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Fig. 5.193 Net northward volume transport (in Sv) as a function of latitude and time: a the initial Kelvin wave response, and b the longer time scale adjustment (Johnson and Marshall, 2002).

the meridional pressure difference. As a result, perturbing the mixed layer at high latitudes does not generate change in the meridional circulation and poleward mass/heat fluxes. Similarly, perturbing the mixed layer at mid latitudes can only slightly change the meridional overturning circulation and poleward mass/heat fluxes, as illustrated in Figure 5.194a, b.

On the other hand, perturbing the mixed layer at low latitudes may induce changes in the meridional overturning circulation and poleward mass/heat fluxes, as explained in the following discussion.

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