Fig. 5.189 Time evolution of surface layer thickness, after switching on adeepwater source of 10 Sv. There is a sponge layer along the southern boundary, where influence can clearly be seen (Johnson and Marshall, 2002).

however, a simple and practical solution for this dilemma is to diagnose the wave speed from satellite data as shown in Figure 5.192 by Qiu (2003). On the other hand, since the model discussed above is only a theoretical tool aiming at understanding the physics of the circulation, the simple formula in Eqn. (5.403) can be used.

Integrating this equation leads to

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