2008). The role of gyration in the oceanic general circulation, Part 1: The Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res, Vol. 113, C03014, doi:10.1029/2007/JC004134.

Johnson, G. C. (1998). Deep water properties, velocity, and dynamics over ocean trenches. J. Mar. Res, 56, 329-347.

Johnson, G. C. and McPhaden, M. J. (1999). Interior pycnocline flow from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 3073-3089.

Johnson, G. C., Warren, B. A. and Olson, D. B. (1991a). Flow of bottom water in the Somali Basin, Deep Sea Res., 38, 637-652.

Johnson, G. C., Warren, B. A. and Olson, D. B. (1991b). A deep boundary current in the Arabian Basin. Deep Sea Res., 38, 653-661.

Johnson, H. L. and Marshall, D. P. (2002). A theory for the surface Atlantic response to thermohaline variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1121-1132.

Joyce, T. M. (1988). On wind-driven cross-equatorial flow in the Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 19-24.

Joyce, T. M., Pickart, R. S. and Millard, R. C. (1999). Long-term hydrographic changes at 52° and 66°W in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre and Caribbean. Deep Sea Res. II, 46, 245-278.

Kagan, B. A. and Sundermann, J. (1996). Dissipation of tidal energy, paleotides, and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Advances in Geophysics, 38, 179-266.

Kasahara, A. (1974). Various vertical coordinate systems used for numerical weather prediction. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 509-522.

Katsman, C. A. (2006). Impacts of localized mixing and topography on the stationary abyssal circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1660-1671.

Kawase, M. (1987). Establishment of deep ocean circulation driven by deep-water production. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 2294-2317.

Kawase, M. and Straub, D. (1991). Spinup of source-driven circulation in an abyssal basin in the presence of bottom topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1501-1514.

Killworth, P. D. (1983a). Deep convection in the world ocean. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 21, 1-26.

Killworth, P. D. (1983b). Some thoughts on the thermocline equations. Ocean Modelling., 48,1-5 (unpublished manuscript).

Killworth, P. D. (1991). Cross-equatorial geostrophic adjustment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1581-1601.

Kistler, R., Kalnay, E., Collins, W., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Chelliah, M.,

Ebisuzaki, W., Kanamitsu, M., Kousky, V., van den Dool, H., Jenne, R. and Fiorino, M. (2001). The NCEP-NCAR 50-Year reanalysis: Monthly mean CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteo. Soc., 82, 247-267.

Kittel, C. and Knoemer, H. (1980). Thermal Physics, Freeman, New York, 496 pp.

Klinger, B. A., McCreary, J. P., Jr. and Kleeman, R. (2002). The relationship between oscillating subtropical wind stress and equatorial temperature. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 1507-1521.

Kuhlbrodt, T., Griesel, A., Montoya, M., Levermann, A., Hofmann, M. and Rahmstorf, S. (2007). On the driving processes of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Rev. Geophys., 45, RG2001, doi:10.1029/2004RG000166.

Kundu, P. K. (1990). Fluid Mechanics, Academic Press, New York, 638 pp.

Laplace, P. S. (1775). Recherches sur plusieurs points du système du monde. Memoires de l'Académie Royale des Sciences de Paris 88, 75-182. Reprinted in Oeuvres Completes de Laplace, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 9 (1893).

Landau, L. D. and Lifshitz, E. M. (1959). Fluid Mechanics, Pergamon, London, 536 pp.

Lazier, J. R. N. (1973). Temporal changes in some fresh water temperature structure. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 3, 226-229.

Ledwell, J. R., Montgomery, E. T., Polzin, K. L., St Laurent, L. C., Schmitt, R. W. and Toole, J. M. (2000). Evidence for enhanced mixing over rough topography in the abyssal ocean. Nature, 403, 179-182.

Ledwell, J. R., Watson, A. J. and Law, C. B. (1993). Evidence for slow mixing across the pycnocline from an open-ocean tracer-release experiment. Nature, 364, 701-703.

Levitus, S. (1982). Climatological Atlas of the World Ocean, NOAA Prof. Paper No.13. US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC.

Levitus, S. and Boyer, T. (1994). World Ocean Atlas, vol. 4, Temperature, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 4, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC.

Levitus, S., Boyer, T., Conkright, M. E., O'Brien, T., Antonov, J., Stephens, C.,

Stathoplos, L., Johnson, D. and Gelfeld, R. (1998). World Ocean Database 1998. Volume 1: Introduction, NOAA Atlas NESDIS 18, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC., 346 pp.

Lewis, G. N. and Randall, M. (1961). Thermodynamics. McGraw-Hill, New York, 723 pp.

Liu L. L., Wang, W. and Huang, R. X. (2008). Mechanical energy input to the ocean induced by tropical cyclones. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1253-1266.

Liu, Z. (1994). A simple model of the mass exchange between the subtropical and tropical ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1153-1165.

Liu, Z. and Pedlosky, J. (1994). Thermocline forced by annual and decadal surface temperature variation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 587-608.

Liu, Z. and Philander, G. H. (2001). Tropical-extratropical oceanic exchange pathways. In Ocean Circulation and Climate, ed. G. Siedler, J. Church and J. Gould, International Geophysical Series, Academy Press, New York, pp. 247-257.

Longworth, H., Marotzke, J. and Stocker, T. F. (2005). Ocean gyres and abrupt change in the thermohaline circulation: A conceptual analysis. J. Climate, 18, 2403-2416.

Lorenz, E. N. (1955). Available potential energy and the maintenance of the general circulation. Tellus, 7, 157-167.

Lorenz, E. N. (1967). The Nature and Theory of General Circulation of the Atmosphere. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, WMO No. 218, T. P. 115, 161 pp.

Lu, P. and McCreary, J. P. (1995). Influence of the ITCZ on the flow of the thermocline water from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 3076-3088.

Lu, P., McCreary, J. P. and Klinger, B. A. (1998). Meridional circulation cells and the source waters of the Pacific equatorial Undercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 62-84.

Luyten, J. R. and Stommel, H. (1985). Upstream effects of the Gulf Stream on the structure of the mid-ocean thermocline. Progr. Oceanogr., 14, 387-399.

Luyten, J. R. and Stommel, H. (1986). Gyres driven by combined wind and buoyancy flux. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1551-1560.

Luyten, J. R., Pedlosky, J. and Stommel, H. M. (1983). The ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 292-309.

Luyten, J., Stommel, H. and Wunsch, C. (1985). A diagnostic study of the Northern Atlantic subpolar gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 1344-1348.

McCalphin, J. D. (1995). Rossby wave generation by poleward-propagating Kelvin waves: The midlatitude quasigeostrophic approximation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 1415-1425.

McCartney, M. S. (1977). Subantarctic Mode Water. In A Voyage of Discovery, George Deacon 70th Anniversary Volume, Deep Sea Res., (Suppl.), 103-119.

McCartney, M. S. (1982). The subtropical recirculation of mode water. J. Mar. Res., 40, 427-464.

McCartney, M. S. and Talley, L. D. (1982). The Subpolar Mode Water of the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 1169-1188.

McCreary, J. P. and Lu, P. (1994). Interaction between the subtropical and equatorial ocean circulation: the subtropical cell. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 466-497.

McDowell, S., Rhines, P. and Keffer, T. (1982). North Atlantic potential vorticity and its relation to the general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 1417-1436.

McPhaden, M. J. and Fine, R. A. (1988). A dynamical interpretation of the tritium maximum in the Central Equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 1454-1457.

Maas, L. R. M. (1994). A simple model for the three-dimensional, thermally and wind-driven ocean circulation. Tellus, 46A, 671-680.

Madsen, O. S. (1977). A realistic model of the wind-induced Ekman boundary layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7, 248-255.

Malkus, W. R. (1972). Nonperiodic convection at high and low Prandtl number. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liège, 6e Ser, IV, 125-128.

Manabe, S. and R. J. Stouffer (1988). Two stable equilibria of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Clim., 1, 841-866.

Margules, M. (1905). Uber die Energie der Sturme, Wien: K. K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 26 pp.

Marotzke, J. (1989). Instabilities and steady states of the thermohaline circulation. In Ocean Circulation Models: Combining Data and Dynamics, ed. D. L. T. Anderson and J. Willebrand, Kluwer, pp. 501-511.

Marotzke, J. (1990). Instabilities and multiple equilibria of the thermohaline circulation. Ph. D. thesis. Ber. Inst. Meeresk. Kiel, 194, 126 pp.

Marotzke, J. and Willebrand, J. (1991). Multiple equilibria of the global thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1372-1385.

Marotzke, J., Welander, P. and Willebrand, J. (1988). Instability and multiple equilibria in a meridional-plane model of the thermohaline circulation. Tellus, 40A, 162-172.

Marshall, J. C. and Nurser, A. J. G. (1991). A continuously stratified thermocline model incorporating a mixed layer of variable thickness and density. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1780-1792.

Marshall, J. and Schott, F. (1999). Open-ocean convection: observations, theory and models. Rev. Geophys., 37, 1-64.

Marshall, J., Hill, C., Perelman, L. and Adcroft, A. (1997). Hydrostatic, quasi-hydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 5733-5752.

Marshall, J. C., Nurser, A. J. G. and Williams, R. G. (1993a). Inferring the subduction rate and period over the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 1315-1329.

Marshall, J. C., Olbers, D., Wolf-Gladrow, D. and Ross, H. (1993b). Potential vorticity constraints on the hydrography and transport of the southern oceans. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 23, 465-487

Martinson, D. S., Killworth, P. D. and Gordon, A. L. (1981). A convective model for the Weddell polynya. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 466-488.

Masuzawa, J. (1969). Subtropical model water. Deep Sea Res., 16,463-472.

Mauritzen, C. (1996). Production of dense overflow waters feeding the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland ridge. Part I: Evidence for a revised circulation scheme, Deep Sea Res., 43, 769-806.

Mauritzen, C., Polzin, K. L., McCartney, M. S., Millard, R. C. and West-Mark, D. E. (2002). Evidence in hydrography and density fine structure for enhanced vertical mixing over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the western Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 3147, doi:10.1029/2001JC001114.

MEDOC Group (1970). Observation of formation of deep water in the Mediterranean Sea, 1969. Nature, 227, 1037-1040.

Mercier, H., Speer, K. G. and Honnorez, J. (1994). Flow pathways of bottom water through the Romanche and chain fracture-zones. Deep Sea Res., I, 41, 1457-1477.

Mesinger, F. and Janjic, Z. I. (1985). Problems and numerical methods of the incorporation of mountains in the atmospheric models. Lectures in Applied Mathematics, 22, 81-120

Mihaljan, J. M. (1963). An exact solution of the Rossby adjustment problem. Tellus, 15, 150-154.

Miles, J. W. (1972). Kelvin waves on oceanic boundaries. J. Fluid Mech., 55, 113-127.

Millero, F. J. and Leung, W. H. (1976). The thermodynamics of seawater at one atmosphere. Amer. J. Sci., 276, 1035-1077.

Milliff, R. F. and McWilliams, J. C. (1994). The evolution of boundary pressure in ocean basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1317-1338.

Montgomery, R. B. (1937). A suggested method for representing gradient flow in isentropic surfaces. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 18, 210-212.

Morel, A. and Antoine, D. (1994). Heating rate within the upper ocean in relation to its bio-optical state. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 1652-1665.

Morgan, G. W. (1956). On the wind-driven ocean circulation. Tellus, 8, 301-320.

Morris, M. Y., Hall, M. M., St Laurent, L. C. and Hogg, N. G. (2001). Abyssal mixing in the Brazil Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3331-3348.

Munk, W. H. (1950). On the wind-driven ocean circulation. J. Meteor., 7, 79-93.

Munk, W. H. (1966). Abyssal recipes. Deep Sea Res., 13, 707-730.

Munk, W. H. (1981). Internal waves and small-scale processes. In Evolution of Physical Oceanography, ed. B. A. Warren and C. Wunsch, MIT Press, pp. 264-291.

Munk, W. H. and Wunsch, C. (1998). Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of the tidal and wind mixing. Deep Sea Res., I, 45, 1977-2010.

Nakano, H. and Hasumi, H. (2005). A series of zonal jets embedded in the broad zonal flows in the Pacific obtained in eddy-permitting ocean general circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 474-488.

Nakano, H. and Suginohara, N. (2002). A series of mid-depth zonal flows in the Pacific driven by winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 161-176.

Needler, G. (1967). A model for the thermohaline circulation in an ocean of finite depth. J. Mar. Res., 25, 329-342.

Neumann, G. and Pierson, W. J. (1966). Principles of physical oceanography, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 545 pp.

Newton, I. (1687). Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. See Newton's Principia. Cajori's 1946 revision of Motte's 1729 translation, University of California Press, Berkeley, 680 pp.

Niiler, P. P. (1966). On the theory of wind-driven ocean circulation. Deep Sea Res., 13, 597-606.

Nilsson, J., Brostrom, G. and Walin, G. (2003). The thermohaline circulation and vertical mixing: Does weaker density stratification give stronger overturning? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2781-2795.

Noh, Y., Min, H. S. and Raasch, S. (2004). Large eddy simulation of the ocean mixed layer: The effects of wave breaking and Langmuir circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 720-735.

Obukhov, A. M. (1949). On the question of the geostrophic wind (in Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Geograf.-Geofiz., 13(4), 281-306.

O'Dwyer, J. and Williams, R. G. (1997). The climatological distribution of potential vorticity over the abyssal ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 2488-2506.

Oliver, P. J. (1986). Applications of Lie Groups to differential equations, Springer-Verlag, New York, 497 pp.

Oort, A. H., Anderson, L. A. and Peixoto, J. P. (1994). Estimates of the energy cycle of the oceans. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 7665-7688.

Oort, A. H., Ascher, S. C., Levitus, S. and Peixoto, J. P. (1989). New estimates of the available potential energy in the world ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 3187-3200.

Osborn, T. R. (1980). Estimates of the local rate of vertical diffusion from dissipation measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 83-89.

Owens, W. B. and Warren, B. A. (2001). Deep circulation in the northwest corner of the Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res. I, 48, 959-993.

Pacanofsky, R. C. (1995). MOM2 documentation user's guide and reference manual, version 2. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. No.3, GFDL/Princeton University, 232 pp.

Paparella, F. and Young, W. R. (2002). Horizontal convection is non turbulent. J. Fluid Mech., 205, 466-474.

Parsons, A. T. (1969). A two-layer model of Gulf Stream separation. J. Fluid Mech., 39, 511-528.

Pasquero, C. and Tziperman, E. (2004). Effects of a wind-driven gyre on thermohaline circulation variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 805-816.

Pedlosky, J. (1983). Eastern boundary ventilation and the structure of the thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 2038-2044.

Pedlosky, J. (1984). Cross-gyre ventilation of the subtropical gyre: An internal mode in the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 1172-1178.

Pedlosky, J. (1986). The buoyancy and wind-driven ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1077-1087.

Pedlosky, J. (1987a). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Springer-Verlag, New York, 710 pp.

Pedlosky, J. (1987b). An inertial theory of the equatorial undercurrent. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1978-1985.

Pedlosky, J. (1992). The baroclinic structure of the abyssal circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 652-659.

Pedlosky, J. (1996). Ocean Circulation Theory. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 453 pp.

Pedlosky, J. (2006). A history of thermocline theory. In Physical Oceanography

Developments Since 1950, ed. M. Jochum and R. Murtugudde, Springer, New York, pp. 139-152.

Pedlosky, J. and Robbins, P. (i99i). The role of finite mixed-layer thickness in the structure of the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1018-1031.

Peixoto, J. P. and Oort, A. H. (1992). Physics of Climate, American Institute of Physics, New York, 520 pp.

Peltier, W. R. and Caulfield, C. P. (2003). Mixing efficiency in stratified shear flows. Ann. Rev. FluidMech., 35, 135-167.

Phillips, N. A. (1966). The equations of motion for a shallow rotating atmosphere and the "traditional approximation". J. Atmos. Sci., 23, 626-628.

Phillips, O. M. (1970). On flows induced by diffusion in a stably stratified fluid. Deep Sea Res., 17, 435-440.

Phillips, O. M., Shyu, J. and Salmun, H. (1986). An experiment on boundary mixing: mean circulation and transport rates. J. Fluid Mech., 173, 473-499.

Pickart, R. S. (1992). Water mass components of the North Atlantic deep western boundary current. Deep Sea Res., 39, 1553-1572.

Pickart, R. S. and Huang, R. X. (1995). Structure of an inertial deep western boundary current. J. Mar. Res., 53, 739-770.

Pickart, R. S. and Spall, M. A. (2007). Impact of Labrador Sea convection on the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2207-2227.

Pickart, R. S., Spall, M. A., Ribergaard, M. H., Moore, G. W. K. and Milliff, R. F. (2003). Deep convection in the Irminger Sea forced by the Greenland tip jet. Nature, 424, No. 6945, 152-156.

Pickart, R. S., Torres, D. J. and Clarke, R. A. (2002). Hydrography of the Labrador Sea during active convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 428-457.

Plueddemann, A. J. and Farrar, J. T. (2006). Observations and models of the energy flux from the wind to mixed-layer inertial currents. Deep Sea Res., II, 53, 5-30.

Polzin, K. L., Speer, K. G., Toole, J. M. and Schmitt, R. W. (1996). Intense mixing of Antarctic Bottom water in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 380, 54-57.

Polzin, K. L., Toole, J. M., Ledwell, J. R. and Schmitt, R. W. (1997). Spatial variability of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean. Science, 276, 93-96.

Pratt, L. J. and Helfrich, K. R. (2003). Rotating hydraulics and upstream basin circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 1651-1663.

Pratt, L. J. and Whitehead, J. (2007). Rotating Hydraulics, Springer, New York, 589 pp.

Price, J. F. (1981). Upper ocean response to a hurricane. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 153-175.

Price, J. F. and Baringer, M. O. (1994). Outflows and deep water production by marginal seas. Progr. Oceanogr., 33, 161-200.

Price, J. F. and Sundermeyer, M. A. (1999). Stratified Ekman layers. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20,467-20,494.

Price, J. F. and Yang, J. (1998). Marginal sea overflows for climate simulations. In: Ocean Modelling and Parameterizations, ed. E. P. Chassignet and J. Verron, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 155-170.

Price, J. F., Weller, R. A. and Schudlich, R. R. (1987). Wind-driven ocean currents and Ekman transport. Science, 238, 1534-1538.

Qiu, B. (2002a). The Kuroshio Extension system: Its large-scale variability and role in the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction. J. Oceanogr., 58, 57-75.

Qiu, B. (2002b). Large-scale variability in the midlatitude subtropical and subpolar North Pacific Ocean: Observations and causes. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 353-375.

Qiu, B. (2003). Kuroshio extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 2465-2482.

Qiu, B. and Huang, R. X. (1995). Ventilation of the North Atlantic and North Pacific: subduction versus obduction. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 2374-2390.

Reid, J. L., Nowlin, W. D. and Patzert, W. C. (1977). On the characteristics and circulation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 7, 62-91.

Reid, R. O., Elliott, B. A. and Olson, D. B. (1981). Available potential energy: A clarification. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 15-29.

Rhines, P. B. and MacCready, P. M. (1989). Boundary control over the large-scale circulation, Proceedings of the 'Aha Huliko'a Symposium, ed. P. Muller, Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics, pp. 75-97.

Rhines, P. B. and Young, W. R. (1982a). Homogenization of potential vorticity in planetary gyres. J. Fluid Mech., 122, 347-367.

Rhines, P. B. and Young, W. R. (1982b). A theory of wind-driven circulation: I. Mid-ocean gyres. J. Mar. Res., 40 (Suppl.), 559-596.

Robinson, A. R. and Stommel, H. (1959). The oceanic thermocline and the associated thermohaline circulation. Tellus, 11, 295-308.

Roche, P.-E., Castaing, B., Chabaud, B. and Hebral, B. (2001). Observation of the /2 power law in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Phys. Rev. E, 63, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.63.045303.

Roemmich, D., Hautala, S. and Rudnick, D. (1996). Northward abyssal transport through the Samoan passage and adjacent regions. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14,039-14,055.

Rogers, C. and Ames, W. F. (1989). Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems in Science and Engineering, Academic Press, New York, 416 pp.

Rooth, C. (1982). Hydrology and ocean circulation. Prog. Oceanogr., 11, 131-149.

Rooth, C., Stommel, H. and Veronis, G. (1978). On motions in steady, layered, geostrophic models, J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 34, 265-267.

Rossby, C. G. (1938). On the mutual adjustment of pressure and velocity distributions in certain simple current systems, II. J. Mar. Res., 1, 239-263.

Rossby, T. (1965). On thermal convection driven by non-uniform heating from below; An experimental study. Deep Sea Res., 12, 9-10.

Rossby, T. (1998). Numerical experiments with a fluid heated non-uniformly from below. Tellus, 50A, 242-257.

Salmon, R. (1990). The thermocline as an "internal boundary layer". J. Mar. Res., 48, 437-469.

Salmon, R. (1991). Similarity solutions of the thermocline equations. J. Mar. Res., 49, 249-280.

Salmon, R. and Hollerbach, R. (1991). Similarity solutions of the thermocline equations. J. Mar. Res, 49, 249-280.

Samelson, R. M. and Vallis, G. K. (1997). Large-scale circulation with small diapycnal diffusion: The two-thermocline limit. J. Mar. Res., 55, 223-275.

Saunders, P. M. (1990). Cold outflow from the Faroe Bank Channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 29-43.

Sandstrom, J. W. (1908). Dynamicsche Versuche mit Meerwasser. Annalen der Hydrographie under Maritimen Meteorologie, 36, 6-23.

Sandstrom, J. W. (1916). Meteorologische Studien im schwedischen Hochgebirge. Goteborgs K. Vetenskaps-och Vitterhetssamhalles Handl, Ser. 4,22, No. 2, 48 pp.

Schlosser, P., Bonisch, G., Rhein, M. and Bayer, R. (1991). Reduction of deepwater formation in the Greenland Sea during the 1980s: Evidence from tracer data. Science, 251, 1054-1056.

Schmitt, R. W. (1995). The ocean component of the global water cycle. US National Report to International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics 1991-1994. Rev. Geophys., (Suppl.), 1395-1409.

Schmitt, R. W., Ledwell, J. R., Montgomery, E. T., Polzin, K. L. and Toole, J. M. (2005). Enhanced diapycnal mixing by salt fingers in the thermocline of the tropical Atlantic. Science, 308 (5722), 685-688.

Schmitt, R. W., Perkins, H., Boyd, J. D. and Stalcup, M. C. (1987). C-SALT: An investigation of the thermohaline staircase in the western tropical North Atlantic. Deep Sea Res., 34, 1655-1665.

Schmitz, Jr., W. J. (1995). On the interbasin-scale thermohaline circulation, Rev. Geophys, 33, 151-173.

Schmitz, Jr., W. J. (1996a). On the world ocean circulation: Volume I, Some global features/North Atlantic circulation. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report WH0I-96-03, 148 pp.

Schmitz, Jr., W. J. (1996b). On the world ocean circulation: Volume II, The Pacific and Indian Oceans / A global update. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report WHOI-96-08, 241 pp.

Schott, F. and Stommel, H. (1978). Beta spirals and absolute velocities in different oceans. Deep Sea Res, 25, 961-1010.

Sedov, L. I. (1959). Similarity and dimensional methods in mechanics, Academic Press, New York, 363 pp.

Sen, A., Scott, R. B. and Arbic, B. K. (2008). Global energy dissipation rate of deep-ocean low-frequency flows by quadratic bottom boundary layer drag: Computations from current-meter data. Geophys. Res. Lett, 35, doi:10.1029/2008GL033407.

Smith, W. H. F. and Sandwell, D. T. (1997). Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277, 1956-1962.

Smolarkiewicz, P. K. (2006). Multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm: An overview. Int. J. Num. Method in fluid, 50, 1123-1144.

Soloviev, A. and Lukas, R. (1996). Observation of spatial variability of diurnal thermocline and rain-formed halocline in the western Pacific warm pool. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 2529-2538.

Spall, M. A. (1992). Cooling spirals and recirculation in the subtropical gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 564-571.

Spall, M. A. (2001). Large-scale circulations forced by localized mixing over a sloping bottom. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 2369-2384.

Sparrow, C. (1982). The Lorenz equations: Bifurcations, chaos, and strange attractors. Springer-Verlag, New York, 269 pp.

Speer, K. G. and Forbes, A. (1994). A deep western boundary current in the South Indian basin. Deep Sea Res., I, 41, 1289-1303.

Speer, K. G. and McCartney, M. S. (1992). Bottom water circulation in the western North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 83-92.

Speer, K. G., Tziperman, E. and Feliks, Y. (1993). Topography and grounding in a simple bottom layer model. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 8547-8558.

St Laurent, L. C., Toole, J. M. and Schmitt, R. W. (2001). Buoyancy forcing by turbulence above rough topography in the abyssal Brazil Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3476-3495.

Stacey, M. W. (1999). Simulations of the wind-forced near-surface circulation in Knight Inlet: A parameterization of the roughness length. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29,1363-1367.

Stein, C. A. and Stein, S. (1992). A model for the global variation in oceanic depth and heat flow with lithospheric age. Nature, 359, 123-129.

Stein, C. A. and Stein, S. (1994). Comparison of plate and asthenospheric flow models for the thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 709-712.

Stommel, H. (1948). The westward intensification of wind-driven ocean currents. Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 29, 202-206.

Stommel, H. (1954). Why do our ideas about the ocean circulation have such a peculiarly dream-like quality? In Collected Works of Henry Stommel, ed. N. G. Hogg and R. X. Huang, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, Vol. 1, pp. 124-134.

Stommel, H. (1957). A survey of ocean current theory. Deep Sea Res., 4, 149-184.

Stommel, H. (1958). The abyssal circulation. Letter to the editors. Deep Sea Res., 5, 80-82.

Stommel, H. M. (1961). Thermohaline convection with two stable regimes of flow. Tellus, 13, 224-230.

Stommel, H. M. (1979). Determination of water mass properties of water pumped down from the Ekman layer to the geostrophic flow below. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76, 3051-3055.

Stommel, H. (1982). Is the South Pacific helium-3 plume dynamically active? Earth and Plan. Sci. Lett., 61, 63-67.

Stommel, H. (1984a). The delicate interplay between wind-stress and buoyancy input in ocean circulation: The Goldsbrough variations. Crafoord prize Lecture presented at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, on September 28, 1983. Tellus, 36(A), 111-119.

Stommel, H. (1984b). The Sea of the Beholder. In Collected Works of Henry Stommel, ed. Hogg and R. X. Huang, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, Vol. I, pp. 5-112.

Stommel, H. (1986). A thermohaline oscillator. Ocean Modelling, 72, 5-6 (unpublished manuscript). In Collected Works of Henry Stommel, ed. N. G. Hogg and R. X. Huang, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, Vol. II, pp. 648-649.

Stommel, H. M. (1993). A conjectural regulating mechanism for determining the thermohaline structure of the oceanic mixed layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 142-148.

Stommel, H. and Arons, A. B. (1960a). On the abyssal circulation of the world ocean -1. Stationary planetary flow patterns on a sphere. Deep Sea Res., 6, 140-154.

Stommel, H. and Arons, A. B. (1960b). On the abyssal circulation of the world ocean - II. An idealized model of the circulation pattern and amplitude in oceanic basins. Deep Sea Res., 6,217-233.

Stommel, H. and Arons, A. B. (1972). On the abyssal circulation of the world ocean - V. The influence of bottom slope on the broadening of inertial boundary currents. Deep Sea Res., 19, 707-718.

Stommel, H. and Rooth, C. (1968). On the interaction of gravitational and dynamic forcing in simple circulation models. Deep Sea Res., 15, 165-170.

Stommel, H. and Schott, F. (1977). The beta spiral and the determination of the absolute velocity field from hydrographic station data. Deep Sea Res., 24, 325-329.

Stommel, H., Arons, A. B. and Faller, A. J. (1958). Some examples of stationary planetary flow patterns in bounded basins. Tellus, 10, 179-187.

Suginohara, N. (1973). An eastward flow at lower, middle latitudes derived from a three-layer model of a wind-driven ocean circulation. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 29, 227-235.

Sun, L. and Sun, D. J. (2007). Numerical simulation of partial-penetrating flow in horizontal convection. In New Trends in Fluid Mechanics Research, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics, Aug. 15-19 (2007), Shanghai, China. Tsinghua University Press Springer, pp. 391-394.

Sverdrup, H. U. (1947). Wind-driven currents in a baroclinic ocean, with application to the equatorial currents of the eastern Pacific. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 33, 318-326.

Sverdrup, H. U., Johnson, M. W. and Fleming, R. H. (1942). The oceans. Prentice-Hall, 1987 pp.

Swallow, J. C. and Worthington, L. V. (1957). Measurements of deep currents in the western North Atlantic. Nature, 179, 1183-1184.

Talley, L. D. (1985). Ventilation of the subtropical North Pacific: The shallow salinity minimum. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 633-649.

Talley, L. D. (1988). Potential vorticity distribution in the North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 18, 89-106.

Talley, L. D. (2007). Hydrographic Atlas of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE: Volume 2: Pacific Ocean). ed. M. Sparrow, P. Chapman and J. Gould, International WOCE Project Office, Southampton, U.K., ISBN 0-904175-54-5.

Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Agraval, Y. C., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., Williams III, A. J., Hwang, P. A. and Kitaigorodskii, S. A. (1996). Estimates of kinetic energy dissipation under breaking waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 792-807.

Terray, E. A., Drennan, W. M. and Donelan, M. A. (1999). The vertical structure of shear and dissipation in the ocean surface layer. In The Wind-Driven Air-Sea Interface, ed. M. L. Banner, School of Mathematics, University of New South Wales, 239-245.

Thompson, L. and Johnson, G. C. (1996). Abyssal currents generated by diffusion and geothermal heating over rises. Deep Sea Res., 43, 903-211.

Thorpe, S.A. (2005). The Turbulent Ocean, Cambridge Univ. Press, 458 pp.

Thurnherr, A. M. and Speer, K. G. (2003). Boundary mixing and topographic blocking on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 848-862.

Toggweiler, J. R. and Samuels, B. (1993). Is the magnitude of the deep outflow from the Atlantic Ocean actually governed by Southern Hemisphere winds? In The Global Carbon Cycle, ed. M. Heimann, Springer, pp. 303-331.

Toggweiler, J. R. and Samuels, B. (1995). Effect of Drake Passage on the global thermohaline circulation. Deep Sea Res. I, 42, 477-500.

Toggweiler, J. R. and Samuels, B. (1998). On the ocean's large-scale circulation near the limit of no vertical mixing. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 28, 1832-1852.

Toole, J. M. and Warren, B. A. (1993). A hydrographic section across the subtropical south Indian Ocean. Deep Sea Res., I, 40, 1973-2019.

Treguier, A. M., Hogg, N. G., Maltrud, M., Speer, K. and Thierry, V. (2003). The origin of deep zonal flows in the Brazil Basin. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 33, 580-599.

Trenberth, K. E. and Caron, J. M. (2001). Estimates of meridional atmosphere and ocean heat transport. J. Climate, 14, 3433-3443.

Tsuchiya, M., Lukas, R., Fine, R. A., Firing, E. and Lindstrom, E. (1989). Source waters of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent. Progr. Oceanogr., 23, 101-147.

Turner, J. S. (1973). Buoyancy Effects in Fluid, Cambridge Press, 367 pp.

Tziperman, E., Toggweiler, J. R., Bryan, K. and Feliks, Y. (1994). Instability of the thermohaline circulation with respect to mixed boundary conditions: Is it really a problem for realistic models?, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 24, 217-232.

Uppala, S.M. et al. (2005). The ERA-40 reanalysis. Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 131, 2961-3012

Vallis, G. K. (2000). Large-scale circulation and production of stratification: effects of wind, geometry and diffusion. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 933-954.

Veronis, G. (1966). Wind-driven ocean circulation - Part I. Linear theory and perturbation analysis. Deep Sea Res., 13, 17-29.

Veronis, G. (1969). On theoretical models of the thermocline circulation. Deep Sea Res., 16 (Suppl.), 301-323.

Veronis, G. (1973). Model of world ocean circulation: I. Wind-driven, two layer. J. Mar. Res, 31, 228-288.

von Mises, R. (1927). Bemerkungen zur Hydrodynamik, Z. Angnew. Math. Mech., 7, 425-431.

Walin, G. (1985). The thermohaline circulation and the control of ice ages. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 50, 323-332.

Wang, Q. and Huang, R. X. (2005). Decadal variability of pycnocline flows from the subtropical to the equatorial Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 1861-1875.

Wang, W. and Huang, R. X. (2004a). Wind energy input to the Ekman Layer. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1267-1275.

Wang, W. and Huang, R. X. (2004b). Wind energy input to the surface waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 34, 1276-1280.

Wang, W. and Huang, R. X. (2005). An experimental study on thermal circulation driven by horizontal differential heating. J. Fluid Mech., 540, 49-73.

Wang, W., Qian, C. C. and Huang, R. X. (2006). Mechanical energy input to the world oceans due to atmospheric loading. Chinese Science Bulletin, 51, 327-330.

Warren, B. (1973). Transpacific hydrographic sections at Lats. 43°S and 28°S: the SCORPIO expedition - II. Deep water. Deep Sea Res., 20, 9-38.

Warren, B. A. (1981). Deep circulation of the world ocean. In Evolution of Physical Oceanography, ed. B. A. Warren and C. Wunsch, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 6-41.

Warren, B. A. and Speer, K. G. (1991). Deep circulation in the eastern South Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Res. I, 38, S281-S322.

Weatherly, G. L. and Kelley, E. A., Jr. (1985). Two views of the cold filament, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 68-81.

Weaver, A. J. and Sarachik, E. S. (1991). The role of mixed boundary conditions in numerical models of the ocean's climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21, 1470-1493.

Weaver, A. J., Aura, S. M. and Myers, P. G. (1994). Interdecadal variability in an idealized model of the North Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res, 99(C6), 12,423-12,441.

Weaver, A. J., Sarachik, E. S. and Marotzke, J. (1991). Freshwater flux forcing of decadal and interdecadal oceanic variability. Nature, 353, 836-838.

Webb, D. J. and Suginohara, N. (2001). Vertical mixing in the ocean. Nature, 409, 37.

Welander, P. (1959). An advective model of the ocean thermocline. Tellus, 11, 309-318.

Welander, P. (1971a). Some exact solutions to the equation describing an ideal-fluid thermocline. J. Mar. Res, 29, 60-68.

Welander, P. (1971b). The thermocline problem. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A, 270,415-421.

Welander, P. (1982). A simple heat-salt oscillator. Dyn. Atmos. Ocean, 6, 233-242.

Whitworth, T., III and Peterson, R. G. (1985). Volume transport of the Antarctic

Circumpolar Current from bottom pressure measurements. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 15, 810-816.

Whitworth, T., Nowlin, W. D., Pillsbury, R. D., Moore, M. I. and Weiss, R. F. (1991). Observations of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and deep boundary current in the southwest Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15105-15118.

Whitworth, T., Warren, B. A., Nowlin, W. D., Rutz, S. B., Pillsbury, R. D. and Moore, M. I. (1999). On the deep western-boundary current in the Southwest Pacific Basin. Progr. Oceanogr., 43, 1-54.

Wijffels, S. (1993). Exchanges between hemisphere and gyres: A direct approach to the mean circulation of the equatorial Pacific. Ph.D. thesis, MIT/WHOI, 267 pp.

Wijffels, S. E., Hall, M. M., Joyce, T., Torres, D. J., Hacker, P. and Firing, E. (1998). Multiple deep gyres of the western North Pacific: A WOCE section along 149°E. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 12,985-13,009.

Williams, R. G. (1989). Influence of air-sea interaction on the ventilated thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 19, 1255-1267.

Williams, R. G. (1991). The role of mixed layer in setting the potential vorticity of the main thermocline. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 21,

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment