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Ted's Woodworking Plans

Teds Woodworking Plans is a detailed guide by Ted McGrath which will help you earn lots of praises and money. You will learn a number of superior skills which only professional woodworkers possess and you will be equipped with superior problem solving skills as well. Ted McGraths plans don't request a lot of pricey gears to make good furniture, instead the plans are simple to understand using 2D and 3D isometric. These support the wood craftsmen in all the needed steps to complete his construction with only the needed material particular for the specific job. The woodworking plans are easy therefore they aren't complicated whatsoever. Even though you are a complete newcomer to woodworking you'll simply be able to master all the techniques that are needed and the woodworking skills very quickly by following the succinct and clear instructions. Read more here...

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Composition of Wood and Nonwood Fibers

Soft and hard woods contain cellulose (40-45 ), hemicellulose (20-30 ), lignin (2030 ), and extractives (2-5 ) 7 . Cellulose is a linear polymer composed of y -D-glucose units linked by 1-4 glucosidic bonds. Hemicelluloses are branched and varying types of this polymer are found in soft and hard woods and nonwood species. In soft woods, galactoglucomannans (15-20 by weight) arabinoglucurono-xylan, (5-10 by weight), and arabinogalactan (2-3 by weight) are the common hemicelluloses, while in hard woods, glucuronoxylan (20-30 by weight) and glucomannan (1-5 by weight) are found 2,3 . Lignin is a complex heterogeneous phenylpropanoid biopolymer containing a diverse array of stable carbon-carbon bonds with aryl alkyl ether linkages and may be cross-linked to hemicelluloses 8 . Lignins are amorphous, stereo irregular, water-insoluble, nonhydrolyzable, and highly resistant to degradation by most organisms and must be so in order to impart resistance to plants against many physical and...

Indigenous screens for useful species

Potential uses of plant fibers such as hardwoods, bamboo or jute can be readily surmised and tested, but useful chemical activity or nutritional benefits are more difficult to determine. Numerous strategies have been developed to steer the selection and matching of plant species and applications. Like a farmer who tests soil composition by taste, a sample taste can provide evidence of a plant's chemical properties sweetness may indicate a plant is edible whereas a bitter flavor often signals toxicity or potential medicinal activity (Schultes and Rauffauf, 1992 Griggs, 1981). Other indications of potential chemical activity are based on the observation of a species' characteristics in vivo. When it has been noticed that mosses appear to never grow on the trunks of certain trees, or that bark heals most quickly when stripped from the side of a tree which receives the most sun, these observations are incorporated into traditional knowledge about plants and their potentially therapeutic...

Mitigating hurricane risk

To use more steel and concrete, hurricane-resistant windows, metal strapping from the foundation to the roof, and plywood to wrap around the house (McLeister, 2007). Recent changes in state building codes require such construction. Following Katrina, state agencies in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, recognizing the importance of hurricane resistant construction, adopted better building standards.Unfortunately, building codes are not always enforced. Building codes were poorly enforced at the time of the Gulf coast hurricanes in 2005 for the states of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas (Burby, 2006). Insurance companies offer lower insurance rates for actions such as storm resistant construction. Lower insurance rates could encourage property owners to pay the added cost for the construction. As shown earlier, in recent decades population and housing growth in coastal areas has escalated this has been a major contributor to the increased damage from hurricanes. Ensuring...

Size life span acclimation and seasonality

Annual stem growth of trees can be determined from the width of the growth rings. Studies have already correlated tree-ring width with climate (Fritts, 1976) and tree-ring analysis of hardwood species appears to be an effective approach to revealing historical changes in soil chemistry, environmental changes, etc. (Becker et al., 1995). Recent dendrochronological studies have indicated an increase in tree growth trends, especially in European forest trees (Spiecker et al., 1996). This increase can be accounted for by changes in various climatic factors, such as increases in atmospheric temperature and CO2 . Growth is also enhanced by atmospheric nitrogen deposition, which is particularly high in western Europe.

Carbon pool definitions and nonCO2 gases

Within each land-use category, C stock changes and emission removal estimations can involve the five carbon pools that are defined in Table 1.1. For some land-use categories and estimation methods, C stock changes may be based on the three aggregate carbon pools (i.e., biomass, DOM and soils). National circumstances may require modifications of the pool definitions introduced here. Where modified definitions are used, it is good practice to report and document them clearly, to ensure that modified definitions are used consistently over time, and to demonstrate that pools are neither omitted nor double counted. Carbon stock changes associated with harvested wood products are normally reported at the national scale (see Chapter 12).

Overview Of Inventory Preparation For The Afolu Sector

To prepare inventories for the AFOLU Sector, emissions and removals of CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gases are estimated separately for each of six land-use categories. Other CO2 emission and non-CO2 categories, such as livestock related emissions, emissions from soil N management, soil liming emissions and harvested wood products, may be estimated at the national scale, since often only aggregate data are available. However, they can be broken out according to land-use category if data are available.

Characteristics Of Boreal Forest Fires

Fire-adapted forests can generally be divided into two categories (Van Wagner 1983) those species able to regenerate although all trees have been killed over a large area, and those species of which some individuals must remain alive to provide seed for the next generation. Species of the first type are either conifers that store seed in insulated serotinous cones that require heat to open, or hardwoods that regenerate through suckering from the root layer following fire. Species of the second type are conifers that release seed every year when the cones mature. Canadian and Alaskan boreal forests are dominated by species (e.g. Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Picea mariana (black spruce)) that bear serotinous cones and require lethal fire to regenerate, and the boreal landscape in North America reflects this, consisting almost entirely of large tracts of pure, even-aged stands of fire-origin species resulting from high-intensity, active crown fires. Alternatively, Eurasian boreal...

Abrupt Climate Change Impacts are Likely When Systems Cross Thresholds

Many important threshold effects occur at the boundaries of systems. Ecotones, the narrow zones where ecological communities overlap, are particularly susceptible to abrupt climate change, primarily because the species diversity is great and the vegetation is often limited by a sharp climatic gradient. Paleorecords of the decadal response of forest dieback (Peteet, 2000) demonstrate how rapidly boreal forest can be replaced by mixed hardwoods, as was observed in eastern United States ecotonal forests at the close of the Younger Dryas. European pollen records from the cold event about 8,200 years ago indicate significant species changes in fewer than 20 years (Tinner and Lotter, 2001). Furthermore, modern studies also point to

Uncertainty assessment

The use of area estimates produced from more reliable sources (remotely sensed data, sample approach) will improve the accuracy relative to Tier 1 and Approach 1 of Chapter 3. These sources will also provide better estimates of the areas that are converted and burnt. Taking into account the biomass transferred to harvested wood products or removed from the site as fuelwood, and the biomass left on-site to decay, will eliminate a bias (overestimation) in the estimates. Estimates of emission or combustion factors, if accompanied by error ranges (in the form of standard deviation), will allow uncertainty associated with Land Converted to Cropland to be assessed.

NonCO2 greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning

In the tropics, it is common practice to burn repeatedly until most (or all) of the forest residues and DOM is cleared, and pasture can be established. In some places, up to three or four fires are necessary. Part of the above-ground forest biomass removed during the process of conversion of Forest Land to Grassland may be transferred to harvested wood products, and an amount may be removed from the site to be used as fuel wood (hence, burnt off-site). Whatever remains is normally burnt on-site.

Choice of emission factors

In a Tier 2 method, country-specific estimates of fuel combustion should be used. Data should be disaggregated according to forest types, in the case of Forest Land Converted to Grassland. Combustion and emission factors that better reflect the national conditions (climate zone, biome, burning conditions) should be developed and uncertainty ranges provided. In addition, unlike Tier 1 where it is assumed that all the carbon in above-ground biomass and DOM is lost immediately after conversion, in a Tier 2 method the transfers of biomass to harvested wood products and fuelwood (burnt off-site) should be estimated to provide a more reliable estimate of the mass of fuel available.

Impacts on community structure

The most conspicuous forest changes caused by catastrophic winds are structural changes, which are often measured in terms of the changes in tree size or age distributions, basal area or biomass, stem density, or canopy heterogeneity. Three relatively consistent patterns in structural change that have been reported in both wind-damaged tropical and temperate forests are 1) immediate increase in canopy heterogeneity, 2) short-term decrease in biomass, and 3) immediate decrease in density of all tree sizes followed by a dramatic increase in understory density a few years after wind damage. In temperate forests, the degree of structural change varies greatly depending on many abiotic and biotic factors including wind intensities, rainfall associated with the storm, community attributes, site conditions, and susceptibility to windstorm damage (DeCoster, 1996 Peterson, 2007 Xi et al., 2008a). Studies of forest damage have reported loss of stand biomass following catastrophic wind...

Carbon sequestration in forests

Forest management practices affect net carbon exchange with the atmosphere, both by changing the amount of carbon stored in various pools and by altering the trajectory of net ecosystem productivity at a location. Sustainable forest management can increase total carbon sequestration because much of the carbon in wood products removed during forest harvest is not returned immediately to the atmosphere, but is stored in durable products and more trees can be grown to sequester more carbon (Liu and Han 2009). Theoretically, maintaining the landscape in the optimal stages of net ecosystem productivity can maximize carbon sequestration. This is accomplished by managing for maximum tree stocking and by using the harvested wood for durable products or as a substitute for fossil fuels. The overall effect of forest management on GHG emissions depends on the type of forest, the type of wood products, and the efficiency of biomass conversion. As well, assumptions about how the wood and wood...

Complex patterns of tree mortality

In the tropics, tree mortality rates after a severe hurricane tend to be low. Walker (1991), for example, only recorded 7 mortality one year followed Hurricane Hugo (a category 3 hurricane) in Puerto Rica. Bellingham (1991) found 8 tree mortality 23 months after Hurricane Gilbert in Jamaica. Whigham and others reported 11.2 in a Mexican forest 17 months after Hurricane Gilbert. These forests experience high hurricane return rates and the tree species that occupy them appear well adapted to these frequent disturbances. Wind-induced tree mortality in temperate forests varies from low to extremely high. For example, Batista and Platt (2003) reported 7 mortality for the overstory trees after the relatively modest 1985 Hurricane Kate in an old-growth forest. However, high tree mortality by catastrophic winds have been reported for a number of temperate forests. Foster (1988) reported about 30 tree mortality for the 1938 hurricane in central New England, USA. Similarly, Hook and others...

The lasting effects of windstorms on forest succession

Extreme windstorms tend to differentially remove the oldest and largest trees in a stand. As a consequence, large, catastrophic wind events have been concluded to significantly change forest structure and alter the rates of various processes in the temperate forests, even though their long-term effects on forest succession are uncertain (Waring & Schlesinger, 1985 Foster & Boose, 1995). Studies of long-term wind effects on temperate forest succession to date have shown that windstorms can have all possible effects from setting succession back to advancing successional stages, to initiating multiple-stages of succession, depending on wind intensity, frequency, forest types and pre-disturbance successional stage. The traditional idea that wind disturbance sets back succession to some earlier seral stage may apply in temperate forests where extreme high winds create large forest openings and initiate secondary succession. The mechanism for this change is that severe windstorms...

Zanthoxylum ekmanii Urb Alain Rutaceae

Deciduous tree reaching heights of up to 30 m with a DBH of 1 m. Found close to rivers and watercourses at elevations of 0-1700 m, preferring open sunny areas or secondary vegetation. It is used in general construction, carpentry, cabinet-making, plywood and moulding, and is very good for paper pulp. Its restricted habitat preferences combined with current economic uses suggest that it is a threatened species.

Explanation of the Issue

Eral these plantations are monospecific (i.e., planted with a single species in large blocks). Frequently, they are composed of exotic species (for example, pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere plantations of eucalypts in any temperate or tropical region except Australia teak in Indonesia or Latin America). The majority of plantations are established for industrial purposes (timber or fibre). However, in addition to providing wood products, plantations could have a function in combating desertification, providing fuelwood, protecting soil and water resources, rehabilitating degraded lands, providing rural employment, and absorbing carbon to offset carbon emissions.479 Tree plantations can also be a source of cash, savings, and insurance for local farmers.

Residential and Commercial Improving Building Operating Efficiency through Building Shell Improvements

The building industry has also evaluated the use of insulated concrete forms (ICFs) as an alternative to wood frame structures to improve building operating efficiency. The potential reduction in GHG emissions when using alternative approaches requires a comparative life cycle analysis to evaluate the total changes in GHG emissions during material production, use, and disposal. The Portland Cement Association conducted a relatively thorough life cycle analysis for a model home located in five U.S. cities, and estimated that the net GHG emissions (and most other environmental impacts) would be reduced over a 100-year building life when using ICFs rather than wood frame construction 132 . The analysis did not account for changes in emissions in the disposal stage, and also did not account for the potential sequestration of carbon in the wood used in the building, but did account for emissions during material production. The most significant area in which ICFs performed worse than wood...

Uncertainties in nitrogen deposition impact on CO2 N2O and CH4 emissions

There are large uncertainties in the GHG emission estimates and in the estimated effects of nitrogen deposition on those emissions. The range in values presented in Table 17.6 may in reality be even larger due to other aspects not included in the quantification, such as the occurrence of forest disturbances, the neglect of off-site carbon sequestration in hardwood products, the neglect of indirect N2O emissions and the occurrence of lag times between changes in nitrogen deposition and GHG emissions. In this study we assume that wood which is harvested and removed from a site is ultimately released as CO2 into the atmosphere. Thus we only account for the carbon sequestered in standing biomass. However, harvested wood can often reside in solid wood products, recycled products or landfills for centuries. Sometimes a large fraction of harvested wood is also used for energy production. This type of full accounting is often used for carbon sequestration, and results show that increases in...

Upgrading of the monooligomeric components

Extractive Ammonia Pretreatment

Fruit and vegetable by-products are rich in fermentescible sugars, and as such they can be used as raw material for ethanol production. Production of ethanol from agricultural and forestry residues or other sources of ligno-cellulosic biomass is of both economic and environmental interest. It could be a way to counter the inevitable depletion of the world's petroleum supply and to decrease air pollution. Ethanol can be produced from glucose and xylose fermentation, both originating from cell wall polysaccharide degradation. Sugar cane bagasse is the main raw material used for this purpose but other biomass is also used, such as hardwood and grasses. Some other wastes have been studied, e.g. chicory roots (Leplus, 2004). The biomass can be treated by a concentrated acid process that uses sulphuric acid (Fig. 16.4). In that case, very efficient acid recycling is required for the process to be economically acceptable. The second possibility to recover the monomers is to degrade the...

Recovery of plantbased coproducts for use in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals

Glucomannans are carbohydrate polymers widely distributed in both hardwood and softwood plants, where they have either storage or structural functions. The polymeric sequence is linear and it is composed of (1 4)-P-d-Glcp and (1 4)-P-d-Manp sugar residues. A considerable amount of work has been carried out based on the bioactivity of glucomannans from two interesting plant sources Aloe vera and Amorphhophallus konjac.

A3 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry Gpglulucf

GPG-LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) elaborated on the 1996 IPCC Guidelines to adopt an approach based on land-use categories for organizing the methodologies and good practices associated with estimating emissions and removals in the Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Sector, including Forest Land, Cropland, Grassland, Wetlands, Settlements and Other Land. Each land category was further sub-divided into land remaining in the same category (e.g., Forest Land Remaining Forest Land) or land converted to another land category (e.g., Grassland converted to Forest Land). Methods for estimating carbon stock changes associated with harvested wood products (HWP) were included as an appendix, reflecting the unresolved issues and ongoing negotiations of including HWP in national inventories. As with GPG2000, GPG-LULUCF adopted the hierarchical Tier approach for methods descriptions, as well as the concept of key source categories, and similarly included guidance on quality assurance quality...

Biological Pest Control In Mix And Match Forests

The least simplified end of this spectrum is anchored by the native forest, in a lightly exploited or virgin state. In this condition, logging is followed by natural regeneration of local native trees. There is no use of fertilizers or herbicides to suppress competing vegetation. Present management of the mixed hardwood conifer forests in southern New England (USA) illustrates this kind of forest. Harvest is done on a small scale, without replanting, in a landscape that is predominantly natural forest. Pest problems in such forests may be caused by native insects such as forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria H bner) or invasive species such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ). 3.3.1. Description and Opportunities to Use Biological Control for Case VI Plantation production of high value tropical hardwoods in the Meliaceae in genera such as Kyaya, Toona, Cedrela, and Swietenia (including several species such as big leaf mahogany, S. macrophylla) is associated with...

Reconstructing Historical Hurricanes

Corresponding sustained wind speed values are derived from Fujita's equations (1971), assuming a wind gust factor of 1.5 over land. bDescribed as well constructed or owned by a wealthy person (PR) also municipal buildings (PR). cConstructed with light wood frame and metal roof (PR). dF2 assigned if buildings described as rural or poor (PR). eAlso schools, sugar mills, commercial buildings, and military buildings (PR). fConstructed of palm leaves or similar materials (PR). Adapted from Boose et al. 2001, in press.

Anthropogenic Biomass Burning

Fire is also deliberately introduced into many forest ecosystems as a management tool. For example, prescribed fire is used in the southeast USA to manage the 54 million ha. loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata)-hardwood forest type (Haywood et al. 1998). Fire is actually seen as a prerequisite for healthy forests, yet there is the potential for conflict not only with agencies responsible for pollution abatement (see the paper by Fox et al., this book) but also with concerns about the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (see Ferguson et al, this volume). Consequently, there are a number of issues associated with prescribed fire that will require attention in the near future. Sabah Softwoods, Malaysia

Managed carbon sequestration in terrestrial biomass

The greatest potential for increased sequestration of carbon in terrestrial biomass lies in managing forests to increase the carbon stores that living wood and wood products represent. Deriving estimates of the potential for carbon sequestration in terrestrial vegetation by specific management activities at a range of scales has been, and continues to be, the focus of much research. A final concern is the need for complete carbon accounting over the complete lifetime of a project as well as knowledge of the ultimate use of the carbon pools, not just increases in aboveground biomass. The dangers of a narrow focus on wood production rather than complete carbon accounting are clearly illustrated in a recent study by Deckmyn et al. (2004), who modelled carbon sequestration for two different afforestation projects, initiated on agricultural land. They demonstrated that while NPP and wood production of a short-rotation poplar coppice (SRC) was much higher than that for an oak-beech forest...

Municipal Drinking Water

In the United States, Whiting, Indiana and Strasburg, Pennsylvania have used ozone in their drinking water treatment process. Other cities have run pilot studies. Ozone is used as a bleaching agent for miscellaneous items petroleum, clays, wood products, and chemical baths. It has been proposed as a bleaching agent for hair and as a disinfectant for oils and emulsions. Ozone is used to modify tryptophan and indigo plant juice. It is an important factor in colorfastness. The desulfurization of flue gases by ozone has been considered an application where it promotes liquidphase oxidation. The operations are carried out with vanadium catalysts, and the oxidation step is performed in gasfluidized beds. The desulfurizing effect of ozone on light petroleum distillates has also been reported.

The Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest encompasses extensive forests, topography that creates abrupt changes in climate and ecosystems over short distances, with mountain and marine environments in close proximity. The Northwest provides about one-fourth of the nation's softwood lumber and plywood. The fertile lowlands of eastern Washington produce 60 percent of the nation's apples and large fractions of its other tree fruit. Population and economic growth of this area has been twice the national rate since 1970, its population nearly doubling during this period. The area provides moderate climate, a high quality of life, and outdoor recreational opportunities, which are becoming increasingly stressed because of the rapid development occurring in the area. Stresses are occurring today from dam operations, land-use conversion from natural ecosystems to metropolitan areas, intensively managed forests, agriculture, and grazing. The result has been in the loss of old-growth forests, wetlands, and native...

Humaninduced Changes And Their Effects On Biodiversity And Ecosystem Function

The extent of warming and drying, all agree that the greatest warming will take place in high-latitude regions, and most agree that mid-continent areas will become drier while maritime areas will become wetter (Schlesinger and Mitchell 1985). Climate warming will affect the boreal regions through a myriad processes (1) local mortality of boreal species, to be replaced by northern hardwoods or prairies depending on localc and soil type (Pastor and Post 1988) (2) migration of boreal species northward and coastward, also depending on locale and soil type (Davis and Zabinski 1992 Pastor and Johnston 1992) (3) increased probability of fire (Clark 1989) (4) either increased or decreased soil nutrient availability, depending on permafrost, soil water holding capacity and locale (Pastor and Post 1988 Bonan et al. 1990) (5) increased loading of greenhouse gasses, particularly methane, from wetlands (Gorham 1991 Roulet et al. 1992 Updegraff et al. 1995) (6) increasing probability of outbreaks...

When a Village Has to Move Shishmaref

In the plywood skiff with the big outboard engine, we wound our way up Tin Creek. It was nearly mid-August, the scene all around us pulsing with birds green-winged teals tipping in the side sloughs, the white-fronted geese locals call speckle-bellies overhead, gulls keeping pace beside us. Tony Weyiouanna, driving the boat, knew the channel knew where to find the deepest water as only someone with years of close acquaintance could. The lowland country all around us was huge, and I was easily turned around in it as the creek bent one way and then folded back on itself, winding into low, treeless hills. Miles off, Ear Mountain with its two top bumps like rodent ears rose against blue sky. Somewhere out there, a crew was digging holes, evaluating the mountain as a source of gravel for a road, airstrip, and new village. And back behind us, twelve miles across the shallow inlet everyone called a lagoon, lay the barrier islands that lined the coast and the one called Sarichef, on which was...

Atmospheric Flow Approach

The Atmospheric Flow Approach (AFA) estimates fluxes of carbon to from the atmosphere for the forest pool (and other wood producing lands) and wood products pool within national boundaries, and reports where and when these emissions and removals occur. A country includes in its estimate of emissions removals the gross removals of carbon from the atmosphere due to tree biomass growth in forests and other wood producing land categories (net of decay within forests), and the carbon release to the atmosphere from oxidation of harvested wood products that are consumed in their country. The carbon release to the atmosphere from harvested wood products includes carbon release from imports to the reporting country.

Simple Decay Approach

This approach estimates and reports the net emissions or removals of carbon to from the atmosphere when, but not where they occur if wood products are traded. Removals of carbon from the atmosphere due to forest growth, and emissions resulting from oxidation of harvested wood products are reported by the producing country. Brown, S., Lim, B. and Schlamadinger, B. (1998). Evaluating Approaches for Estimating Net Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Forest Harvesting and Wood Products. Report of a meeting sponsored by the IPCC held in Dakar, Senegal, 5-7 May, 1998. and Flugsrud, K, Hoem, B., Kvingedal, E. and Rypdal, R. (2001). Estimating net emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products. SFT report 1831 200. Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, Oslo 47 p. http www.sft.no publikasjoner luft 1831 ta1831.pdf Ford-Robertson, J.B. (2003). Implications of Harvested Wood Products Accounting - Analysis of issues raised by Parties to the UNFCCC and development of a Simple Decay approach. MAF...

Drought as a Disturbance Regime

Woods. 1976. Effects of fire on pine and pine-hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians. Forest Science 22 399-403. Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala. 1990. Silvics of North America. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 654, Volume 1. Conifers, 675 pp. Volume 2. Hardwoods, 877 pp. Elliott, K. J., and W. T. Swank. 1994. Impacts of drought on tree mortality and growth in a mixed hardwood forest. Journal of Vegetation Science 5 229-236. Hursh, C. R., and F. W. Haasis. 1931. Effects of 1925 summer drought on southern Appalachian hardwoods. Ecology 12 380-386.

Regrowth of surviving trees by sprouting

Regrowth plays an important role in tree recovery from catastrophic wind disturbances, especially in temperate hardwood forests. After damage by intensive winds, a high portion of hardwood trees can regrow from sprouts. Although several researchers have reported differences among species in sprouting ability in both tropical (Walker et al., 1992 Zimmerman et al., 1994 Bellingham et al., 1994) and temperate forests (Perterson & Pickett, 1991 DeCoster, 1996 Busby et al., 2009), this capability appears common. In Piedmont forests of North Carolina, resprouting of damaged individuals and vegetative production of additional shoots were common for most hardwoods (Xi, 2005).

G Land Treatment Systems

Haccp Voorbeeld Visverwerkingsbedrijf

Fix nitrogen from the air however, they will preferentially take nitrate from the soil solution if it is provided. The use of legumes (clovers, alfalfa, vetch) in type 1 systems should be limited to well-draining soils because legumes generally do not tolerate high soil moisture conditions. The most common tree crops for type 1 systems are mixed hardwoods and pines (Nutter et al., 1986). Tree crops provide revenue potential as firewood, pulp, or biomass fuel. Tree species with high growth response such as eucalyptus and hybrid poplars will maximize nitrogen uptake. Mixed hardwoods Mixed hardwoods Mixed hardwoods

Discussion And Conclusion

In order to address complex and multiple livelihood needs through carbon sequestration, a basket of management choices rather than one 'best' practice will be required. This includes a mix of farm and nonfarm activities. One possibility is to actually shift the emphasis on food crops to other income-generating activities that could be used to purchase food, thereby also broadening livelihood strategies. These income-generating activities could include cash cropping, the sale of wood products and valuable seeds, and animal fattening. Under conditions of land scarcity, smallholders may be very reluctant to convert their cropland to alternative types of land use, even if this conversion results in increased C stocks. Other sources of income and reliable food programs will be crucial.

Overview of carbon stock change estimation

For each land-use category, carbon stock changes are estimated for all strata or subdivisions of land area (e.g., climate zone, ecotype, soil type, management regime etc., see Chapter 3) chosen for a land-use category (Equation 2.2). Carbon stock changes within a stratum are estimated by considering carbon cycle processes between the five carbon pools, as defined in Table 1.1 in Chapter 1. The generalized flowchart of the carbon cycle (Figure 2.1) shows all five pools and associated fluxes including inputs to and outputs from the system, as well as all possible transfers between the pools. Overall, carbon stock changes within a stratum are estimated by adding up changes in all pools as in Equation 2.3. Further, carbon stock changes in soil may be disaggregated as to changes in C stocks in mineral soils and emissions from organic soils. Harvested wood products (HWP) are also included as an additional pool. HWP harvested wood products Disturbances may also have long-lasting effects,...

Multitemporal analyses

The assessment of a hurricane-impacted forest region and forest damage severity at regional scales has been traditionally based on a ground survey, aerial photography (Gardner et al. 1992), satellite imagery (Kovacs et al. 2001), topographic exposure models (Boose et al. 1994), or simulated by ecological models or storm models. Hurricanes frequently damage and fragment the forested landscape (Boose et al. 1994 Foster and Boose 1992), and Hurricane Katrina was no exception. Large areas of the region were severely damaged, both by the storm surge and by the wind. The spatial patterns of the hurricane's disturbance are essential for managers and scientists to perform efficient management practices such as rebuilding structures, insurance estimations, forest salvage harvesting, habitat protection, as well as to make assessments on long-term environmental impacts and forest ecosystem recovery. Due to the sheer size of areas affected by Katrina, a full-scale ground-based assessment is...

Jos Luis Campos Gmez Anuska Mosquera Corral Ramn Mndez Pampn and Yung Tse Hung

Approximately one million metric tons of urea-formaldehyde resin are produced annually all over the world. More than 70 of this urea-formaldehyde resin is consumed by the forest products industry. The resin is used in the production of an adhesive for bonding particleboard (61 of the urea-formaldehyde used in the industry), medium-density fiberboard (27 ), hardwood plywood (5 ), and as a laminating adhesive (7 ) for bonding furniture case goods, overlays to panels, and interior flush doors, for example.

From Hothouse To Icehouse

Global cooling continued through the Pliocene epoch (5.3-.8 million years ago), though global average temperatures in the Pliocene were approximately 5.5 degrees F (3 degrees C) warmer than at present. Peak Pliocene warmth occurred in the middle Pliocene from 4-3.5 million years ago, with Northern Hemisphere boreal forest extending to the Arctic Ocean, and deciduous hardwood forests of southern beech covering coastal Antarctica. In spite of this relative warmth, the global climate was cooling, and the late Pliocene, approximately 2.7 million years ago, is marked by the first major Northern Hemisphere cycle of glaciation and deglaciation. This first glacial cycle was modulated by a 41,000-year frequency that is

Impact of nitrogen deposition on N2O exchange

Where N rainfall is the nitrogen concentration in rainfall, which is equal to the wet nitrogen deposition divided by the precipitation. These concentrations were multiplied by the throughfall, which was calculated as a percentage of the precipitation depending on tree species, using precipitation and throughfall data from 500 level II plots. On average, the throughfall fraction was 0.7 for conifers (pine, spruce, fir and evergreen oak) and 0.8 for deciduous trees (oak, beech, birch and hardwoods). The estimated total deposition was on average comparable to the EMEP total nitrogen deposition, but this value was not used, since it was not included in the PnET-N-DNDC calculation. The best result obtained from the regression analyses, while distinguishing between tree species, was In the regression model, the impact of tree species was considered in different intercepts, where a is 0 for pine (reference tree), -0.2232 for larch, -0.1604 for fir, -0.0020 for evergreen oak, -0.0727 for...

TDF as Fuel in Waste Wood Boilers at Pulp and Paper Mills

Diagram Bark Conveyor

Pulp mills generate large amounts of waste wood products, such as bark and contaminated wood residues, in the process of making wood chips for the pulp digester. Also, many paper companies operate saw mills adjacent to the wood yard to maximize resources these mills generate waste wood slabs, logs, trimmings, pellets, shavings, saw dust, etc., that can be a solid waste disposal problem.1 Heating value of these waste wood ranges from about 7,925 to 9,010 Btu's per pound of fuel, on a dry basis. Tires, as mentioned earlier, generate 15,000 Btu's per pound. Bark is the most common component of waste wood in the pulp and paper industry.1

Structure And Trends In Markets For Forestry Offsets

A US-based, not-for-profit organization uses tree planting as a vehicle for delivering development programs in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The benefits of tree planting claimed include soil erosion control, fruit and wood products production, and fodder for livestock. Trees in this program have a range of uses. It is unlikely, however, that fruit trees, trees harvested for wood products, or used by grazing cattle will attain the level of carbon sequestration claimed. Moreover, losses are inevitable in tree plantations and it is possible that many of the trees will not survive to maturity. If trees do survive, their lifespan could well be less than 50 years, depending on species.

Carbon Stored In Swds

The amount of carbon stored in the SWDS can be estimated using the FOD model (see Annex 3A.1). The long-term storage of carbon in paper and cardboard, wood, garden and park waste is of special interest as the changes in carbon stock in waste originating from harvested wood products which is reported in the AFOLU volume (see Chapter 12, Harvested Wood Products). The FOD model of this Volume provides these estimates as a byproduct. The waste composition option calculates the long-term stored carbon from wood, paper and cardboard, and garden and park waste in the SWDS, as this is simply the portion of the DOC that is not lost through decay (the equations to estimate the amount are given in Annex 3A.1). When using the bulk waste option it is necessary to estimate the appropriate portion of DOC originating from harvested wood products in the total DOC of the waste, before finding the amounts of long-term stored carbon. When country-specific estimates are not available, the IPCC default...

The Diminution Of Natural Resources

Overfishing has probably already destroyed ocean ecologies beyond repair, and the same is true of the logging of hardwood trees in the former rainforests of Thailand and Burma. Arguments persist over whether the production of oil and natural gas has yet peaked, or is at its maximum now, but the existing oil is not going to be replenished. Human society must prepare to live in a world in which many of the resources on which it had previously relied are no longer available.

Weaknesses Of The Kyoto Protocol In Relation To Forestry

Accounting for carbon in harvested wood products has been the subject of controversy given that only the carbon pools on site are accounted for (that is, above and below-ground biomass, dead wood, litter and soils) while harvested wood is assumed to be immediately oxidized. There is therefore no incentive to increase the stock of carbon in harvested

Change in carbon stocks in dead organic matter

Acdom Figure

The Tier 1 assumption for both dead wood and litter pools for all land-use categories is that their stocks are not changing over time if the land remains within the same land-use category. Thus, the carbon in biomass killed during a disturbance or management event (less removal of harvested wood products) is assumed to be released entirely to the atmosphere in the year of the event. This is equivalent to the assumption that the carbon in non-merchantable and non-commercial components that are transferred to dead organic matter is equal to the amount of carbon released from dead organic matter to the atmosphere through decomposition and oxidation. Countries can use higher tier methods to estimate the carbon dynamics of dead organic matter. This section describes estimation methods if Tier 2 (or 3) methods are used.

Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation Projects or Programmes

Land-use sectors have been recognized as critical to addressing climate change concerns. Mitigation of climate change through land-based activities has been a contentious issue in global negotiations under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol because of several methodological issues related to measurement, monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon benefits (Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002). Carbon inventory for mitigation projects requires methods for estimating carbon stocks and changes due to project activities for selected periods at the project concept formulation, proposal development, project implementation and monitoring stages. Methods are required for the baseline (without project) and mitigation scenarios. Mitigating climate change through land-use sectors involves reducing CO2 emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in biomass, soil and wood products. Reducing deforestation, sustainable forest management, afforestation, reforestation, agroforestry, urban forestry, shelter...

Sutherland Pond Mansell Pond

Pollen, lake-level, and charcoal studies at Mansell Pond in Maine (Fig. 8) provide a multiproxy record of climate and vegetation change (Almquist-Jacobson and Sanger, 1995). Pinus strobus was high between 10,200 and 6500 B.P. However, in this record, this P. strobus interval is different from many other records in New England in that a Tsuga phase is intercalated from 82007300 B.P. The lake level was at least 5.9 m below the modern level at 8000 B.P. Increased charcoal during the P. strobus phase indicates greater burning. Other studies also indicate a greater frequency of forest fires in the early Holocene P. strobus forest than in the hardwood forests that succeeded it (Anderson et al., 1992 Clark et al., 1996). At Mansell Pond, the lake level rose at 6700 B.P., and Tsuga increased again at 6500 B.P. The lake level increased again at 3400 B.P., but fell slightly with the increase of Picea 2000 years ago, indicating perhaps a cooler, but drier, late Holocene climate. 10,200 to ca....

Climate Change Impacts

According to the FAO, people who will lose the most as far as forest resources are concerned are those who live in extreme poverty in developing countries and depend on forest resources for their livelihood, approximately 1,080,000,000 people. For these people, their income is tied directly to not only wood products but also to nontimber forest products as well, such as fuel, forest foods (nuts, fruits), and medicinal plants. Because forests also provide for the health needs of about 80 percent of the population, a health-related crisis threatens these communities. When a medicine man dies in the rain forest, it is like losing thousands of years worth of knowledge about the medicinal qualities of the plants in the rain forest.

Upper Mississippi River Case Study

Tershed provides extensive habitat for fish and wildlife and also supports an economy historically based on agriculture and wood products. In addition to these economic sectors, industrial and manufacturing activities have become significant components of the overall economy.

Species Specific Mortality

Mortality patterns during severe drought are often species specific (Tainter et al. 1984 Starkey et al. 1989 Clinton et al. 1993 Elliott and Swank 1994). For example, Clinton et al. (1993) found that the species most susceptible to drought-related mortality were members of the red oak group (particularly Quercus coccinea) and Carya spp. This pattern of mortality was observed across the southeastern region during the mid- to late 1980s (Starkey et al. 1989 Stringer et al. 1989 Oak et al. 1991). The same pattern of mortality was observed in other studies at Coweeta. B. D. Clinton et al. (unpubl. data, 1999) examined tree mortality on two opposing (north- and south-facing) mixed hardwood watersheds in the Coweeta Basin. The period of study covered 18 years and was generally split between an extremely dry period (1984-1988) and a period of above-average precipitation (1989-1997 table 3.2). During the dry period, annual precipitation averaged 20 less than the long-term (60+ years) mean,...

Short and longterm responses in the ecosystem

Each ecosystem is responding at its own characteristic timescale. Boose notes that the mixed hardwood forests of central New England and the Tabonuco forests of Puerto Rico both exhibit remarkable resiliency to wind damage. In both cases, despite major structural reorganization after a hurricane, there was rapid regeneration of canopy cover through releafing, sprouting, or recruitment, which helped to reduce impacts on soil moisture, temperature, and nutrient cycling processes. Nevertheless, some signs of the hurricane impact are present for decades, although less so in Puerto Rico where decomposition and regeneration rates are much faster than in New England. Gage quotes work from the Cedar Creek LTER in Minnesota that also exhibits a difference in the time response to the 1988 drought between grasslands and the semiarboreal ecosystem. He reminds us that it was not until 1993, the fifth year following the 1988 drought, that there were no longer discernible effects of drought on...

The Potential Of Forestry To Mitigate Climate Change Through Global Markets

Up to the present, the global establishment of forests has been driven by the need for wood products or for multiple environmental benefits. It is only recently that forests have been studied for their potential to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration. The importance of such studies is that they contribute to an understanding of the role of forests in contributing to an integrated approach to climate change mitigation policy, both nationally and globally.

The Clean Development Mechanism and Biodiversity

An examination of the titles of the methodologies for A R approved by the CDM Executive Board (UNFCCC, 2008a) suggests that most of the ten approved have an identifiable biodiversity component. The aims of the projects vary from combating desertification and soil erosion, to reforestation on degraded land and corridor establishment, to woodchip production. To attract investment, A R projects must show a positive financial return from the carbon credits generated plus any supplementary returns from timber or non-wood products sales. To achieve financial viability, projects must often rely on only a limited number of fast-growing species, which in some cases may be exotics. As discussed above, the biodiversity benefits that can be claimed for monocultures or plantations of a narrow list of species are limited, particularly if they are exotics and particularly if regrowth of natural vegetation under the planted trees is controlled. Nevertheless, A R projects may provide indirect...

Biodiversity implications of AR in Tanzania

The second case study of an A R CDM project is in two discrete areas of Tanzania where it establishes and manages forest plantations that will meet demand for high quality wood products from a sustainable managed forest, and is titled 'Afforestation in grassland areas of Uchindile, Kilombero, Tanzania and Maplpana, Mufindi, Tanzania'. A Tanzanian subsidiary company of TreeFarms AS, of Norway, is financing and implementing the project. The project document is accessible online (T v S d Group, 2008). Some 13 500 hectares of degraded land will be reforested, mainly with exotics (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus patula), but with the addition of some indigenous fruit tree species, together with three species of indigenous hardwoods at Uchindile and two at Mapanda. Revenue will be generated for the government, district council and villages through the sale of wood products and certified emission reductions (CERs). In addition, employment will be generated in the local communities that total over...

Royal Dutchshell group

Developing its global network of service stations. Demand for petroleum exploded after World War II. During the 1960s, Shell strengthened its presence in the Middle East, and discovered reserves in the North Sea. The 1973 oil crisis led Shell to diversify into other energy sources such as coal and nuclear power, with little economic success. Shell also acquired 50 percent of an Australian solar energy company, and began producing renewable softwoods that could be used for paper, construction, and fuel. Shell is the world's leading biofuels distributor.

Insulation Board Manufacturing

Insulation board can be formed from a variety of raw materials including wood from softwood and hardwood species, mineral fiber, waste paper, bagasse, and other fibrous materials. In this section, only those processes employing wood as raw materials are considered. Plants utilizing wood may receive it as roundwood, fractionated wood, and or whole tree chips. Fractionated wood can be in the form of chips, sawdust, or planer shavings.

Recovery as a function of community structure

The fossil examples are all interpretations, but they seem plausible at least in the cases of the mid-Cretaceous cycadophyte and the end-Cretaceous lowland redwood extinctions. The Mesozoic cycadophyte-dominated communities have their closest extant analogue in the Encephalartos shrub savanna where the upper storey is formed by a phylogenetically primitive cycad grade while advanced monocots prevail in the lower storey. The Early Cretaceous angiosperms were small shrubs or herbs of cycadophyte shrublands which turned into angiosperm shrublands following the cut-off of the dominant cycadophyte species. The late Cretaceous lowland evergreen redwoods dominated by Sequoia reichenbaechii, Cupressinocladus cretaceous and related conifer species were likewise graded, with angiosperms, notably small-leaved Trochodendroides, as successional shrubs or low trees. After the K-T climax cut-off they disappeared as a major lowland plant formation surviving in the scattered upslope refugia alone. At...

Willamette River Case Study

The Willamette River extends for 270 miles from its headwaters in the southern Cascade Mountains in Douglas County, Oregon, to the city of Portland, Oregon, where it meets the tidal Columbia River (Figure 13-2) (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). More than two-thirds of Oregon's population lives within the major urban centers that have developed in the valley. The basin provides extensive natural habitat for fish and wildlife and supports a prosperous economy based on agriculture, timber and wood products, and recreation.

Existing and evolving tools and models for landfill methane generation oxidation and emissions

Landfilled organic carbon that is biodegradable but not expected to degrade in the landfill (typically a conservative estimate of 50 per cent Bogner, 1992 Barlaz, 1998) is reported as an information item within the waste sector, but credited to the harvested wood products sector (IPCC, 2006).

Mechanical Barriers

Below-grade walls may be constructed of poured concrete, masonry blocks, or other materials such as all-weather wood or stone. This chapter discusses details for use of poured concrete and masonry foundation because these are the materials most commonly used for new construction. Recently, trade associations such as American Plywood Association (APA) and the National Forest Products Association (NFoPA) have issued publications on designing radon resistance permanent wood foundations. Information on these types of foundations can be found by contacting the appropriate trade association.21

Restoration as a Strategy to Contribute to Ecoregion Visions

Includes attempting to intensify agriculture so that it requires less land, focussing on value over volume in wood products, and concentrating production in (native) plantation forests. Another strategy is to de-intensify agricultural uses and promote a mosaic of natural and anthropogenic elements, allowing native species and communities to fill in around our use of the landscape, and provide necessary ecosystem services to operate more freely.

Restoration of Temperate Forest Through Mixed Plantations in Canada307

Larson308 presents one of the earliest modern examples of forest restoration in the deciduous hardwood forest region of eastern Canada, which started in 1886.The site was an old gravel pit in which 2300 saplings of 14 different species were planted in a mixture. These included local deciduous hardwoods and conifers as well as several exotics (Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus nigra, and Tilia cordata). Some of these 14 species were planted in rows spaced 2.5 m apart. No subsequent site management was carried out apart from some early pruning. The nearest natural forest was 500 m away. By 1930 around 85 percent of the site had a sparse canopy, 31 percent of which was coniferous. By 1993 the canopy cover had increased to 95 percent, of which only 5 percent was conifer. The site, then 107 years old, contained 220 trees with a diameter at breast height exceeding 30 cm. Of the original 14 canopy-forming tree species, 10 were still present. Two new...

Payments for Forest Goods and Services

Ties for mobilising funds for forest landscape restoration. A good example of payments for environmental goods is the certification body, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which developed a market for sustainably produced wood and wood products that come with a seal of approval or certificate. In terms of payments for environmental services, a good example is the increase in projects that create payment mechanisms where downstream beneficiaries pay for the sustainable management of forests upstream. Such systems provide significant opportunities for innovative funding for forest landscape restoration.

Old vs New Approaches388

These were caused by torrential streams draining from the nearby mountain ranges. Most of these ranges were denuded of trees as a result of long-term overexploitation and the large logging activities pursued by the Navy for ship construction, especially during the 18th century. In the Segura basin (Murcia), after the devastating floods of October 1879 (761 casualties), the forest administration launched a reforestation project in 1886 called Defence Works Against the Floods in the Segura basin. The forest engineer R. Codorniu, one of the directors of this restoration project, wrote that in 1889 he did not see a single tree when crossing the hill slopes of the basin. This project started in 1892 and included the reforestation of almost 5000 hectares, accompanied by check dams, firebreaks, and temporary on-site forest nurseries. The climate of the site is dry to subhumid. After studying the ecological conditions of the site, the species planted were mostly the native conifers...

Lafarge Quarry Restoration in Kenya

Lafarge's forest restoration work started with a series of site-based interventions. The former quarry of the Bamburi cement plant near Mombasa in Kenya was mined for 20 years. In the early 1970s, a rehabilitation programme was started to restore the site as a nature reserve. After a phase of soil formation using the leaf litter of introduced pioneer trees, a large number of tree and other plant species typical of the indigenous coastal forests were also planted. The success of these was observed over time in order to select those species that proved suitable for planting on a larger scale to replace the pioneer trees. In addition to trees of potential economic value (such as Iroko and other indigenous hardwood, which is valuable for local crafts such as carving), endangered species and those that provide habitat or food for indigenous wildlife have also been planted to date, 422 indigenous plant species have been introduced into the newly created ecosystems of forests, wetlands, and...

Study Regions New England

The six New England states plus adjoining New York City and Long Island comprise a region of about 175,000 km2. Topographic relief varies from coastal plains to mountains of 1000-m elevation (maximum 1900 m) to the west and north. The climate is temperate, with significant variation (especially in temperature) resulting from differences in elevation, latitude, and distance from the ocean. Major life zones include Northern Hardwoods-Spruce-Fir (northern New England), Transition Hardwoods (central New England), Central Hardwoods (southern New England), and Pitch Pine-Oak (Cape Cod and scattered sand plains) (Westveld 1956 Foster and Aber in press).

Biotechnology of Woody Plants

Rapidly increasing population is enhancing the expansion of slash-and-burn agriculture in tropical areas. Cultivation in the arable land obtained by slash-and-burn agriculture becomes impossible several years later. This is the cause of desertification in the tropical area. Seventeen million hectares of the forests have been deforested or destroyed per year. Of the tropical forest it is known that extremely variant plants, animals and microbes are alive there. By destruction of the tropical forest, the treasury of such various genetic resources has been disappearing rapidly, without contributing to future human beings. Under these conditions, we must stop the decrease of tropical forests and try to reforest, but the area of reforestation per year is only equal to 10 of the decreased area. The forest area in temperate and cold climate regions has also been decreasing. On the other hand, the world demand for wood products is predicted to rise sharply in the next decade, and shortages...

Raw Material andor Fuel Substitution

Biomass is material that comes from plants 30 . Sources of biomass fuels may include primary wood, wood products, and wood-related wastes. Most of these materials are not widely used in U.S. cement kilns. Another source of biomass is scrap tires. Vehicle tires contain between 14 and 27 natural rubber 31 . As of 2006, approximately one third of all U.S. cement kilns used scrap tire derived fuel (TDF) as a kiln system fuel 15 . TDF represents approximately 5 of the thermal energy consumed by the U.S. cement industry 25 . Also as of 2003, approximately 53 million of the 130 million scrap tires generated in the U.S. were consumed in cement kilns 31 . The extent to which cement kilns use biomass has a bearing on


Approximately 10 percent of Bangladesh is still forested with teak, banyan, and kapok, and forests in the tidal zone along the coast include mangroves and sometimes hardwood. Mangroves blunted the destructive power of a cyclone and tidal wave that hit Bangladesh in 1991. Mangroves are able to grow in salt water, but depend on nutrients from silt from inland rivers, and have the ability to adapt to

Municipal Waste

Wood used for paper manufacture is 50 moisture and about 2.5 extractives (sap, etc.) that do not become part of the product paper. When kraft paper is produced, the lignin (12.5 of wet wood) is dissolved to free the cellulose and hemicellulose fiber for paper production. Thus less than 35 to no more than 47 of the raw wood feed becomes paper, and industry naturally locates closer to the wood source to minimize transportation costs. One notable exception is boxboard, which is virtually 100 manufactured from waste paper and therefore tends to have plants near cities. Recycled paper results in deinking slops (again except for boxboard and cardboard, where color is immaterial) and short fiber for landfill. Considering the 15 short fiber that results from remanufacture of paper and is landfilied, recycling paper produces more net greenhouse gas emissions than burning all of the paper (see Table 4). The net environmental effects of recycling plastics and inorganic materials are...

Wood Preserving

The wood-preserving process involves bath soaking and steam vacuum drying of lumber and plywood. Preservatives used include creosote, chlorophenolic compounds, and inorganic arsenical and or chromate salts. This industry generates approximately 719 Kg yr of sludges (F032, F033, F034, F03S) containing chromium, copper, arsenic, and lead. It should be noted that these sludges are not currently listed as RCRA hazardous wastes, but are proposed for listing. The most prevalent current practice for managing these sludges is landfilling. Liquid wastes such as those from cooling towers are treated on-site by chromium reduction and precipitation with lime, hydrogen sulfide, or sodium sulfide. The wood-preserving industry uses 20 percent of all arsenic consumption, as approximately 90 percent of wood preservatives are in the form of chrome copper arsenate.


For airborne dusts is to observe surfaces for accumulated dust however, this only signifies that a dust source is present, not the degree of hazard. Also, any chemical that visibly changes state, for example, from a liquid to a solid, may be an exposure point. Even if the material does not visibly change, heating a solid can liberate fumes. Off-gassing of new carpets, particleboard, and plywood has been implicated as the source of formaldehyde in indoor air quality complaints. Stirred, heated, or agitated liquids may generate mists, fumes, or fogs that are invisible to the naked eye. These and other processes are key to identifying potential exposure sources.

Study variables

And family, whether or not the respondent received assistance after Hurricane Isabel from local or non-local friends and family (0 no 1 yes), and whether or not local friends and family evacuated from Hurricane Isabel (0 no 1 yes). Respondents were also asked to report whether how many of their neighbors evacuated from Hurricane Isabel (0 none 1 some 2 most or all). To determine if length of residence or hurricane experience was associated with evacuation, respondents were asked to report the number of years they had lived in their current home and in the county, as well as how may hurricanes they had experience in their lifetime. Tenure in the home and county were divided at the median value of 8 years for home and 22 years for county for analysis. Hurricane experience was divided at the median value of hurricanes that respondents reported they had experienced, which was 4. Several other social factors were measured. Prior to starting an interview, interviewers recorded the presence...

Carbon Cycle Tracers

The quantitative reconciliation of estimates by the different methods outlined for a continental region, such as Europe (Janssens et al. 2003) or the United States (Pacala et al. 2001), or for ocean basins, such as the North Atlantic or the equatorial Pacific Ocean, is difficult. One major obstacle arises from the fact that different methods, in general, measure different fluxes or carbon flows between the major reservoirs. For example, the top-down approach estimates the net surface-air CO2 flux in a particular region, whereas an estimate for the same region based on extrapolating eddy flux measurements will not necessarily take into account disturbance factors (fire, harvest) or lateral carbon flows in or out of the target area (e.g., by wood products or carbon transport through rivers). Similarly, net ocean-atmosphere fluxes determined by the top-down approach will not directly correspond to an ocean carbon stock inventory change, since the net sea-air flux also includes a carbon...

New Hampshire

Land once used for farming is being returned to forestland. Remaining agricultural production includes dairies, livestock, Christmas trees, apples, and maple sugar products. Most of the commercial forestland is privately owned. Individual holdings are generally small, mostly less than about 80 hectares (about 200 acres). Some of these holdings were formerly unprofitable farmlands. More than two-thirds of the timber consists of softwoods, including pine, spruce, fir, and hemlock. In order to discourage indiscriminate cutting on private land, the state collects no tax on timber until after it is cut.


In the tropics, it is common practice to burn the forest residues successively, until most (or all) of the forest residues and DOM is cleared, and agriculture can be established. In some places, up to three or four burnings are necessary. Part of the above-ground forest biomass removed during the process of conversion of Forest Land to Cropland may be transferred to harvested wood products, and an amount may be removed from the site to be used as fuel wood (hence, burnt off-site). Whatever remains is normally burnt on-site.

Biotic factors

Wood (Webb, 1989), lower leaf flexibility (Vogel, 1996, 2009), and shallower root systems (Lorimer, 1977 Whitney, 1986 Gresahm et al., 1991 Putz & Sharitz, 1991) generally suffer greater damage and mortality, although it is difficult to distinguish the effects of species from effects of tree size (Falinski, 1978 Johnsen et al., 2009). In the Duke Forest on the North Carolina Piedmont Hurricane Fran caused a higher incidence of damage in canopy hardwoods than pines. This was because hardwoods usually have broad spreading canopies and flat leaves that can catch the force of the wind much more readily than the smaller canopies and the needle leaves of pine trees. Moreover, hardwoods often have shallow, spreading root systems that increase their susceptibility to uprooting during hurricanes (Xi, 2005).

Choice of method

The default assumption for the Tier 1 calculation is that all carbon in biomass (less harvested wood products removed from the area) is released to the atmosphere immediately (i.e., in the first year after conversion) through decay processes either on- or off-site. A Tier 2 method can be developed and used if country-specific data on carbon stocks before conversion to Other Land (i.e., Bbefore in Equation 2.16) are obtainable. BAFTER remains at zero. In addition, under Tier 2, carbon losses can be apportioned to specific conversion processes, such as burning or harvesting. This allows for more accurate estimation of non-C02 greenhouse gas emissions. A portion of biomass removed is sometimes used as wood products or as fuel wood. Chapter 2, Section 2.4 provides the basic method for estimating non-C02 greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning. Chapter 12 provides guidance for estimation techniques for carbon stored in harvested wood products.


Composting sludge stabilizes the organic matter, reduces volume, and eliminates pathogenic organisms. In a composting operation, de-watered solids are usually mixed with a bulking agent (i.e., hardwood chips) and stored until biological stabilization occurs. The composting mixture is ventilated during storage to provide sufficient oxygen for oxidation and to prevent odors. After the solids are stabilized, they are separated from the bulking agent. The composted solids are then stored for curing and applied to farmlands or other beneficial uses. Expected performance of the composting operation for both percent volatile matter reduction and percent moisture reduction ranges from 40 to over 60 .

Water Pollution

The timber industry treats timber and wood products with chemical preservatives to protect the wood from degradation due to various organisms including fungi, and insects such as borers and termites. This treatment extends the range of applications and the service life of the wood. By design, the chemicals used to protect wood must be toxic to the target organisms, but they may also affect nontarget organisms and the environment 1 .

CO2 Emission

The seasonal CO2 emission in our study forest soil strongly depended on soil temperature. The Q10 values (3.4 and 4.4) were higher than the global median of 2.4 reported by Raich and Schlesinger (1992). However, this global median is based on data measured by soda lime techniques, which were previously the most commonly used techniques. Soda lime techniques may overestimate CO2 emission rates during cold periods and underestimate them during warm periods (Davidson et al., 1998). Consequently, soda lime techniques would underestimate Qi0 values. Modern chamber-based measurements, with which accurate GC and NDIR analyzers are used, have yielded relatively high Q10 values of 3.4-5.6 for soil temperatures at 4-8 cm depth in temperate mixed hardwood forests (Davidson et al., 1998) and of 4.2 for soil temperatures at 2 cm depth in European beech forests (Janssens and Pilegaard, 2003). These Q10 values are comparable to those obtained in this study.

Poverty And Ecocide

A final striking example is provided by Indonesia, perhaps the most richly endowed center of biodiversity in Southeast Asia. In this country widespread poverty exists in spite of its immense natural resources. Ruthless partnerships of foreign investors and local elites have implemented economic liberalization to acquire personal wealth at the expense of Indonesia's indigenous population and environment.25 During the last two decades of the twentieth century, more than 1 million hectares of Indonesia's tropical forests - one of the world's richest genetic storehouses - were cut down. Former Indonesian President Suharto articulated the relationship between Indonesia's debt and deforestation in the late 1970s when he noted We do not have to worry our heads about debts, for we still have forests to repay those debts. Two decades later, deforestation rates had risen threefold, and Indonesia produced about 70 per cent of the world's hardwood supply. Overall, wood products have become...


A geographically diverse state in the southern United States, Arkansas depends heavily upon lumber and wood products, agriculture, forestry, and tourism for its economic stability. All of these sectors are particularly vulnerable to the changes global warming can produce in the state's ecosystem. Arkansans have been slow to respond to threats to the state's environment, but, in recent years, both city and state governments have begun implementing strategies designed to address the problem. A 2001 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that temperatures in Arkansas could increase from 1-5 degrees F (0.5-2.7 degrees C) by 2100.


South America's temperate forests are dominated by evergreen, small-leaved hardwoods, while conifers play only a minor role (Kalin Arroyo et al., 1993). Deciduous forests, dominated by different species of Nothofa-gus, are restricted to high altitudes and high latitudes. This southern temperate flora has evolved from Gondwanan stock, which developed when Southern Hemisphere land areas were connected (Markgraf et al., 1995, 1996). During the middle Tertiary period, neotropical elements were added to the flora, and Andean tectonism in the late Tertiary period resulted in migration of new taxa from the Northern Hemisphere primarily to alpine and subalpine elevations (Moore, 1983 Simpson, 1983). While North American herbaceous taxa migrated to the southernmost tip of South America, North American tree taxa, such as Alnus and Juglans, reached only latitude 27 S. Thus, the southern temperate arboreal flora never received an influx of the northern temperate flora. The high species diversity...

Science background

Greenhouse gas fluxes in the AFOLU Sector can be estimated in two ways 1) as net changes in C stocks over time (used for most CO2 fluxes) and 2) directly as gas flux rates to and from the atmosphere (used for estimating non-CO2 emissions and some CO2 emissions and removals). The use of C stock changes to estimate CO2 emissions and removals, is based on the fact that changes in ecosystem C stocks are predominately (but not exclusively) through CO2 exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere (i.e. other C transfer process such as leaching are assumed to be negligible). Hence, increases in total C stocks over time are equated with a net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere and decreases in total C stocks (less transfers to other pools such as harvested wood products) are equated with net emission of CO2. Non-CO2 emissions are largely a product of microbiological processes (i.e., within soils, animal digestive tracts and manure) and combustion of organic materials. Below, emission...

Process Description

For relatively flat items of large area, roller coating and curtain coating machines are used. Roller coating is used extensively by the canning industry for painting flat metal sheets that are then fabricated into cans. It is also used for spreading or applying glue to wood in the manufacturing of plywood. A roller coating machine operates by metering paint or coating material onto a roller and then transporting the item past the roller by means of a conveyor belt. A curtain coating machine consists of a pressurized container along the bottom of an adjustable slit that allows the coating to flow and form a vertical curtain. A conveyor belt is placed on each side of the curtain so that work items are passed through the curtain and coated without the conveyor belts being coated.

Stock Change Approach

Organization Boundaries Emission

The Stock-Change Approach (SCA) estimates changes in wood carbon stocks in the forest pool (and other wood producing lands) and wood-products pool in the reporting country. Changes in carbon stock in forests and other wood producing land categories are reported by the country in which the wood is grown, referred to as the producing country. Changes in the products pool are reported by the country where the products are used, referred to as the consuming country. Because the stock changes actually occur in the reporting country the report indicates when and where the stock changes occur. EW carbon release to the atmosphere from HWP in SWDS. (Note that here the carbon release is not considered as a sum of C-stock changes as in the Stock-Change and Production approaches. HWP in use include all harvested wood products consumed in the reporting country and HWP in SWDS include all wood-based waste disposed into the solid waste disposal sites (including both open dumps and landfill sites) of...

Production Approach

The Production Approach (PA) estimates changes in carbon stocks in the forest pool (and other wood producing lands) of the reporting country and the wood products pool containing products made from wood harvested in the reporting country. The wood products pool includes products made from domestic harvest that are be exported and stored in uses in other countries. This approach inventories carbon in wood products from domestically harvested wood only and does not provide a complete inventory of wood carbon in national stocks. Because some of the stock changes reported by a country may occur in other countries (where exports are held), the stock change report indicates when changes occur but not where they occur.


Given the environmental context of raiding natural resources during the Gilded Age of the late 1800s, Pinchot's conservation stand offered a compromise to balance the rapidly-growing economy with preservation for future generations. Scientific forest management allows for using forests and their products while conserving the country's forest base. Pinchot, a trained forester, understood the biological constraints on forest production and the possibility for conserving, or renewing, that resource by calculating the maximum sustainable yield. In this view, forests are an economic resource. Conservation assures an adequate supply of wood and wood products for production to keep the economy moving.

Nazih K Shammas

Statics 2019 Active Shooter

The paper and allied products industry comprises three types of facilities pulp mills that process raw wood fiber or processed fiber to make pulp paper and board mills that manufacture paper or board and converting facilities that use these primary materials to manufacture more specialized products such as writing paper, napkins, and other tissue products. The process of converting paper is not a source of water or air pollution, as is the case for the first two facilities. This chapter focuses primarily on the greatest areas of environmental concern within the pulp and paper industry those from pulping processes. According to the National Census,13 wood is used in some form by approximately 95 of pulp and paper manufacturers. Wood can be in a variety of forms and types. Wood logs, chips, and sawdust are used to make pulp. Due to different physical and chemical properties, however, certain pulping processes are more efficient when used on specific wood types. The species of wood used...

Biological Features

Forests at Coweeta were traditionally classified as belonging to the oak-chestnut association. However, with the loss of chestnut (Castanea dentata) as the dominant canopy species, the area is more appropriately included in the oak-hickory or Appalachian oak association. The plant communities in the Coweeta Basin are distributed in a reasonably predictable mosaic over the highly varied topography in relation to complex moisture and elevational gradients (Bolstad et al. 1998). Generally, deciduous oak species are the dominant canopy species with an abundant evergreen understory component composed primarily of Rhododendron maximum and Kalmia latifolia. Four major forest types are recognized (1) northern hardwoods, (2) cove hardwoods, (3) oak (-chestnut), and (4) oak-pine. These forest types exhibit successional change in response to historical disturbances (logging, fire, windstorm, drought, and chestnut blight). Generally, species that were co-dominants with chestnut at the time of the...

Green Design

Finally, green design focuses on creating items with shared uses. These consist of items that can be used my many individuals over the lifespan of the product. For instance, silverware has more shared use potential than plastic ware. The shared use principle may also encourage the same user to utilize the product for many different tasks, such as vacuum that is also able to wet-wash hardwood floors. In general, using a system approach and following certain principles


A constant risk for seeds that are shed into flood-waters is the high probability of not reaching a site where they can become established. Carapa guianensis is a hardwood tree from the Brazilian Amazon with large recalcitrant seeds that can germinate both in flood-free (terra firme) and flood-prone forests (varzea). This particular species fruits throughout the year. Consequently, some seeds fall onto water and are dispersed by the currents, while in the dry season others fall on the ground where they may either be dispersed by rodents or float away when the forest eventually floods. For the seeds that land in water, in addition to the risk of not finding a suitable landing site, there is always the probability that even if they germinate on dry ground only a few months later they may have to withstand the dangers of a full submergence for six months or more.


Forests, and the millions of species that depend on them, are valuable economically and ecologically, providing an estimated 4.7 trillion in goods and services annually. Their ecosystem services include nutrient cycling, carbon sinks, climate regulation, and raw materials. Approximately 60 million people rely on forests for their livelihoods, with the production and manufacturing of industrial wood products estimated to contribute 400 billion to the global economy, approximately 2 percent of the global Gross Domestic Product.


Elemental chlorine has been replaced by chlorine dioxide and hypochlorite in the ECF bleach sequence, while oxygen, ozone, caustic soda, and hydrogen peroxide have been advocated for TCF bleaching of softwood and hardwood Kraft pulps. Benefits include significant reduction in the formation of chlorinated organics or their elimination and lower ecological impacts. Two Finnish mills eliminated elemental chlorine from the bleach sequence and substituted chlorine dioxide, thereby sharply reducing the concentration of chlorinated cymenes 33 . In another Finnish example, levels of chlorinated polyaromatic hydrocarbons in mill wastes were substantially reduced during production of bleached birch Kraft pulp without the use of elemental chlorine as compared to pine pulp bleached with elemental chlorine 34,35 , Research has also been conducted on the optimal usage of agents such as ozone and hydrogen peroxide 36,37 . However, alternatives such as ozonation, oxygenation, and peroxidation are not...


Biobleaching processes based on the pretreatment of pulp with microbial whole cells or enzymes have emerged as viable options. A number of studies examined the direct application of white rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor for biobleaching of softwood and hardwood Kraft pulps 38-44 . It has been found that fungal treatment reduced the chemical dosage significantly as compared to the conventional chemical bleach sequence and enhanced the brightness of the pulp. Specific features of the fungal-mediated biobleaching processes are Two categories of enzymes, namely xylanases and peroxidases (lignin degrading), have been identified in the pulp bleaching processes. Of the two classes, the use of xylanases has achieved enormous success in aiding pulp bleaching 45 . Xylanase enzymes apparently cause hydrolytic breakdown of xylan chains (hemicellulose) as well as the cleavage of the lignincarbohydrate bonds, thereby exposing lignin to the action of subsequent...


Formaldehyde gas may cause severe irritation to the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. Repeated exposure to formaldehyde may cause dermatitis either from irritation or allergy. The gas can be removed from the air by an absorptive filter of potassium permanganate-impregnated alumina pellets or fumigation using ammonia. Exposure to formaldehyde may be reduced by using exterior grade pressed wood products that contain phenol resins. Maintaining moderate temperature and low humidity can reduce emissions from formaldehyde-containing material. The chemical is intensely irritating to mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, the eyes, and skin. Repeated exposure may cause dermatitis and skin sensitization. This substance has been listed as a carcinogen.

Wisconsin 1095

Wisconsin is a Corn Belt state, and corn is its major crop. Other leading crops are soybeans, hay, sweet corn, potatoes, cranberries, and oats. Major industries include dairy products, corn, hay, and beef. Wisconsin takes advantage of Lake Michigan for commercial fishing, though it is only a small industry in the state. Important species are whitefish, lake trout, perch, chub, ale-wife, and carp. Forestry is a minor industry, with most hardwood cut going to plywood and veneer manufac-

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

Wood Working for Amateur Craftsman

THIS book is one of the series of Handbooks on industrial subjects being published by the Popular Mechanics Company. Like Popular Mechanics Magazine, and like the other books in this series, it is written so you can understand it. The purpose of Popular Mechanics Handbooks is to supply a growing demand for high-class, up-to-date and accurate text-books, suitable for home study as well as for class use, on all mechanical subjects. The textand illustrations, in each instance, have been prepared expressly for this series by well known experts, and revised by the editor of Popular Mechanics.

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