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A simple two-dimensional model

Assume a two-dimensional model with width L, depth H, and a constant stratification below the mixed layer. The model ocean is in a steady state without a seasonal cycle. Assume a

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751 Cooling

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a High-latitude cooling

No change in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux b Cooling and stirring at mid latitudes Small changes in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux

Heating

751 Cooling

c Stirring at low latitudes Big changes in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux a High-latitude cooling

No change in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux b Cooling and stirring at mid latitudes Small changes in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux c Stirring at low latitudes Big changes in N-S pressure difference MOC, Poleward heat flux

Fig. 5.194 a-c Sketch of three types of mixed layer perturbations, including anomalies in surface thermal and mechanical forcing.

linear equation of state p = p(l - aT), where a is the thermal expansion coefficient, so that there is no cabbeling effect. Thus, at the northern boundary, the mixed layer depth should be equal to the depth H, and in the whole basin its distribution is assumed to be a linear function of latitude h (y) = H (ay + 1 - a)

where y = (9 - d0)/Ad, Ad is the meridional width of the model basin, and a < 1 is a constant in nondimensional units. Density in the mixed layer is vertically homogenized and is a linear function of latitude

Since stratification below the mixed layer is assumed to be constant, density in the ocean interior can be written as

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