Wood Pellets Production Guide
Pellet production (tonne CO2 per tonne pellet produced) Pellet Production European IPPC Bureau (2001), Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Best Available Techniques Reference Document on the Production of Iron and Steel, December 2001, Table 5.1 Page 95. The emission factor for pellet production is based on the IPPC I&S BAT Document which provides an emission factor range of 15.6 to 31.8 kg CO2 per tonne product. However, the CO2 emission factor for a specific process will depend on the characteristic of the raw materials and fuels used in the process. The emission factor would vary depending upon whether coal, natural gas, or coke oven gas was used as the primary fuel. The 'default' emission factor provided is at the high end of the range, 30 kg CO2 per tonne product, and should be used if the inventory compiler does not know anything about the fuels or raw materials used. If the inventory compiler knows the inputs used, CO2 emissions should be calculated using the...
These Guidelines outline three tiers for calculating CO2 emissions and two tiers for calculating CH4 emissions from iron and steel production. The choice of a good practice method depends on national circumstances as shown in the decision tree in Figure 4.7 for CO2 emissions and Figure 4.8 for CH4 emissions Decision Tree for Estimation of CO2 Emissions from Iron & Steel Production and Decision Tree for Estimating of CH4 Emissions from Iron and Steel Production. The Tier 1 method is based on national production data and default emission factors. It may lead to errors due to its reliance on assumptions rather than actual data for the quantity of inputs into the sinter production and iron and steel production sector that contribute to CO2 emissions. Therefore, the Tier 1 is appropriate only if iron and steel production is not a key category. Default emission factors are provided for sinter production, blast furnace iron making, direct reduced iron production, pellet production, and each...
Sources Image courtesy of the University of Georgia Research Foundation. Figure 6.3 Wood pellets used to make biofuel Sources Image courtesy of the University of Georgia Research Foundation. Figure 6.3 Wood pellets used to make biofuel be reduced for the production of second generation fuels. The derivation of oils from wood has long been possible but the inexpensive processing of the oil for use in engines has not. A team of researchers at the University of Georgia developed a new process that treats the oil so that it can be used in unmodified diesel engines or blended with biodiesel or conventional diesel. Wood pellets are heated in the absence of oxygen to produce charcoal and gas (pyrolysis) (see Figure 6.3). The gas is condensed and chemically treated. Research is underway to increase the fraction of oil derived from wood (Garcia-Perez et al. 2007).
DG includes micro-generation technologies at the household level such as solar PV panels or micro wind turbines. In case of domestic use, micro CHP electricity is supplied to a single building, and the co-produced heat is used in the household for hot water and or space heating purposes. The first available micro CHP designs (either Stirling or reciprocating engines) use natural gas as fuel. However, designs that use wood pellets, other biomass or hydrogen (fuel cells) are being developed.
And so-called second-generation biomass (e.g. wood pellets), organic waste, manure and wastewater. Especially the latter is a promising source, produced at the places where energy is needed. It only requires decentralised facilities at the neighbourhood or district level the building scale is too small and the urban scale too big.
The Woodburners Guide
Learn the secrets to successful wood burning stoves and fireplaces by taking advantage of the exclusive techniques presented in The Woodburner's Guide: Practical Ways of Heating with Wood!