where po is the mixed layer density at the southern boundary of the model basin, and Ap is the mixed layer density difference between the southern and northern boundaries. Typical density profiles under three different mixed layer depth distributions are shown in Figure 5.195a.

If the mixed layer depth at low latitudes increases (Fig. 5.196a), stratification below the mixed layer (i.e., Ap/aH in the above formula) in a steady state is actually enhanced.

Under the rigid-lid approximation, pressure in the mixed layer can be calculated by integrating from z = 0 downward

a Density profile 0

a Density profile 0

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