St jjj p$dv = (us - u) - rids + jjj d^T p —d v + P

The first term on the right-hand side is the GPE source/sink due to surface mass exchange associated with the hydrological cycle. The global sum of this term is small, estimated as -0.007 TW (Huang, 1998a). The negative sign is due to the fact that freshwater is transported to the atmosphere from low latitudes, where sea level is high, and returns to the oceans at high latitudes, where sea level is low.

In addition, precipitation also carries kinetic energy associated with the water droplets. The total contribution is estimated as 0.4 TW (Faller, 1966); however, this energy is mostly

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