For a steady circulation, the meridional volume transport of the wind-driven gyres obeys where we is the Ekman pumping rate, f = 2m sin 0 is the Coriolis parameter, j = df /ad0, a is the radius of the Earth, m is the Earth's angular velocity, 0 is the latitude, X is the longitude, and t0 and tx are the meridional/longitudinal components of wind stress.

Equation (5.389) applies to steady circulations only. As discussed in Section 4.8, when wind stress changes with time, the circulation at a station X adjusts to wind stress changes east of this station with a time delay due to the finite speed of Rossby wave propagation. The

Meridional heat flux

circulation is completely established after all baroclinic Rossby waves reach the western boundary of the basin; however, the arrival of the first baroclinic Rossby waves initiated from the eastern boundary indicates the near completion of the adjustment at each station. Therefore, the corresponding formula is f fAe

M (t) = -- we [A., 0, t - a(ke - A) cos 0/Cg]a cos 0dk (5.391)

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