Typical meridional pressure gradient profiles are shown in Figure 5.195b. It can readily be seen that if the mixed layer depth increases at a given station, meridional pressure gradients in the mixed layer and in the ocean interior are enhanced. Therefore, the MOC should strengthen because the meridional velocity is proportional to the meridional pressure gradient in the model.

Substituting Eqns. (5.418a, 5.418b) into Eqn. (5.415), the corresponding meridional velocity profiles in the mixed layer and in the interior below are

i 2H

The continuity equation is

Since the vertical velocity at the surface or the bottom vanishes, it can be calculated from the vertical integration at each meridional location z

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