One of the most outstanding features in these solutions is the low potential vorticity water formed near the northern edge of the subtropical gyre. This is a fundamental issue regarding mode water formation: Why is the potential vorticity of mode water so low? Despite much research effort, this problem remains unresolved.
On a decadal time scale or longer, the position of the Gulf Stream can move meridionally, and the sea surface density can increase or decline. Under such different forcing boundary conditions, the thermocline variability is shown in Figure 4.i06. One of the most outstanding a We = 10-4cm/s b We = 1.5x10-4cm/s a We = 10-4cm/s b We = 1.5x10-4cm/s
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