Wind Energy DIY Guide

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Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System Overview

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Wind energy an already mature energy

Wind power technology is already relatively mature, producing electricity under almost profitable conditions. Current machines can develop powers from 1.25 to 2.5 MW. The rotors fitted on 2.5 MW machines have a span of up to 80 m 59 . Virtually all high-power wind turbines have a three-blade rotor, which offers higher efficiency than two-blade rotors, without making construction of the wind turbine overcomplicated. Wind energy is almost competitive, the cost price of the electricity produced being in the region of D 50 MWh. The main drawback with wind energy lies in the fact that it is intermittent and cannot be modulated to match demand. Intermittent operation must be compensated by the grid, which limits the share of electricity that can be supplied by wind energy. In the future, the price of fossil fuels, together with constraints on CO2 emissions, should make wind energy more competitive. Recently, the development of wind energy, especially within the European Union, has been...

Wind Power

Electricity generated by wind power relies on air moving past a propeller to spin a turbine. Wind is created as a result of the differential heating of the earth's surface of the sun. Air masses move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to low atmosphere pressure. Wind energy creates very few greenhouse gases and will exist as long as the sun shines and winds blow. There are challenges to implementing wind energy, though. Wind energy, like other forms of renewable energy, operates effectively only in certain geographic areas and climates. Wind speeds and direction can vary hourly, daily, and seasonally. For example, winds are typically stronger during the day than at night. In temperate climates, the wind tends to be stronger during the winter than during the summer. Hence, a wind turbine only makes A wind turbine also needs a relatively open space, so that trees or buildings do not affect wind speeds. Critics of wind farms also argue that wind turbines can harm migrating birds and...

WiND PowEr In ActioN

Despite the limitations and boundaries that wind energy may extend, Germany has proven to be a success story and has become the world leader in wind power. In the early 1990s, Germany started out with almost no renewable resource industry, and it seemed unlikely that it would ever be considered a leader in these technologies. The decision of the German government, in 1990, to pass a law that required utilities to purchase the electricity generated from all renewable technologies, and to pay a minimum price, was governed by the public's increased concern about the security of energy supplies and its environmental impact. The results that Germany has experienced are staggering. The average cost of manufacturing wind turbines fell 43 percent 1990-2000. In 1997, Germany surpassed the United States to become the world leader in wind energy production. The percent of total electricity accounted for by wind power has increased from 3-6 percent 2001-07. In 2002 the renewable resource...

Wind energy

Where v is velocity (vector quantity), m is mass, f is force and a is acceleration (dv dt), mv is impulse. With the latter equation, we have an equation of motion for the fluid, more precisely the air. As the force (or sum of forces) is known, the change of wind speed follows from this (we take the symbol u instead of the symbol v for velocity) over time while mass is constant. Taking into account that energy is force multiplied by distance (E Fdx) and assuming constant wind velocity and neglecting other forces beside pressure gradient force fp, it follows simply for the wind energy Ew Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines.

Wind speed

Clearly once of the main effects of the arrival of the tail-end of hurricanes and tropical storms is severe winds, both in terms of gusts and sustained winds and this is one of the principal agents of damage associated with these events. Typical maximum recorded wind speeds on land from Western Europe for the events in this survey vary from 70km h gusts all the way up to nearly 200km h gusts with values in excess of 100km h not being uncommon. The highest recorded value of any of the events in this survey was from Hurricane Debbie in 1961. At Malin Head on the extreme NW tip of Ireland a gust of 182km h was recorded. The next highest was at Fair Isle off Northern Scotland between the Orkneys and the Shetlands where Hurricane Flossie in 1978 produced a gust of 167km h. Hurricane Lili in 1996 produced the next highest gust value of 148km h and this was recorded at North Hessary Tor in Devon, England. More recently Hurricane Gordon in 2006 produced a gust of 130km h at Truro in Cornwall,...

Measurements of the vertical flux of CO2 above a surface

Atmospheric studies have the advantage of covering large areas of a heterogeneous landscape, but it is still necessary to understand the fluxes at a more detailed spatial scale to arrive at a mechanistic understanding of processes. Over the last 15 years, towers between 10 and 200 m tall have been springing up over a range of forests and other vegetation types, hosting instrumentation that directly measures the vertical exchange of carbon dioxide between the surface and the atmosphere (Fig. 4a). The most commonly used instrumentation is based on the technique of eddy covariance. This technique is based on the fact that the CO2 is transported by means of turbulent eddies, and that if both the vertical wind velocity and concentration of CO2 at a point can be measured with sufficient frequency to adequately capture these eddies, the covariance of these two measurements will correspond to the vertical flux of carbon dioxide at that point. For example, in daytime over a forest, air carried...

Alternative energy wind

WiND is A source of solar energy that does not rely on the condition of the sky. Unlike fossil fuels, wind energy can be collected during storms, snow, or the night. Wind power is the alteration of wind energy into more purposeful forms, usually electricity using wind turbines, and is a form of renewable energy. Wind power is greenhouse gas extenuating, clean, abundant, infinitely renewable, domestically produced, widely distributed, and supportive of rural economies. The International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that, 2000-30, global energy consumption will increase and electricity use could double, placing pressure on nonrenewable resources, public health, international stability, and the natural environment. One solution lies in finding and utilizing alternative energy sources. Renewable energy sources pose lower costs, whether environmental or health-related. The use of alternative energies to generate electricity is especially advantageous to developing countries, because of the...

Atlantic tropical cyclone activity 1938 2009

The phases of the PDO as described in the text. SST anomalies are shown in color in accord with the scale shown. The arrows show anomalies in wind speed and direction. Reproduced with permission from the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO - http jisao.washington.edu) at the University of Washington. Fig. 2. The phases of the PDO as described in the text. SST anomalies are shown in color in accord with the scale shown. The arrows show anomalies in wind speed and direction. Reproduced with permission from the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO - http jisao.washington.edu) at the University of Washington.

Predicting Climate Fluctuations and Agricultural Impacts

The key weather variables for crop prediction are rainfall, temperature and solar radiation, with humidity and wind speed playing also a role. As Doblas-Reyes et al. (2006) explained, seasonal climate forecasts are able to provide insight into the future climate evolution on timescales of seasons and longer because slowly-evolving variability in the oceans significantly influences variations in weather statistics. The climate forecast community is now capable of providing an end-to-end multi-scale (in space and time) integrated prediction system that provides skilful, useful predictions of variables with socio-economic interest.

American Gas Association

The AGA also provides written documents related to the use of natural gas and current concerns about climate change and global warming. On February 19, 2007, the company released the AGA Climate Change Principles, outlining how changes can be made that would result in natural gas being a safer, more environmentally responsible form of energy. Another document from the same day, the AGA Climate Change Talking Points, outlines various significant facts about natural gas, focusing on the improved efficiency of modern appliances and industrial machines, low rate of emissions compared to coal and fuel oil and arguing for construction of domestic natural gas plants, access to natural gas wells, and the construction of other plants and factories in the United States that would use natural gas power. The organization does not offer a solution to the problem of natural gas wells in protected areas. Nevertheless, due to limited availability of natural gas, AGA proposes research into alternate...

Energyrelated emission

The amount of CO2 emitted as a result of the generation of a given unit of electricity varies greatly depending on the fuel used and the level of efficiency at which the power plant operates. Generally speaking, coal-fuelled power generation is the most carbon-intensive, with the emission of up to 1 kg of CO2 for every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity that it provides. Oil- and gas-fuelled electricity generation tends to have a lower CO2 emission cost. Even those energy-generation strategies without apparent use of fossil fuels generally have some associated CO2 emissions. Nuclear power, for instance, relies on large amounts of energy use for fuel extraction and processing, and so indirectly results in CO2 emissions. The construction of any power station, wind turbine or other power-generation facility carries with it an emission cost through the embodied energy of the materials used in its construction. This cost must be included if the full climate benefits of any one type of...

The Science of Paleoclimatology

When climatologists study the current climate, they have a wealth of information at their fingertips. For example, they can obtain data from instruments, such as barometers, anemometers, thermometers, and rain gauges at weather observatories around the world to collect data for rainfall amounts, temperature, evapotranspiration rates, humidity, wind speed and direction, and major flow of air currents, such as the jet stream. Climate data can be collected from the mountains and valleys of all continents, including Antarctica from the oceans and from sophisticated satellite equipment in space. Because of this, and especially with the advances in computer technology, science has made great strides in recent years in being able to study, understand, and predict climate. Multiple types of data can be collected. Climatic data for areas can be gathered and put into computer models, such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity.

Power Generation Sector

Wind power (renewable) Commercial With the exception of wind power, renewable technologies are not projected by IEA 7 to have major mitigation impacts for the ACT scenario in the 2050 time frame. In the case of solar generation, both photovoltaic and concentrating technologies are currently prohibitively expensive. However, the Blue scenario assumes major improvements and cost reductions for both solar technologies, allowing them to play a major role in low carbon power generation before 2050. For biomass, major utilization is projected to be limited by its dispersed nature, its low energy density, and competition for the limited resource in the transportation sector. Given the resource, environmental and sustainability challenges associated with fossil fuel and nuclear power generation technologies, it would be highly desirable to generate all required electricity from affordable renewable resources. Therefore, major technological development efforts, should be focused on enhancing...

Electricity Generation from Renewables

Wind mills and horizontal-axis and vertical-axis turbines are used to convert the kinetic energy of the wind into electricity. It is one of the more cost-effective forms of renewable energy with today's technology. The electricity produced by wind energy can be supplied to grid. The technology is beneficial for the locations where the wind velocity is high, for example, the coastal and sub-coastal areas. For a better functioning of a wind energy system the knowledge of the natural geographical variation in wind speed is important so as to smooth out fluctuations. Similar to the limitations of solar energy, wind energy generation is also affected by the intermittent nature of wind speed.

Thermal Assessment Procedures

Another approach based on synoptic climatology starts by identifying the various broad-scale weather types characterising a given locality. Several studies have identified that specific weather types (air masses) adversely affect mortality. Kalkstein et al. (1996) successfully extended this approach to heat health warning systems (HHWSs). The synoptic procedure classifies days that are considered to be meteorologically similar by statistically aggregating days in terms of a selection of meteorological variables such as air temperature, dew point, cloud cover, air pressure, wind speed and direction. The classification must be specifically derived for each particular locality where the synoptic approach is to be applied (see also Chapter 3).

Turbulent Energy Flux through the Water Column Synthesis

From the discussion above, we can draw the following overall scheme of the energy flux through the stratified waters of a lake. The origin of the energy for turbulent mixing is usually wind, which is imposing momentum onto the surface of the water. Approximately 3 of the wind energy from the atmosphere reaches the epilimnion in the form of horizontal currents and about 10 thereof is finally transferred to the stratified water body underneath. The major part of the energy is dissipated by bottom interaction, and the minor part is dissipated in the interior by shear instabilities and breaking of internal waves. Of this dissipated energy, only about 10 produce buoyancy flux (mixing efficiency gmix, eqn. 5 ) increasing the potential energy of the stratification. Compared to the wind energy flux in the atmosphere, only a small fraction of 0.0003 actually causes the mixing against the stratification in the deep water, whereas the large fraction of 0.9997 is dissipated somewhere along the...

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

Iron supply and the global carbon cycle

The concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface ocean exerts a fundamental control on air-sea CO2 exchange along with other factors such as ambient temperature, pH, and wind speed. Processes that affect DIC will therefore influence the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, and with it, climate (via the 'greenhouse effect'). One process that affects DIC concentrations is the biological removal of carbon from surface waters. Phytoplankton utilise carbon as well as nutrients at the ocean surface and incorporate it into cellular organic constituents. When biological activity reduces surface water DIC, the equilibrium concentration of gaseous CO2 is depressed, driving a net transfer of CO2 from the atmosphere into solution in the ocean. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will then exhibit an inverse relationship to the strength of the biological pump. Indeed, in the absence of any biological activity in the ocean, atmospheric CO2 would be about 50 higher than...

Smaller Spatial Scales

Over oceans, denser grid spacing in regional models mainly exploits the types 2 and 3 of the sources (list in first paragraph of this section). A typical tropical cyclone in the regional model and the global model are illustrated in Figs. 2.3 and 2.4, respectively. The GCM resolution is about 280 km and the regional model resolution is 50 km. Higher resolution leads to a much finer representation of the 850 hPa vorticity in the regional model compared to the driving GCM. The maximum vorticity near the center of the storm is much higher than that of the driving GCM. The maximum wind speed is higher in the regional model, and there is a clear minimum near the center of the storm, an attempt by the regional model to produce the storm's eye. Precipitation and humidity values are also higher in the regional model, and there appears to be a rain band that is not present in the GCM simulation. Therefore, the high-resolu- Fig. 2.3. Typical fields of a tropical cyclone in the regional model a...

Overview of Satellite Oceanography Techniques 231 Passive Active Techniques and Choice of Frequencies

Satellite systems operate at different frequencies depending on the signal to be derived. Visible (400-700 nm) and infra-red (0.7-20 m) frequencies are used for ocean colour and SST measurements. Passive (radiometry) microwave systems (130 cm) are used for SST in cloud situations, wind, sea ice and sea surface salinity retrievals. Radars operate in the microwave bands and provide measurements of sea surface height, wind speed and direction, wave spectra, sea ice cover and types and surface roughness. Radar pulses are emitted obliquely (15 -60 ) (SAR, scatterom-eter) or vertically (altimetry).

Numerical Crop and Climate Models

Crop simulation models use a rather limited set of climate variables from those output by numerical climate models. Surface temperature is used in the simulation of the rate of crop development, and for the rate of various growth processes such as leaf expansion, photosynthesis and respiration. Calculations of crop water requirements use precipitation and variables that determine evaporative demand such as relative humidity, wind speed and incoming solar radiation. The latter is also required for submodels of photosynthesis, where these are present. The most common time resolution needed of climate variables is daily, with some crop models requiring diurnal patterns of temperature.

Study Regions New England

New England is affected by mature and late-stage Atlantic hurricanes that form at lower latitudes and approach from the south (figure 2.1a). Most hurricanes weaken by the time they reach New England, though an intensity of category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale (sustained wind speeds of 50-58 m s) is not unusual. Because hurricanes derive most of their energy from warm ocean water, hurricanes that pass over inland areas to the south and west generally cause little wind damage in New England. Similarly, because the highest surface winds are normally located to the right of the storm track, storms that pass offshore to the east also tend to cause less wind damage. The greatest impacts result from hurricanes that travel northward over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream and pass directly over New England. Rapid forward motion helps to offset the effects of weakening as the storms come over land or over the cold waters of the Gulf of Maine (Smith 1946).

Shipboard meteorology

The basic observables are sea surface temperature, air temperature, wind velocity, barometric pressure, incoming short- and long-wave radiation and humidity. Ships in the WOCE programme were valuable platforms from which to make accurate in-situ measurements. The chief advantages of WOCE ships were they travelled through data-sparse areas they were manned by crews and scientists with an interest in obtaining good meteorological data and their operating schedules permitted sensors and electronics to be returned to laboratories periodically for calibration. The minimum suite of measurements required on an automated system included wind velocity, air temperature, air humidity, sea surface temperature, downward radiative fluxes and air pressure. Other parameters of value included wind stress measured using the dissipation technique, ocean skin temperature (by downward-looking radiometer) and other radiative flux measurements. The latter quantities are required specifically for satellite...

Subgrid parameterisation schemes

One of the goals of this study is to quantify the effects of the presence of a forest on the temporal evolution of snowmelt. These processes are considered in the model by modifying the meteorological variables as provided with SAFRAN and a variable albedo parameterisation in CROCUS taking into account the faster decrease of albedo inside the canopy. The main phenomena that affect the climatic conditions inside a forest are the following shadowing effect of the trees for solar radiation (visible direct and diffuse as well as longwave), longwave radiation of the trees, increase of humidity, reduction of wind speed, reduction of temperature fluctuation amplitudes and interception of precipitation (including sublimation, melt and snow sliding from the branches). To characterise a forest, a certain number of parameters can be used its density, the type and shape of the trees, their size or the LAI. However, for spatial applications at the scale as the one presented here it is...

Atmospheric properties and feedbacks

Arid lands are significant determinants of the earth's albino and thus of its global radiation balance. Albedo and spectral characteristics of the surface are influenced not just by total plant cover, but also by the different properties of woody plants versus grass cover, so changes in plant functional group affect this global property. Arid lands are also significant contributors of dust (Pewe 1981 Pye 1987), which influences both the radiation balance of the atmosphere and the transport of N, S, Fe and other minerals over long distances. The extent to which changes in biota influence soil vulnerability to wind movement will determine the importance of these changes to those atmospheric properties. Desert soils, serving as possible sites for carbonate formation and having low organic matter content, represent important potential sinks for atmospheric carbon. It has also been suggested that deserts contribute significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere (due to termites), and...

Monitoring of Environment and Structure

Good climate data are critical in the design of permafrost infrastructure. They form the basis for calibration work before any construction starts and they are important input data when assessing the reliability and performance in the future. Therefore a climate station that measures air temperatures, precipitation, snow depth, short wave and long wave radiation, and wind speed and direction, is to be installed as early as possible. Often there is an existing network of weather stations that can be utilised to determine the locally prevailing conditions (in particular air temperature and snow depth).

Sectors that May be Affected by Climate Change

Construction Increased focus on the indoor climate will be necessary, in particular on temperature and humidity conditions. To support adaptation measures to reduce extreme indoor temperatures during heat waves, guidelines for new construction techniques may be needed. Moreover, a compulsory labelling scheme may be introduced for small individual cooling facilities that can be set up at short notice. Drainage systems for roads should be considered in view of the risk of increased precipitation intensity. Increasing temperatures will increase the need for securing the safety installations on railways. As regards increased wind velocity, a risk analysis of possible windfalls onto roads and railways must be performed

Key Developments in SST Data Processing

A satellite measures the so-called skin temperature, i.e. at a depth from a few tens of microns (infra-red) up to a few mm only (microwave). Diurnal warming changes the SST over a layer of 1-10 m. The effect can be particularly large in regions of low wind speed and high solar radiation. GHRSST has defined the foundation SST as the temperature of the water column free of diurnal temperature variability. A key issue in SST data processing is to correct satellite SST measurements for skin and diurnal warming effects to provide precise estimations of the foundation SST. Night and day SST data from different satellites can then be merged through an optimal interpolation or a data assimilation system.

Water Resources And Temperature Rise

Glaciers are an intriguing part of the Earth's natural environment and have been identified as one of the significant and sensitive indicators of climate change. Their size, lifespan, and timescale information of accumulation and ablation, or growth and collapse (glacier retreat) are primarily attributed to change in climate elements such as temperature, precipitation, wind speed, humidity, and solar radiation.

Relations Before The Modern

Environmental sociologist Marina Fischer-Kowalsky refers to this new social setting and dynamic as a form of terrestrial colonization.26 This novel social adaptation to transformed landscape following the mass extinction of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene was accompanied by increasingly hierarchical forms of social life. Ancient civilizations finally emerged out of early city-states and institutionalized forms of inequality and violence. The exploitation of domesticated animal power and the domestication of plants species are at the root of civilization, playing an important role in subsequent population growth and geographic distribution of humans.27 Animals pulled the plow, animals carried produce to market, and animals provided a protein-rich complement to a grain-based diet. Although wind power was utilized to carry cargo by water, fire remained nonetheless the most important source of extrasomatic energy. It made possible the creation of artifacts we normally associate...

Turbulent Heat Fluxes

The equations used to estimate turbulent energy fluxes are a complex mixture of theory and empiricism. The simplest approach is to assume a well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer, with vertical fluxes of sensible and latent energy proportional to the wind speed. This can be parameterized through where pa and cpa are the density and specific heat capacity of the air, Ls v is the latent energy of sublimation or vaporization, ua is the wind speed, and CH and CE are dimensionless bulk exchange parameters for heat and moisture. The atmospheric variables 9 and q refer to the potential temperature and specific humidity of the air. Surface values of potential temperature and humidity in (3.12), sometimes referred to as skin values, are those within ca. 1 mm of the surface. These are taken to be the surface temperature of the snow or ice and the saturation specific humidity at this temperature. Snow and ice surfaces are characterized by a stable boundary layer, with cold air near the surface...

Disasters and hazards

The North-east Atlantic is the region with the deepest observed central pressures of extra-tropical cyclones, and the adjacent margin of north-west Europe has the greatest levels of extra-tropical cyclone historical building damage, forestry windthrow, and storm-surge impacts observed worldwide. Many studies report an increase in the 1980s in the number of deep (and high wind-speed) extra-tropical cyclone storms in this

Observational Techniques

At the other end of the spectrum, the smallest scale eddies that need to be measured to estimate a flux in the surface layer are roughly about 0.5z. In the mixed layer, the smallest scales are roughly about 0. lz(. Therefore, for measurements from a tower at a height of 2 m, and a wind speed of 5 m s, a frequency response of least 5Hz is required. In the mixed layer, for an aircraft flying at lOOm s in the middle of a 1 -km-deep CBL, a frequency response of at least 1 Hz is required. If the aircraft is flying lower, say about 30 m, which is in the upper part of the surface layer, a frequency response of at least 7 Hz is required. To achieve a frequency response of fc hertz using a sensor with a first-order time response, a sensor time constant of about 1 (6 1) s is required.

Climatic Data Atmospheric Observations

The most important examples of atmospheric measurement are air temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, radiation, and the composition of the atmosphere. However, visual observations of cloud type and fraction, precipitation type, or weather type are also important.

Climatic Data Historical Records

Accurate reconstruction of past climate relies on information from instruments that measure air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation, air temperature, and humidity made at weather or climate stations around the globe. But looking further back in time, the record declines, both in terms of the area of the world covered and the number of variables measured. By the late 1700s, it includes only a handful of places, mainly in Europe.

Historical perspective

Figure 4.1 The meridional structure of the tropopause. The potential vorticity discontinuity tropopause is shown by heavy solid lines, with the stratosphere shaded. The primary frontal zones are bounded by heavy dotted lines. The 40 m s-1 isotach (thin dashed line) encircles the cores of the primary jet streams (Ja, Arctic Jp, Polar Js, Subtropical). The secondary (thermal) tropopause is indicated by the heavy dashed line. Major tropospheric and stratospheric airmasses, tropopause surfaces and selected wind systems are labeled. Cross sections at any given time along any given longitude may differ greatly from this idealized model (from Shapiro et al., 1987b, by permission of AMS). Figure 4.1 The meridional structure of the tropopause. The potential vorticity discontinuity tropopause is shown by heavy solid lines, with the stratosphere shaded. The primary frontal zones are bounded by heavy dotted lines. The 40 m s-1 isotach (thin dashed line) encircles the cores of the primary jet...

Agrometeorological Advisory Service AAS

Tte major challenge to coping strategies is the development of well differentiated and sufficiently scaled up operational services supporting preparedness strategies (e.g. Stigter et al. 2007). In India, the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting has for example developed an AAS in close collaboration with the India Meteorological Department, the Indian Council for Agricultural Research and the State Agricultural Universities. General Circulation Models (T-80 and T-170) constitute the basic tool for preparing location specific forecasts in the medium range, tte model output is subjected to statistical (Perfect Prog. Model) and synoptic interpretation for improving the skill of weather forecasts. In relation to the forecasts currently available, progress is expected by users on enhancing the skill and range of meteorological variables. It would be necessary to obtain information not only on the average values, but also on the extreme values (for example, for rainfall or...

Modeling and Analysis of Engine Performance

The Marnoch engine uses a pneumatic rotary actuator and a transmission system that converts mechanical energy provided through a flywheel to electricity in an electrical generator. Any cylinder configuration can be used and it is not restricted to a rotary actuator. The transmission can be a belt drive or direct drive, similar to systems used in wind turbines. The differential in pressure between the heated tank and the cooled tank drives the actuator. The size of the actuator depends on the size of the generator used. When the gas is highly compressed within the piston cylinder, the temperature differential needed to generate a sufficient pressure change is proportionately less than at a lower initial pressure. A prototype Mar-noch engine is shown in Fig. 14.2.

Transpiration and water use

It is now well established that for many plants, including rice, an increase in CO2 increases the stomatal resistance (rs) or, inversely, decreases the conductance (gs 1 rs) through a reduction in stomatal aperture (Akita, 1980 Morrison and Gifford 1983, 1984a Baker et al., 1990a Nakagawa et al., 1997 Homma et al., 1999). A 56 increase in rs (Morrison and Gifford, 1984a) and 40-49 increase in rc (Homma et al., 1999) were reported for rice subjected to long-term doubled CO2 treatments. However, doubling CO2 does not reduce Eto a similar extent as the rs increase. This is because an increase in rs causes a rise in TL which leads to an increase in E caused by the increase in the vapour pressure gradient between leaf and air (e*(TL) - ea). Thus, the effect of elevated CO2 on E depends not only on rs but also on evaporative demand of the environment, which in turn is determined by factors such as temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed.

Todays problems yesterdays governance

This is evident, for example, in the slow pace of change of regulations to enable the connection of micro-generation technologies to electricity networks. Up until very recently in the UK, for example, the government and its chief energy markets regulator, Ofgem, were preoccupied by competitive access between owners of very large power stations, and not thousands, potentially millions, of household sources like solar pho-tovoltaics (PV) or micro-CHP. In the case of renewable energy, in 2007 the UK government consulted on reforming its 'Renewables Obligation' in order to help the many renewable energy technologies that are currently less competitive than wind farms (see Chapter 8). For good or ill, however, UK policy remains wedded to a 'banded' market instrument, rather than more direct and assured supports like feed-in tariffs or a suite of technology-specific measures. In contrast, countries like Germany and Spain have adopted feed-in tariffs as more appropriate to their...

The Evaporation Conundrum

Where p and cp are air density and heat capacity, respectively, es(Ts) and ea are water vapour pressure in air for saturation at surface temperature (Ts) and ambient conditions, respectively, and - is the psychrometric constant. r is the resistance to vapour transport from the wet surface to the point of interest in the air where humidity is measured, which in turn can be separated into a bulk surface resistance (rs) and boundary-layer aerodynamic resistance (ra). This second description of evaporation emphasises that it is influenced not only by radiation, but also by aerodynamic parameters like air temperature, humidity and wind speed, as well as surface parameters like roughness. Viewing both the energy budget and diffusion models of evaporation together, it is clear that climate factors determine the partitioning of radiative energy absorbed by a surface between the energy dissipation processes, that is, evaporation and convection. where Ta is air temperature, A is the slope of...

The political saliency of the sustainable energy question

Well, then it is taken for granted it becomes an invisible underpinning for modern life. It is only when that system fails, and modern life risks disruption, that the importance of energy suddenly becomes visible and leaps up political agendas for a time. Recent energy blackouts in Europe and parts of the US were typical profile raising events. During these periods, the mainstream of public life takes an intense, if transient, interest. Arguments over how best to alter the energy system, for example, and restore energy services, can become very heated. Campaigns for and against large wind farms today, nuclear power stations a generation ago, or the construction of pylons to carry the national grid a generation earlier all attest to the highly political nature of this 'technical' issue.

Use of Nuclear with Renewables

An additional reduction might be achievable by combining a nuclear generating station with wind and solar. Nuclear power plants are considered base load generators. This means that they are designed and run to provide the minimum amount of electrical power that a utility must provide to its customers throughout the day. Other electrical generation technologies are used to address the peaks in electrical power usage that occur throughout the day as the electrical demand varies. This does not mean that nuclear power units cannot do what is referred to as load following, (which means that it can adjust its power output as demand for electricity fluctuates throughout the day). For example, the French developed advanced reactor called the EPR can be operated efficiently from 50 to 100 power (G. Vanderheydan, 2009, private communication). Thus, reactors could be combined with wind turbines or solar generating technologies so that when wind and sunlight conditions are favorable, the...

Leaf form and physiology

Photosynthetic rates in the field are generally measured by using infra-red gas analysis equipment with the carbon dioxide concentration measured in a cuvette containing the leaf, or clamped to it. The cuvette has a forced ventilation system that disrupts the leaf's boundary layer. However, it is possible that in still-air conditions boundary-layer resistance might limit photosynthetic rates. Meinzer et al. (1995) found that porometry substantially over-estimated evapotranspiration in small trees and shrubs in tropical forest gaps when compared with measurements made using the heat-pulse technique and potometry of whole plants. Similarly, studies of canopy leaves in Panama found that under conditions of high stomatal conductance and low wind speeds transpiration becomes decoupled from stomatal conductance (Meinzer et al. 1997). The implication from these findings is that gas exchange measurements may often over-estimate maximal photosynthetic rates of individual leaves.

Lei Yang1 Wei Wei Li1 Dongxiao Wang1 and Yongping Li2

Using reanalysis and satellite data sets, numerical simulation and statistical methods are applied for investigating tropical cyclone (TC) of two ocean basins the South China Sea (SCS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB). Influenced by Asian monsoon, TCs' feature in these two ocean basins differ from the one of other open oceans. In this chapter, a unique TC case passing through SCS as well as TCs track characteristics in BOB are examined. The Fifth Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) is utilized to study the precipitation and wind speed during Typhoon Chanchu (2006) in SCS. Five model experiments with different physical parameterizations and sea surface temperature (SST) distributions are carried out in the study. Simulations are evaluated using satellite observations. It is found that the control experiment that is configured with the Blakadar boundary scheme, Resiner2 moisture, the Betts-Miller cumulus scheme and daily updated SST...

Iff v iff pUnontidalVv jjj putidai vrdv 3105

Wind energy sources for the kinetic energy The energy contribution due to large-scale and low-frequency atmospheric pressure perturbations is the work done associated with the so-called atmospheric loading. The global sum of this term is small, estimated as 0.04 TW by Wang et al. (2006). Wind energy input to the surface currents can be classified as (1) wind stress work on the surface geostrophic currents, estimated as 0.88 TW (Wunsch, 1998) and (2) wind stress work on the surface ageostrophic currents (the Ekman layer), estimated as 3 TW (Wang and Huang, 2004a). Wind energy input where surface geostrophic currents can be calculated from U0,g gk x Vn f (where n is the sea surface height inferred from either satellite altimeter data or numerical models), except near the equator. The total amount of energy input is estimated as 0.88 TW (Wunsch, 1998). Although the wind energy input is positive around 40 N, the major energy input is through the Southern Ocean and the equatorial band...

E 115e 120e110e 115e 120e110e 115e 120e

Different atmospheric conditions in PBL_MRF (boundary condition) and CUM_G (cumulus scheme) could cause an increase in latent heat flux and precipitation, but not in storm intensity, such as maximum wind speed and center pressure. However, a warmer SST (in SST_C) could result in an increase in storm intensity in addition to the increase in latent heat flux and precipitation. Model simulated precipitation and wind speed are compared with satellite data, in order to evaluate model performance and to test model sensitivity to several parameters that may impact simulation results. Atmospheric boundary condition, cumulus scheme and SST distribution can have different influences on rainfall and wind patten during different periods of a TC process. All five model runs in this study overestimate precipitation and underestimate maximum wind speed during Chanchu (2006). Large rainfall area mainly occurs on the west or northwest side of the rainfall center. Areas around rainfall and maximum wind...

Assumptions about future trends

The most dominant climatic drivers for water availability are precipitation, temperature, and evaporative demand (determined by net radiation at ground level, atmospheric humidity, wind speed, and temperature). Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas (due to the impact of temperature on sea level).

Recent developments in the energy system

Privatisation also opened a small window of opportunity for people seeking to promote renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies had been sidelined by the nationalised energy industries for decades. The state electricity industry had run a small, unsuccessful R& D programme looking at large wind turbines, but was reluctant to move further. The newly liberalised regime allowed private operators to import better Danish turbine technology, connect to the grid, and sell their renewable electricity. More significantly, privatisation ushered in new forms of public support for renewable energy discussed below. Nevertheless renewables as a proportion of total UK electricity supply reached only five per cent by 2008. This attests to the small window for renewable energy and the difficulties these technologies have competing in energy markets as currently structured. Perhaps ironically, it was nuclear power's advocates who made the case for continued public support in the new world of...

Australia and New Zealand

Warming is likely to be larger than that of the surrounding oceans, but comparable to the global mean. The warming is less in the south, especially in winter, with the warming in the South Island of New Zealand likely to remain less than the global mean. Precipitation is likely to decrease in southern Australia in winter and spring. Precipitation is very likely to decrease in southwestern Australia in winter. Precipitation is likely to increase in the west of the South Island of New Zealand. Changes in rainfall in northern and central Australia are uncertain. Increased mean wind speed is likely across the South Island of New Zealand, particularly in winter. Increased frequency of extreme high daily temperatures in Australia and New Zealand, and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes is very likely. Extremes of daily precipitation are very likely to increase, except possibly in areas of significant decrease in mean rainfall (southern Australia in winter and spring). Increased...

A sustainable energy governance example coordinating renewable energy expansion

Governance complexities soon become apparent even if we simplify to a supply-side example like renewable energy. Widespread renewable energy systems pose a considerable policy challenge. The policy 'object' - viable renewable energy systems - brings with it many coordination challenges. There are various renewable energy technologies to choose from (wind, solar, biomass, marine, and others), each of which can be configured at various scales in different ways, and each of which is already developed to various degrees. The innovation and deployment of renewable energy technologies involves a mix of established energy utilities and new business models and firms. Renewable energy projects like wind farms can involve large and protracted planning processes. Other projects involve smaller planning applications, but these can prove just as protracted and debilitating for the applicant (such as those for solar water heating panels in UK conservation areas). Both make demands upon the existing...

Integration of Renewable Energy

Distributed generation involves the use of small, modular energy conversion units close to the point of consumption by a wide variety of producers. In the power sector, utilities have limited experience of interconnecting numerous small-scale generation units to their distribution networks and the possible level of renewables penetration depends mostly on the existing electrical infrastructure considered. Bringing on land the power produced from a large offshore wind farm is (economically) only possible when a strong electric grid exists and sufficient electricity grid capacity is available. Other cases exist where a completely new energy infrastructure with the specific purpose of allowing very high penetration levels, up to 100 electricity from renewables, has been established.

Renewable Energy Status and Prospects Status of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

Abstract By 2050, the increased use of renewables such as hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass in power generation is projected to contribute between 9 and 16 of the CO2 emission reductions. The share of renewables in the generation mix increases from 18 today, to as high as 34 by 2050. Hydropower is already widely deployed and is, in many areas, the cheapest source of power. There is considerable potential for expansion, particularly for small hydro plants. The costs of onshore and offshore wind have declined sharply in recent years through mass deployment, the use of larger blades, and more sophisticated controls. Costs depend on location. The best onshore sites, which can produce power for about USD 0.04 per kWh, are already competitive with other power sources. Offshore installations are more costly, especially in deep water, but are expected to be commercial after 2030. In situations where wind will have a very high share of generation, it will need to be complemented by...

Prospects for Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy

First-generation renewable technologies are mostly confined to locations where a particular resource is available. Hydropower, high-temperature geothermal resources, and onshore wind power are site specific, but are competitive in places where the basic resource is plentiful and of good quality. Their future use depends on exploiting the remaining resource potential, which is significant in many countries, and on overcoming challenges related to the environment and public acceptance. The second-generation of renewables has been commercially deployed, usually with incentives in place intended to ensure further cost reductions through increased scale and market learning. Offshore wind power, advanced biomass, solar PV and concentrating solar power technologies are being deployed now. All have benefited from R& D investments by IEA countries, mainly the 1980s. Markets for these technologies are strong and growing, but only in a few countries. Some of the technologies are already fully...

Modal instability with the influence of friction a

To determine the impacts of spatially nonuniform friction on the instability, we need to make additional computations. The frictional coefficient for generic land surfaces may be several times larger than that for water surfaces at moderate wind speeds (Arya, 1988). Thus, we present the result for aocean 0.015 and

Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many proven technologies available to produce renewable energy, and some new technologies are under development. One of the most promising renewable energy technologies for electricity generation is wind energy that uses airflows to run wind turbines. In good wind regimes, cost-wise, wind power is comparable to fossil alternatives, particularly when economic or environmental concerns are considered. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 KW to 5 MW of rated power. Most common wind turbines for commercial use are of a rated capacity of 1.5-3 MW. Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy in the world. Since 1993, it is growing on average 30 percent a year. Windmills typically run at 2535 percent of their capacity over the course of a year. light directly into electricity. Photovoltaic power is also widely viewed as cost competitive, like wind power. As energy from the Sun is free and the cost of the photovoltaic cells is dropping, a solar energy boom is likely in...

Current sensitivity vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate

The inter-annual, monthly and daily distribution of climate variables (e.g., temperature, radiation, precipitation, water vapour pressure in the air and wind speed) affects a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that drive the productivity of agricultural, forestry and fisheries systems. The latitudinal distribution of crop, pasture and forest species is a function of the current climatic and atmospheric conditions, as well as of photoperiod (e.g., Leff et al., 2004). Total seasonal precipitation as well as its pattern of variability (Olesen and Bindi, 2002) are both of major importance for agricultural, pastoral and forestry systems.

Renewables and Noncarbon Energy Sources

All locations are not suitable for producing wind power. Wind power is a function of wind speed cubed (kinetic energy increases with wind speed squared and that energy is transported to the wind turbine at the wind speed). Best sites are near seashores (e.g., Denmark), high-wind areas in continental interiors (e.g., North Dakota), or hilltops (e.g., Altamont Pass, California). The jet stream, with energy fluxes of > 10 kilowatts (kW) m-2, represents a high-density resource, but one that is difficult to harvest. In isolated regions transmission losses reduce efficiencies. For many sites public acceptance is an important barrier (e.g., offshore in Cape Cod and the North Sea). Intermittency limits wind power, in the absence of energy storage and long-distance transmission technologies, to 10 percent of base load power. Wind power can potentially provide a greater fraction of total power if coupled with improved energy storage and transmission systems (e.g., hydrogen, superconducting...

Discussion and conclusions

The clearly surface manifestations and accurate location of the mesoscale cyclones, frontal boundaries, wavelike disturbances on the fronts, mesoscale convective cells and rolls, etc. were found on many Envisat ASAR images of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Surface imprints of the atmospheric features can indicate wind direction needed for wind speed retrieval with C-band SCAT model CMOD4 or CMOD5.

Costs and Potential for Cost Reductions

From a pre-market level of about USD 0.80 per kWh in 1980, wind power costs have declined steadily. Wind power crossed the USD 0.10 per kWh threshold in about 1991, and dropped to about USD 0.05 per kWh in 1998. Since then, costs at the very best sites have dropped to about USD 0.03-USD 0.04 per kWh.7 7 These costs are not directly comparable with fossil-fuel-based power generation due to the variable nature of wind electricity and the grid integration costs. Costs of wind power installations depend on system components and size, as well as on the site. Generating capacity is primarily determined by the rotor-swept area and local wind patterns. Typical turnkey installation costs of onshore wind turbines are USD 850-USD 1,150 per kW. Investment costs differ considerably between onshore and offshore applications. For offshore installations, the foundation accounts for one-third or more of the cost. Turnkey installation costs are now in the range of USD 1,100-USD 2,000 per kW for...

An Offensive Coastal Defence

Another design for the islands may include the combination of different functions (Fig. 2.19). These islands consist of a basin, which is empty in regular circumstances but may be flooded in case of a storm. These fall-lake functions as a energy producer, using the hydropower when water enters the island and uses wind-energy to pump the water out again. Use of the extra storage during stormy weather may support the protective power of islands. Beside this function these kinds of islands give room to intensive harbour connected industries, which are difficult to implement on land.

Future RD Efforts

Box 5.2 Priority research and development areas for wind energy Careful consideration of interaction between wind turbines and wildlife aerofoils and on further advances in power electronics. The feasibility of floating wind turbines, individually and in multi-unit formations, has also been the focus of several studies. Offshore wind development and the role of wind energy within hydrogen-based energy systems are R& D priority areas for the long term. Technology and environmental issues raised by offshore wind energy development is the subject of much research and are likely to form an important part of future activities. In addition to using wind energy for electricity production, the technology could be applied to other energy applications in the long term, particularly hydrogen generation.

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht Utrecht University PO Box 80005 3508 TA Utrecht The Netherlands

In 1997-98, a meteorological expedition to Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, studied the details of the Antarctic boundary layer (Bintanja, 2001a). An extensive array of techniques was used at various locations, of which just one will be described here. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity were measured at five levels (0.5 to 9 m above the surface) at a horizontally homogeneous location on the Antarctic ice sheet, near Swedish research station Svea (74 11'S, 10 13'W, 1150m above sea level). This site is subject to katabatic winds and prevailing synoptic easterlies, with an unobstructed fetch of at least 10km. The measurements took place from late December 1997 to early February 1998, with mean values of wind speed, temperature and relative humidity of 4.3 ms-1, -10.2 C and 70 , respectively. Sensors were sampled every 2min, and half-hourly means were calculated. For the purpose of this paper we will focus on a period with particularly strong winds (8-10 January 1998). Most...

Conclusions and Further References

In this paper, we have reported a numerical model for radiative transfer calculations on the atmosphere-ocean system. The present model uses the liquid sea surface as a boundary condition, taking into account the influence of wind-speed and wave age on the sea surface roughness. The algorithm is able to compute TOA reflectance for low and high wind speeds using a new wind-wave formulation. We consider this to be an initial proof of concept exercise, the main aim being on the performance of the implementation and its evaluation when compared with other existing formulations. For further application to remote sensing data imagery the reader is encouraged to see Ref. 19 where the authors apply the present model to evaluate the variability of MODIS reflectance at the visible and near IR regions. MODIS reflectance variability is interpreted by considering both wind and wind-wave effects on the sea surface roughness which directly influences the observed Sun glint pattern.

An analysis of the AWSderived surface fluxes

The sensible and latent turbulent heat fluxes are estimated from measured air temperature, humidity and wind speed using a bulk approach and a constant turbulent exchange coefficient of 0.00153 (Oerlemans & Klok, 2002). The sensible turbulent heat flux is positive throughout the entire year because mean daily air temperature always exceeds the surface temperature at our site. It is largest in summer when the surface temperature is limited to the melting point and the vertical temperature gradients are largest. This also generates a strong katabatic flow, which in turn enhances the turbulent exchange. The latent turbulent heat flux is small and on average positive, indicating that normally condensation or riming takes place. This adds about 2 cm water-equivalent per year to the glacier surface at the AWS site. Between

New Index for Tropical Cyclone Development from Sea Surface Temperature and Evaporation Fields

Abstract In this study, we present a new index (called the H-index) which is the spatial mean gradient of the logarithm of the surface wind speed with respect to sea surface temperature (SST), and can be easily computed from large scale fields of evaporation and SST Two independent physically based arguments indicate that tropical cyclones would tend to be spun-up in regions of negative H of large magnitude (< 1). In these regions which only occur in the tropics, significant releases of kinetic energy (KE) into the atmosphere from the ocean mixed layer due to convective instability give rise to warm core systems which may develop into intense TCs. The monthly mean histograms of H evaluated from reanalysis and SST data and averaged over the period 1979-2005 for three generation regions (the West Pacific, the Atlantic and the East Pacific) show a remarkable symmetrical pattern in which the standard deviation increases during the active season. This property is therefore ideally suited...

Plant Responses to Weather Conditions

Weather conditions play a fundamental role in plant growth and development due to their direct and indirect influence on each physical, chemical and biological process, that is regulated by specific requirements and any deviation from these patterns may exert a negative influence (Das et al. 2003). Air and soil temperature, air and soil humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, rainfall, evapotranspiration are the most important variables affecting the vegetative and productive responses of

Delineating potential damage from Hurricane Katrina An example of geospatial applications to disaster management

Hurricane Katrina provided an unparalleled opportunity to study a variety of damage conditions from hurricane force wind and rain over a wide area and range of landscape conditions. According to a National Hurricane Center (NHC) (Knabb et al., 2005) report, Hurricane Katrina was likely at Saffir-Simpson Category 4 storm a couple of hours before making landfall. Comparisons have been made between Hurricane Camille (1969) and Hurricane Katrina (2005). Fritz et al., (2007) mention that Hurricane Camille made more powerful landfall, but was considerably smaller, with hurricane wind gusts reaching only 100 km to the east of the eyewall while Katrina hurricane force winds extended 140 km to the east of the center. The resulting Katrina storm surge extent was also much wider and likely exceeded the 6.9 m high water mark recorded in the aftermath of hurricane Camille. The heaviest rainfall occurred in southeast Lousisana with over 30 reporting stations in seven states recording rainfall in...

Investigating The Ocean Through Computer M00elung

Because time was short, it was decided to construct a simple two-dimensional model, in which current flow (the Tsushima Current plus tidal currents) would, of necessity, be depth-averaged. This was considered to be an acceptable simplification, but resulted in local wind-driven currents being under-represented, because the flow was spread over the whole depth instead of confined to the surface Ekman layer. It was decided to compensate for this effect at the time of racing by adding a surface current of 3 of the wind speed (from local weather forecasts), at a small angle to the right of the wind (cf. Section 3.1).

Theoretical Interpretation of the Global Fields

Where F pE, in which p and pa are respectively the densities of freshwater and air, KE is the drag coefficient for water vapour, qs qs(T) is the saturated specific humidity at the sea surface where T is the sea surface temperature (SST), rs qi0 qs is the 10 m relative humidity with respect to T (which reduces to the relative humidity at 10 m for T T10), and u u10 is the surface wind speed at 10 m. On taking the (natural) logarithm of (1) we obtain the expression, Equation (4) is the central working relation for our study. Firstly, evaluating the second term on the right hand side for a sea surface temperature of 15 C (which is representative of the subtropics), yields, e L (RT2) 0.065 K-1. Hence, since from Figs. 1 and 2, the mean slope (d ln E dT) in the subtropics is approximately 0.065 K-1, it is clear that the variation of wind speed with sea surface temperature is of relatively small account. Here the evaporation gradient is controlled almost completely by the Clausius-Clapyron...

Spatial SciENcE METHoDS MoDels And Gis

An understanding of the geography of energy production and consumption is central to understanding the causes and consequences of global warming. Energy geography will also be essential to the development of strategies to combat global warming. Energy geographers work with climatologists to identify places with good wind energy potential. Some communities actively recruit wind power development. Others are not so sanguine. Hence, energy geographers work with land-use planners to find sites for wind turbines that are energy efficient and acceptable to communities in the area.

Important Biophysical Aspects of Sinks that Shape Their Inclusion in Trading

Mass is at least as dependent on nature as is carbon storage in biological systems. A severe drought might disrupt vegetation growth or lead to a forest fire and thus to unplanned carbon emissions. That same drought might lead to low hydro capacity, increase demand for electricity for air conditioning and be associated with a lack of wind to power wind turbines. An electricity generator might then need to rely on existing fossil-generating capacity more than expected, leading to unplanned emissions of CO2. The unique features of the interaction between nature and management are important considerations in the design of a carbon trading system, and how it will work, but they are not a barrier to establishing markets for carbon. If anything, they enhance the case for a market - it is in just these cases of unexpected changes that markets are able to allocate goods to their highest use, and find goods at their least cost.

Mixing Length Eddy Viscosity and the w Spectrum

Density of vertical velocity variance increased with depth for the first couple of turbulence clusters (to about 4 m from the ice) but that for greater depths (8-26 m), the peaks occurred at roughly the same wave number. We were also aware that Busch and Panofsky (1968) had shown that velocity variance spectra measured in the atmospheric boundary layer had the following characteristics (i) wavelengths at the maximum in the logarithmic (area-preserving) spectra of vertical velocity increased linearly with height up to about 50 m, and more slowly beyond (ii) the dimension-less frequency, fm nz V where n is frequency at the spectral maximum and V is mean wind speed, scaled with Monin-Obukhov similarity in the surface layer (discussed in Chapter 4) (iii) there was a relatively uniform shape to the normalized w spectra, when the abscissa values were scaled by fm and ordinate values by u20 and (iv) the longitudinal (u) spectra did not show similarly predictable behavior. For the neutrally...

Regional Status and Potential of Renewables to Address Climate Change

There are currently 29 countries in the OECD. The majority are located in Europe with the three largest countries of North America included - the United States, Canada, and Mexico - as well as Japan, Korea, Australia, and New Zealand. These countries use just over half the world's primary energy consumption today. Many have substantial renewable energy resources, but such resources are not uniformly distributed. As shown in Figure 5.1, strong solar resources exist in portions of the United States, Mexico, Australia, and New Zealand. Figure 5.2 shows that many OECD countries have some wind resources, especially on mountain ridges, but wind resources are large only in the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and the coastal regions of Northern Europe. Significant geothermal power opportunities for OECD countries exist primarily in North America, Japan, New Zealand, and portions of the southern Mediterranean, as shown in Figure 5.5. Although Table 5.4 is not broken down exactly along OECD...

Local Motions in the Atmosphere That Affect Weather and Climate

Local motions in the atmosphere also affect the weather and climate of an area. These patterns play a large role in determining what plants and animals can live in the region. The ecosystem of any area has grown up around its climate and, if that climate is altered, every species in the ecosystem must either adapt, migrate, or die. One of the major concerns about global warming is that it will affect ecosystems, upsetting delicate balances between climate, plants, and animals. If major food chains are upset, it can have far-reaching, devastating impacts. In order to understand what effects global warming can have on local environments it is necessary to understand local atmospheric systems. This chapter discusses regional wind systems and the effect of continentality, the jet stream, and midlatitude cyclones. It presents local wind systems, such as sea-land breezes, monsoon winds, orographic uplift, lake effect, and mountain-valley breezes. Finally, it covers extreme weather events,...

Non FossilFuel Energy Sources

Wind Power Like solar energy, wind power is considered a clean energy. Its technology is rapidly deployable to many suitable regions around the world, making it the world's fastest growing energy source at present. Its energy density is comparable to solar, but areas for deployment are more restricted. Wind power has very limited negative effects on the environment. The largest concern is probably the visual impact of large-scale wind farms with turbines up to 200 meters tall on mountain ridges or in coastal regions with aesthetic and cultural values. Wind turbines, especially older models, can be noisy. A controversial impact is that on bird communities through killings by turbine blades.

History of Meteorology

In pressure substantially correlate with the advent of storms (in 1644). Blaise Pascal noted, in 1648, that atmospheric pressure decreased with increasing altitude, deducing a vacuum above the Earth's atmosphere, and, in 1667, Robert Hooke invented the anemometer for measuring wind speed. Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit created the mercury thermometer with his temperature scale in 1714, followed by Anders Celsius's alternative temperature scale in 1735, which was adopted in Napoleon's empire in the early 1800s. The daily observation of basic changes in air pressure, moisture, and the direction and speed of the wind was instituted by Laurent Lavoisie in 1765. Horace de Saussure's hair hygrometer (1780) for determining humidity provided the last major instrumentation, and one of the final measuring standards necessary to move meteorology from observation into research and theorization. Luke Howard's cloud classification system (1802) and Francis Beaufort's wind speed scale (1806) provided...

Hurricanes and Typhoons

Ops, however, few Atlantic systems develop there because of the proximity to the equator. The majority of Atlantic systems develop on the eastern side of tropical waves, which is an area that promotes convergence and rain showers. Another condition that must be satisfied for tropical cyclone development is the absence of vertical wind shear. Vertical wind shear is the change in wind speed or direction with height. When a hurricane or typhoon encounters areas with high vertical wind shear, the storm has a tendency to tilt, which inhibits the efficiency of the heat distribution in the atmosphere. Therefore, the upper level cannot form over the surface low that would cause the low to deepen. As a result, vertical wind shear causes the surface low to weaken.

The Earths Heat Engine

The transfer of heat from the equator to the poles takes place within the atmosphere and the oceans. The horizontal transport (advection of heat) in the atmosphere occurs in the form of both latent heat (i.e., water vapor that subsequently condenses) and sensible heat (warm air or warm water masses). It varies in intensity according to latitude and season. The intensity of the poleward energy flow is closely related to the meridional (north-south) temperature gradient. In winter, this temperature gradient is at a maximum and in consequence the atmospheric circulation is most intense. Different air masses form, which have different characteristics and are separated from one another by fronts (sharp discontinuities in temperature, moisture, and wind speeds). The movement of these air masses transfers heat and moisture and is part of the general global atmospheric circulation. Similarly, different water masses, such as the Gulf Stream and other

Role of the Arctic in Climate Variability

With respect to the first question, a number of explanations have been invoked, including in the case of colder periods (glacials) the generally higher albedo due to increased snow and ice covers (Hansen et al., 1984 see Albedo), a larger concentration of aerosols as a result of increased aridity or higher wind speeds (Harvey, 1988), and lower concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (Barnola et al., 1987 Raynaud et al., 1993). All of these factors contribute to a less positive radiation balance, that is, a decrease in net warming in the Earth's surface.

Sstatmosphere Feedback

One consequence of the induced intraseasonal SST variations is that the surface fluxes will be modified. The induced SST anomaly associated with the MJO (Figure 7.1) has been diagnosed to cause a slight eastward shift of the latent heat flux anomaly relative to the wind speed anomaly because of the temperature effect on the surface saturation humidity (e.g., Zhang, 1996 Hendon and Glick, 1997). This eastward shift causes the maximum latent heat flux to be more collocated with the maximum convection, rather than lagging it by a few days. This subtle phase difference has important ramifications for the mechanism of the eastward propagating MJO (e.g., Raymond, 2001). However, the quality of current global surface flux and humidity data sets prohibits a more definitive description at this time.

Pollution of the Land

Most people dislike the intrusive presence of many wind turbines, especially in areas of great natural beauty. The generators also emit a persistent humming noise which many people living nearby find intolerable, and results in the loss of value of their property. These disadvantages do not occur in the case of off-shore wind farms, but instead there is some danger to shipping and appreciably higher cost. Similar remarks apply to solar power, if ever the collectors were deployed on a large scale. It is sometimes argued against wind power that the turbine blades kill large numbers of birds, estimated to be about 30,000 per year in Denmark and 70,000 per year in the USA. While this is of course regrettable, it may be put into perspective by comparing these numbers with the numbers of birds killed on motorways (a million a year in Denmark and 57 million per year in the USA), by colliding with glass windows (98 million per year in the USA), by domestic cats (55 million per year in...

Communications and Deliverables during Scoping

Atmospheric information, including local climate (precipitation, temperature, wind speed and direction, presence of inversion layers), weather extremes (storms, floods, winds), release characteristics (direction and speed of plume movement, rate, amount, and temperature of release, relative densities), and types of atmospheric hazards and hazards assessment

Different approaches for different technologies

For some, this would be entirely wrong (Helm, 2006). Their view is that as long as carbon emissions are appropriately priced, there is no need for government to intervene further in technology deployment decisions. The appropriate pricing of carbon emissions may be enough to encourage the uptake of technologies that are near to market. However, such a generic incentive is unlikely to be sufficient to encourage developers of medium and long-term options to develop them further so that they are available as and when required. Evidence from the Renewables Obligation in the UK has already been cited in this chapter. While this policy instrument can, in theory, support a range of technologies including wind power, wave and tidal power and domestic scale PV, it has largely supported the cheapest near-market technologies. Winners under this policy framework include onshore wind, co-firing of biomass in conventional power plants and landfill gas (Ofgem, 2007).

System of planetary boundary layers of the ocean and atmosphere

Meteorological characteristics (the geostrophic wind velocity, temperature, specific humidity and net radiation flux) at the upper boundary of the atmospheric PBL, and hydrological characteristics (the geostrophic current velocity, temperature and salinity) at the lower boundary of the ocean PBL) serve as external parameters for a system of two PBLs. It is these parameters which determine one or other structures of the PBL system, conditions at the interface and internal connections between the separate elements.

Remotesensing Applications

Tw and T0 are calculated through the inversion of a resistance energy balance model. The parameters required at the time of satellite overpass are meteorological- and vegetation-related parameters. Required meteorological data include air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity (or some other measure of vapor pressure), and wind speed. However, many meteorological stations record only daily air temperature extremes and rainfall. McVicar and Jupp (1999) have tested and extended strategies to determine air temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity at the time of the satellite overpass. Wind speed can be obtained from daily wind run data, if available, or long-term climate surfaces. Ready access to real-time satellite and surface data and forecast model predictions of minimum temperature can lessen frost damage, improve harvests, and reduce the use of water applied to prevent such damage. In Wisconsin, cultivated cranberries are the major frost challenge. Any improved...

Fluid characteristics

The velocity of moving air, more exactly those of an air parcel, is the wind velocity. It is not the velocity of molecules and particles contained in the air. Wind is another expression for flow. The wind velocity is a vector given by a norm (wind speed) and a direction in space (wind direction). An air parcel is a volume large enough to allow a statistic macroscopic consideration of the gas this can even be given for a small volume of about 1 mm in diameter. In the Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system (in the atmosphere where the direction of the x-axis is east, the y-axis north and the z-axis upward), the wind velocity is separated into three directions, named u, v and w where i , j and k are the unit vectors in directions of x, y and z. The wind speed (absolute value of velocity) follows from Because of the time-depending wind velocity, the wind vector is described by a complicated four-dimensional field (x, y, z, t) with the components u (x, y, z, t), v (x, y, z, t) and w (x,...

Materials and Methods 3121 Description area

Air quality measurements in Erzurum city are conducted by different institutions during every winter season. Ataturk University Environmental Research Center and Erzurum Refik Saydam Sanitation Center used semi-automatic equipment for 24 h to define the concentration of SO2 and TSP. SO2 and TSP were measured using acidimetric titration method and reflectometric method. SO2 measurement range of the acidimetric method varies between 0.01 and 10 ppm. Reliability of the reflectometric method is not high because of dependence on color of particu-late matter. SO2 and TSP together with meteorological parameters (wind speed, relative humidity, and temperature) were monitored in mobile laboratory by Provincial Environmental Directorate. Measurements were carried out for every 15 min. SO2 concentrations were measured using an instrument that operates on principle of ultraviolet fluorescence (AF 21M). SO2 measurement range varies between 1ppb and 10 ppm with 1 linearity. TSP measurements were...

Atmospheric Precipitation And Snow Cover

One can agree with the conclusion of Petterssen et al. (1956), that observations of atmospheric precipitation are 'the most unsatisfactory of all Arctic meteorological records'. This is due to the very frequent solid precipitation (snowfall) occuning in the Arctic. In addition, rainfalls in summer have a very low intensity. In winter, the snowfall is most often connected with stonn activity and typically takes the form of fine snowflakes. As a result, wind easily lifts and redistributes these snowflakes according to exposure and local topography. Arctic snow usually begins to drift at wind speeds of 7-8 m s. During the polar night, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between a period of snowfall and a period of blowing snow. The measurement of rainfall also encounters difficulties because rain in the Arctic occurs mainly as a light steady drizzle. Serious gauge undercatches are caused mainly by wind-induced turbulence over the gauge orifice. Other losses that decrease the gauge...

Paleoclimatic Implications Of Eolian Records

Huascaran ice cores from Peru (Thompson et al., 1995). Ruddiman (1997) concluded that glacial age aridity in the source areas of Africa cannot explain the greater flux of dust to the Atlantic (and the Americas) during the LGM because there was no increase in dust flux following the early Holocene monsoon maximum. Instead, he argued that stronger winter trade winds were the most likely cause for the greater dust flux during the LGM and that there was also a southward shift in these winds by several degrees of latitude. An atmospheric general circulation model simulation by Rind (1987) demonstrated that a cooler North Atlantic Ocean sea surface would have intensified the winter subtropical high over the Atlantic, which in turn would have increased the strength of the winter trade winds. Countering Ruddiman's (1997) viewpoint, however, is the notion that the amount of dust transport is not a simple function of average wind speed. Rea (1994) pointed out that, at the present time,...

Hours from start of segment

(d) Carbonless energy system serving electric demands and fueling hydrogen cars. Since the wind capacity had reached its limit in the previous case, all additional energy to make energy for the fuel cell and the cars must come from PV. Initially, displacing natural gas generation with low cost wind energy is projected to reduce emissions and system costs (Figure 6.2, 500 GW scenario). Wind capacity can be fully absorbed by the electric grid, except during occasional nighttime hours of very low demand, and very high wind availability. Solar electricity will just begin to be cost effective, even though it is twice the cost of wind per kWh, augmenting generation during periods of higher (daylight) electric demand. Energy storage at this level of renewable penetration is minimal, accounting for roughly 2 of generation (similar to pumped hydro today). This storage essentially serves the same function as pumped hydro, reducing the cost of generating capacity. More than 95 of renewable...

You just mentioned cloud formation If I am correct the formation of clouds is a process that climate models still have

Clouds generally form, because air cools as it rises. When the air gets colder, at some point the saturation humidity is reached, water condensates and clouds are formed. Cloud formation depends on the vertical motion field in the atmosphere. But the vertical motion field is much weaker than the horizontal motion field. The reason for that is that the vertical motion field is determined by slight imbalances in the horizontal motion field. The average wind speed at 5 km height is maybe about 15-20 meters per second. And we can measure this with an accuracy of a couple of meters per second. But to determine the up-and downward motion, we must have a description of the wind which is more accurate than the current observations. So it is really the model dynamics that determine where we have these ups and downs in the motion field. And that determines where the clouds form. Furthermore, when the clouds form, they have all kinds of shapes. The effect on radiation is very sensitive on...

Biodiversity Standards in Voluntary Forestry Offset Schemes

Voluntary schemes for offsetting greenhouse emissions are examined in depth in Chapter 3. These types of offsets, certified by third parties or not, come in many different forms, from wind farms, to industrial gas destruction, to wetland conservation. Carbon credits generated by voluntary schemes are not tradable in the official exchanges set up under the Kyoto Protocol or by governments such as the EU ETS or in Australia's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme. Nevertheless, the voluntary market is the only effective market for forestry sinks given that no certified credits have (at the time of writing) yet been issued for A R projects under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol (UNEP Risoe, 2008). The demand for voluntary offsets is by governments, institutions, businesses and private citizens wishing to offset their emissions for ethical, guilt or public image reasons. Forest offsets as opposed, for example, to wind farms or switching fuels, are often preferred because...

Box 112 Adaptation of water supplies in cities

In capital cities such as Perth, Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Canberra and Auckland, concern about population pressures and the impact of climate change is leading water planners to implement a range of adaptation options (Table 11.2). For example, the winter rainfall-dominated region of south-west Western Australia has experienced a substantial decline in May to July rainfall since the mid-20th century. The effects of the decline on natural runoff have been severe, as evidenced by a 50 drop in annual inflows to reservoirs supplying the city of Perth (Figure 11.3). Similar pressures have been imposed on groundwater resources and wetlands. This has been accompanied by a 20 increase in domestic usage in 20 years, and a population growth of 1.7 yr (IOCI, 2002). Climate simulations indicate that at least some of the observed drying is due to the enhanced greenhouse effect (IOCI, 2002). To ensure water security, a US 350 million programme of investment in water source development...

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Photovoltaic electricity generates high hopes, although it is not yet directly competitive with the electricity produced in the current power stations. Consequently, the only present applications concern isolated sites for the supply of relatively reduced levels of power. Significant progress has nevertheless been observed. As with wind power, incentive policies can be set up to offset the cost of developments on a larger scale. In particular, the possibility of exporting some of the electricity produced to the electricity grid, at a sufficiently attractive purchase price, should promote deployment of photovoltaic panels in the housing sector....

Nitrous oxide measurement techniques and estimation procedures

Micrometeorological techniques involve measurements of N2O in the atmosphere at two or more points above the soil surface, in combination with meteorological measurements (for example wind speed, wind direction and air temperature) (Denmead et al, 2000). These techniques measure N2O emissions on a field scale, and thus spatially integrate N2O flux measurements. Their disadvantages are, however, that they require large homogeneous field sites, are less reliable with low wind speed and high atmospheric stability, and require expensive N2O analysis equipment (Fowler et al, 1997 Phillips et al, 2007). Phillips et al (2007) measured N2O fluxes from a flood-irrigated dairy pasture, using a micrometeorological method coupled to a tunable-diode laser, in order to detect rapid changes in N2O fluxes in response to irrigation, grazing and N fertilizer application (Figure 6.3). N2O fluxes remained low following each irrigation event while WFPS was close to saturation (> 95 per cent). However,...

Box 91 The Danish example

The costs of network reinforcement triggered by distributed wind and CHP plants between 1992 and 2001 amount to 630 million Danish kronors (DKK) (US 76 million, 2001 exchange rate). This corresponds to an average of DKK 300,000 (US 36,000) per MW for wind power and DKK 500,000 (US 60,000) per MW for CHP. As an indication of the magnitude of this cost, for wind it is around five to seven per cent of the cost of building an onshore wind-turbine itself, which was six to seven million DKK per MW (approximately US 720,000-840,000) in 2003 (Bach et al., 2003).

Validation of the Model

The simulated and observed daily multiannual means are compared for the corresponding climate fields for the period 1961-1990 for the entire used domain (Fig. 33.2) by visual and single values assigned for each climate field. The Visual Climate Data Analysis Tool (VCDAT) is used to extract the statistical mean and standard deviation. We can see that the model has a cold bias and slightly decreases the actual precipitation and evaporation. The model tends to give slightly higher values in wind speeds and runoff (Table 33.2). If the area covering Saudi Arabia is considered instead of the whole domain, the agreements of the model to observation are much better. The statistical standard deviation shows that the mean values for the model are more spread for temperature, evaporation, and wind speeds than the corresponding observations, while the model's means for precipitation and runoff show less spread values than the corresponding observations.

Results and Discussion 3351 Eastern province

Table 33.3 shows an increase of 4.47oC, surface wind speeds decreased by 1 precipitation stand tall with substantial increases of 40 , a slight increase of 0.87 in surface evaporation which contributed to an increase of 4 in the soil water balance and an increase of 162 in runoff. Wind speed (m s)

Options that Leisa Farmers have

The options remaining valid with respect to wind have recently been exemplified for smallholder agroforestry by Stigter et al. (2001, 2002), while those of radiation are particularly scattered throughout the intercropping literature (e.g. Stigter and Baldy, 1993 Stigter, 1994 Baldy and Stigter, 1997). A wind example is the use of trees to combat desertification and limit damage by dry air through mitigation of wind speeds and turbulence, contributing to resource and crop protection (Onyewotu et al., 1998 Stigter et al., 2002 Onyewotu et al., 2003). Another is the reduction of wind erosion by keeping stubble in winter from summer intercropping belts on sloping land in Inner Mongolia (Zheng, internal publications, 1999 An and Tuo, 2001). Radiation examples may be found in i. shade protection ii. pruning of trees in all kinds of agroforestry systems and iii. other intercropping systems aiming at resource sharing (Stigter and Baldy, 1993). Note that these risk management examples deal...

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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