Wind Energy DIY Guide

Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System

The Energy 2 Green Manual Has Everything You Need To Build Your Very Own Functional Windmill Or Solar Panel, Including: Detailed Schematics and Diagrams Showing You Precisely How To Build Your Solar Panels (generates up to 200-watts each) or Windmill (generates up to 1000-Watts!) Including the Precise Measurements You Need For Optimum Performance! Step-by-Step Instructions So Easy To Follow that Even High School Students Can Build Fully Functional Solar Panels and Windmills! Where To Find The Materials You Need For Your Solar Panels or Windmill! Installation Instructions To Hook the Solar Panel or Windmill Up To Your Home! Detailed Maintenance Instructions and Schedule for Your Windmill or Solar Panel! Read more here...

Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System Summary

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable pdf so that purchasers of Energy2green Wind And Solar Power System can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Wind energy an already mature energy

Wind power technology is already relatively mature, producing electricity under almost profitable conditions. Current machines can develop powers from 1.25 to 2.5 MW. The rotors fitted on 2.5 MW machines have a span of up to 80 m 59 . Virtually all high-power wind turbines have a three-blade rotor, which offers higher efficiency than two-blade rotors, without making construction of the wind turbine overcomplicated. Wind energy is almost competitive, the cost price of the electricity produced being in the region of D 50 MWh. The main drawback with wind energy lies in the fact that it is intermittent and cannot be modulated to match demand. Intermittent operation must be compensated by the grid, which limits the share of electricity that can be supplied by wind energy. In the future, the price of fossil fuels, together with constraints on CO2 emissions, should make wind energy more competitive. Recently, the development of wind energy, especially within the European Union, has been...

Stratospheric Wind Velocity

Figure 7.5 shows contours of the zonal wind velocity. Note the region of high wind velocities near 60 S. Such a region of high wind velocity is often referred to as a jet , and the jet near 60 S is known as the polar night jet . The polar night jet extends vertically from about 100 hPa to the upper stratosphere, reaching a

Wind energy

The uneven heating of the earth by the sun results in the poles receiving less solar energy than that received on the equator. In addition, land is able to both heat up and cool down more quickly than the oceans do. This differential heating results in the jet stream in the upper atmosphere and the characteristic winds on earth midlatitude westerlies, polar easterlies, and the trade winds. Wind energy is most commonly harvested via a windmill for generating mechanical energy or a wind turbine for generating electrical energy.

Wind speed

Clearly once of the main effects of the arrival of the tail-end of hurricanes and tropical storms is severe winds, both in terms of gusts and sustained winds and this is one of the principal agents of damage associated with these events. Typical maximum recorded wind speeds on land from Western Europe for the events in this survey vary from 70km h gusts all the way up to nearly 200km h gusts with values in excess of 100km h not being uncommon. The highest recorded value of any of the events in this survey was from Hurricane Debbie in 1961. At Malin Head on the extreme NW tip of Ireland a gust of 182km h was recorded. The next highest was at Fair Isle off Northern Scotland between the Orkneys and the Shetlands where Hurricane Flossie in 1978 produced a gust of 167km h. Hurricane Lili in 1996 produced the next highest gust value of 148km h and this was recorded at North Hessary Tor in Devon, England. More recently Hurricane Gordon in 2006 produced a gust of 130km h at Truro in Cornwall,...

Wind Power

Electricity generated by wind power relies on air moving past a propeller to spin a turbine. Wind is created as a result of the differential heating of the earth's surface of the sun. Air masses move from areas of high atmospheric pressure to low atmosphere pressure. Wind energy creates very few greenhouse gases and will exist as long as the sun shines and winds blow. There are challenges to implementing wind energy, though. Wind energy, like other forms of renewable energy, operates effectively only in certain geographic areas and climates. Wind speeds and direction can vary hourly, daily, and seasonally. For example, winds are typically stronger during the day than at night. In temperate climates, the wind tends to be stronger during the winter than during the summer. Hence, a wind turbine only makes A wind turbine also needs a relatively open space, so that trees or buildings do not affect wind speeds. Critics of wind farms also argue that wind turbines can harm migrating birds and...

WiND PowEr In ActioN

Despite the limitations and boundaries that wind energy may extend, Germany has proven to be a success story and has become the world leader in wind power. In the early 1990s, Germany started out with almost no renewable resource industry, and it seemed unlikely that it would ever be considered a leader in these technologies. The decision of the German government, in 1990, to pass a law that required utilities to purchase the electricity generated from all renewable technologies, and to pay a minimum price, was governed by the public's increased concern about the security of energy supplies and its environmental impact. The results that Germany has experienced are staggering. The average cost of manufacturing wind turbines fell 43 percent 1990-2000. In 1997, Germany surpassed the United States to become the world leader in wind energy production. The percent of total electricity accounted for by wind power has increased from 3-6 percent 2001-07. In 2002 the renewable resource...

Thermal Assessment Procedures

Another approach based on synoptic climatology starts by identifying the various broad-scale weather types characterising a given locality. Several studies have identified that specific weather types (air masses) adversely affect mortality. Kalkstein et al. (1996) successfully extended this approach to heat health warning systems (HHWSs). The synoptic procedure classifies days that are considered to be meteorologically similar by statistically aggregating days in terms of a selection of meteorological variables such as air temperature, dew point, cloud cover, air pressure, wind speed and direction. The classification must be specifically derived for each particular locality where the synoptic approach is to be applied (see also Chapter 3).

What Exactly Is Global Warming

Fact Companies worldwide that are already reducing their carbon emissions are finding that cutting pollution can be economically beneficial. For example, utility companies switching to wind power are creating new jobs, boosting their economies. Using skills and ingenuity can start new industries geared toward carbon-free technology and production. Even the world's major oil companies are currently getting involved in developing renewable energy resources.

Relations Before The Modern

Environmental sociologist Marina Fischer-Kowalsky refers to this new social setting and dynamic as a form of terrestrial colonization. 26 This novel social adaptation to transformed landscape following the mass extinction of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene was accompanied by increasingly hierarchical forms of social life. Ancient civilizations finally emerged out of early city-states and institutionalized forms of inequality and violence. The exploitation of domesticated animal power and the domestication of plants species are at the root of civilization, playing an important role in subsequent population growth and geographic distribution of humans.27 Animals pulled the plow, animals carried produce to market, and animals provided a protein-rich complement to a grain-based diet. Although wind power was utilized to carry cargo by water, fire remained nonetheless the most important source of extrasomatic energy. It made possible the creation of artifacts we normally associate...

Lei Yang1 Wei Wei Li1 Dongxiao Wang1 and Yongping Li2

Using reanalysis and satellite data sets, numerical simulation and statistical methods are applied for investigating tropical cyclone (TC) of two ocean basins the South China Sea (SCS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB). Influenced by Asian monsoon, TCs' feature in these two ocean basins differ from the one of other open oceans. In this chapter, a unique TC case passing through SCS as well as TCs track characteristics in BOB are examined. The Fifth Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) is utilized to study the precipitation and wind speed during Typhoon Chanchu (2006) in SCS. Five model experiments with different physical parameterizations and sea surface temperature (SST) distributions are carried out in the study. Simulations are evaluated using satellite observations. It is found that the control experiment that is configured with the Blakadar boundary scheme, Resiner2 moisture, the Betts-Miller cumulus scheme and daily updated SST...

Modal instability with the influence of friction a

To determine the impacts of spatially nonuniform friction on the instability, we need to make additional computations. The frictional coefficient for generic land surfaces may be several times larger than that for water surfaces at moderate wind speeds (Arya, 1988). Thus, we present the result for aocean 0.015 and

Plant Responses to Weather Conditions

Weather conditions play a fundamental role in plant growth and development due to their direct and indirect influence on each physical, chemical and biological process, that is regulated by specific requirements and any deviation from these patterns may exert a negative influence (Das et al. 2003). Air and soil temperature, air and soil humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and direction, rainfall, evapotranspiration are the most important variables affecting the vegetative and productive responses of

Hurricanes and Typhoons

Ops, however, few Atlantic systems develop there because of the proximity to the equator. The majority of Atlantic systems develop on the eastern side of tropical waves, which is an area that promotes convergence and rain showers. Another condition that must be satisfied for tropical cyclone development is the absence of vertical wind shear. Vertical wind shear is the change in wind speed or direction with height. When a hurricane or typhoon encounters areas with high vertical wind shear, the storm has a tendency to tilt, which inhibits the efficiency of the heat distribution in the atmosphere. Therefore, the upper level cannot form over the surface low that would cause the low to deepen. As a result, vertical wind shear causes the surface low to weaken.

New Mexico climate center

State, including irrigation districts and NAPI (Navajo Agricultural Products Industry). These stations monitor air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature and moisture, precipitation, solar radiation, and wind speed and direction. These data are then disseminated for the benefit of policymakers, administrators and the public. In addition to this electronic collection of data, more than 50 volunteers record their daily local temperature and rainfall across the state and send this information to the National Center for Data Collection. The services of the New Mexico Climate Center can be accessed through the world wide web. The center's web site processes climate data daily and makes it available to the public.

Model Setup and Experimental Design

Initial vertical profiles of (a) potential temperature (in K) (b) water vapor mixing ratio (in kgkg -*-) and (c) horizontal wind speed (in ms 1, -component). Fig. 1. Initial vertical profiles of (a) potential temperature (in K) (b) water vapor mixing ratio (in kgkg -*-) and (c) horizontal wind speed (in ms 1, -component).

Atmosphereocean interaction

In numerical modeling studies, Flatau et al. (1997) used an atmospheric global circulation model with a parameterized, empirical relationship between wind speed and SST tendency to examine the effect of SST feedback on the equatorial convection on an aqua-planet. The model MJO-like fluctuations were slowed down and became more organized compared to those with fixed SST distribution.

Energy Sustainability

The corresponding analysis of the maximum available energy from different sources requires a number of assumptions that can be questioned, but these are chosen deliberately to be on the optimistic side. MacKay then sketches six scenarios with different contributions from the various sources, insisting that they add up to the required total. All but one include nuclear power or coal. The remaining one relies heavily on wind power and requires a hundred lakes or lochs for energy storage. Thus even from the point of view of energy sustainability, without reference to costs, it is hard to see how the renewable sources can meet our needs.

Energy from the Oceans

The world's oceans may provide another viable source of renewable energy. Researchers have long been studying how to exploit the energy from ocean waves, tides, and ocean-based winds, which tend to be stronger than winds on land. Some experts predict that these ocean resources may eventually overtake solar energy as the most economical clean energy source. Ocean wind power is the most developed of these ocean energy technologies, and some countries are already investing in offshore wind systems. Denmark is the world leader so far, but in 2007 Britain announced plans to build thousands of turbines in the Wind power is intermittent, however, so fossil-fuel power stations would still be needed as a backup during windless days. Wind turbines have been criticized for killing birds and bats, but most experts believe the benefits of wind power far outweigh the environmental damage. Environmental groups are also working to develop wind systems that will be less likely to harm wildlife.

An atmospheric energy balance calculation

These crude engineering lumped calculations should be performed with the actual values at a representative sample of times for every cell that has not been excluded on grounds of being downwind of land with dirty air, upwind of drought-stricken regions or too close to busy shipping routes. The wind speed data for each cell should be checked to ensure that there is enough input power for, as will be developed shortly, wind energy provides the principal source for driving the vessels and creating the spray. With an efficient generator, the 30 kg s-1 flow rate will be reached at 8 m s-1 wind speed. If the nucleus lifetime was the longest estimate of 5 days (Houghton 2004), this would bring the concentration up to levels found over land and lead to much reduced effectiveness. Cells will be placed in rank order to see how many are needed to achieve any target cooling and either how many vessels should be put in each cell or how many cells should be treated by one vessel. Vessel movements...

Convection in the Western Irminger

Two aspects of the forward Greenland tip jet are of particular importance to the ocean. The first is the meridional length scale of the jet, and in particular the sharp gradient in wind speed to the north of the jet axis. Often times the wind decreases significantly over a very short distance. For example, in Fig. 26.6a, to the east of Cape Farewell, the westerly wind speed diminishes to the north by 15 m s-1 in just 50 km. Such sharp gradients result in very large synoptic values of cyclonic windstress curl, nearly three orders of magnitude larger than the broad-scale curl of the North Atlantic (Pickart et al. 2003b). Figure 26.8 shows the composite wind stress curl from 7 years of QuikSCAT data, where the year has been divided into winter (November-April) and summer (May-October). The frequent storms in winter result in a band of strong cyclonic curl along southeast Greenland (Fig. 26.8a), due largely to the barrier winds. The strongest positive curl occurs east of Cape Farewell and...

Air Sea Interaction and Sea Ice Models

The heat fluxes at the sea and ice upper boundaries are the sum of long-wave backward radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes at the sea surface. The momentum, sensible heat and evaporation fluxes are calculated through the air-sea interaction sub-model based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The bulk transfer coefficients depend on universal functions relevant to the given stability conditions of the atmospheric boundary layer. Inputs for the air-sea interaction sub-model are the air and dew point temperature at 2 m above the sea surface, wind speed at 10 m and the sea surface temperature. The method of iterative flux calculations is based on the approach of Launiainen and Vihma (1990). The model forcing is computed from monthly mean atmospheric surface variables based on the ECMWF ERA15 reanalysis data (wind velocity at 10 m height, air and The wind speed is typically about 4 m s during the summer and increases up to 5-6 m s in winter. Wind speed in winter increases from...

Structure of Model TC

Evans (1993) argued that it is important to examine the degree to which the model vortices have physical similarities with real TCs. Here we present the structure of the simulated TC. Figure 2 shows the horizontal and vertical structures of several quantities in a TC simulated in the model. In common with observed TCs, there is low sea level pressure accompanied by cyclonic circulations with stronger surface winds on the right hand side (Figs. 2a and b). The surface wind speed at 10 m exceeds 20 m s-1. The cyclonic circulations of the model TCs extend up to near 200 hPa (Fig. 2c), with warm cores from 700 hPa to 200 hPa (Fig. 2d). Although the model used in the present study cannot simulate the eye wall structure because of the insufficient resolution, the above features of the simulated TC are in reasonable

Structure of the Power Sector in China

Generation capacity in China is dominated by coal-fired plants, followed by hydropower. The Three Gorges project is the world's largest hydropower project. As such, China is the largest producer of renewable energy in the world, despite the fact that solar and wind power have a relatively small share of the total installed generation capacity. Coal is expected to remain the key source of primary energy for electricity sector in the near future.

Factors influencing mortality and their interactions

Severity of tree damage and mortality is related to both abiotic factors (e.g., winds, topography, and soil) and biotic factors (e.g., individual tree characteristics, tree species, stand attributes). Although wind speeds are the primary determinant of tree damage and mortality, topographic exposure, soil moisture and community attributes are the most important factors influencing differential damage across landscapes. Exposure to winds, saturated soil, and high stand density are all associated with high tree damage and mortality

Understanding the Variety of Erosion Processes

Wind erosion is greatest on fine soil particles such as silt, clay, and organic materials. This wind-driven sorting increases the proportion of coarse materials in wind-eroded sites. Windblown particles are moved in three ways (1) saltation, the bouncing of particles across the surface (2) suspension in wind and (3) surface creep, the movement of larger particles caused by the pushing action of saltating particles striking larger particles.426 The amount of wind erosion is affected by soil erodibility, surface roughness, climate, unsheltered distance of soil exposed to wind, and vegetation cover. Thus wind erosion is reduced by rougher soil surfaces, lower wind speed at the soil surface, and more plant or litter coverage of the soil surface.

Protection Against Wind and Water Erosion

Increase soil surface roughness with above-ground structures or soil surface manipulations (such as pits or furrows) that are perpendicular to water or wind flows. This increases infiltration, reduces water velocity, and increases the wind speed necessary to initiate saltation.

Energy technology transitions

Micro-generation technologies can and must have a central role to play in providing for people's heat and electricity needs. The key technologies here are solar PV and micro-wind turbines for electricity solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass burners for domestic heat, and micro CHP units (fuelled by biomass or natural gas) for supply of both heat and electricity. However, people are not accustomed to taking an active role in securing (low carbon) energy supplies, which implies that there must be social as well as technical transitions.

Snowfall and solid precipitation

Snowfall precipitation is measured using a snowfall gauge gauges can range from a standard rain gauge to a specially shielded snowfall gauge. A fundamental problem of gauge measurement of snowfall is that most precipitation gauges catch less snowfall than the true amount because accelerated wind flow over the top of the gauge reduces the number of snowflakes able to enter the orifice. In alpine regions, catch efficiency is at most 80 with shielded devices placed 1.5 m above the snow surface (Fohn, 1985). The under-catch effect increases with wind strength, and for a relatively modest wind speed of 15 km hr-1, an unshielded US standard 8 inch precipitation gauge is estimated to catch only 50 of the true snowfall (Yang et al., 1998). This effect can be reduced by using shielding devices such as the Alter shield shown in Figure 5.1e, which will increase the catch by 20-70 (Yang et al., 1999). However, this obviously creates a discontinuity in precipitation time series that must be...

Socio Economic Emission and Climate Scenarios

Both the socio-economic and climate scenarios, therefore, are not at a resolution that would allow a local impact analysis to be carried out. Hurricane damages, indeed, depend on population and exposure in coastal areas, on building norms, on wind speed at the scale of a neighbourhood, and other local information. This information, obviously, is not available in the scenarios developed at the global scale.

Ocean Energy Technologies

Because there is a wide range of options for energy extraction and no dominant technologies, it is unlikely that ocean energy technologies will converge on a single device type, equivalent to the monopole tower, horizontal axis wind turbine generator with an upwind three-bladed rotor, which characterize the majority of wind turbines. Seawater is approximately 830 times denser than air at sea level. Consequently devices which seek to extract potential or kinetic energy from seawater movements are likely to be substantially smaller and more robust than wind turbines. The forces exerted by seawater are much greater than forces exerted by the wind.

Upperocean physical response to hurricanes

The upper ocean response to a particular hurricane depends on several parameters involving atmospheric and oceanic variables (e.g., Price, 1981 Dickey et al., 1998b). Some of the important atmospheric variables include hurricane size (e.g., radius of tropical storm force winds, radius of hurricane-force winds), strength (wind speed), and transit speed. Intense, slowly moving hurricanes ( 4 m s-1) cause the most significant upwelling and the largest SST response (Price, 1981). Local hydrodynamic conditions, i.e., pre-existing stratification and near-inertial currents, also play an important role in the oceanic response to a hurricane, while the vertical distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton are primary factors in defining the resulting biogeochemical response.

Predictability of Ocean Energy

A key factor in the uptake of ocean energy will be predictability of produced energy (or water), as this will affect grid connections and the market price for electricity sold into local markets. Ocean currents, osmotic power, OTEC and submarine geothermal energy could potentially produce continuous, i.e., baseload, electricity, whilst tidal currents are forecastable for periods of days (with some modification due to weather). Even wave energy can be predicted 1-2 days in advance. All forms of ocean energy are less variable than wind energy.

Environmental Impacts of Ocean Energy Converters

All energy generation technologies have environmental impacts, including renewable technologies, which may have larger footprints than fossil fuel technologies, because the energy density of most forms of renewable energy is low compared to these fossil fuels. However, ocean energy is one of the more 'dense' renewable energy forms and space requirements may be limited, when compared to wind farms and photovoltaic (PV) arrays.

Assessing Direct Losses

In most cases, physical models have been developed by consulting companies that advise the insurance industry and help them assess their level of risk. These models are based (i) on a comprehensive dataset of the exposure, i.e. the characteristics and value of the property exposed to a hazard at a fine spatial resolution and (ii) on vulnerability models, which relate wind speed, flooding depth and any other physical description of a disaster, to a damage ratio, which is the share of the exposure that is destroyed or damaged for a given hazard level. These models describe a hurricane by its wind field and storm surge and estimate damages to properties. The drawback of these models is the amount of data they require - this information is for instance not available for developing countries - and the fact that it is particularly difficult to create scenarios to project exposure over long timescales. where W is the maximum wind speed of the hurricane (as provided for instance by the HURDAT...

Discussions and summary

In this chapter, we reviewed the status of research on the upper-ocean physical response to hurricanes and the hurricane-induced phytoplankton blooms observed by the satellite remote sensing. Using the phytoplankton bloom triggered by Hurricane Katrina as an example, a notable phytoplankton bloom triggered by hurricane wind-driven upwelling and vertical mixing is analyzed and quantified with combined data sets of the NCEP winds, AMSR-E microwave SST, and MODIS ocean color products. MODIS-Aqua ocean color observation shows that the hurricane-driven phytoplankton bloom lasted less than one week. By looking at both the blue and the NIR ocean contributions, we conclude that the phytoplankton bloom is the only source for the ocean surface optical property change after Hurricane Katrina. In addition, AMSR-E SST and MODIS-Aqua ocean color observations show that physical and biological responses to the hurricane are not synchronized with the hurricane winds. Indeed, it is found that the ocean...

Conclusions and Future Works

In order to explore the mechanism of the expansion of supraglacial lakes in the Himalayas, the physical structure of three glacial lakes, Tsho Rolpa, Imja, and Lugge, increasing in surface area, was investigated by the filed observations. The lakes exhibited different thermal and sedimentary structures, depending on the wind-mixing condition and the turbidity and inflow of meltwater at the glacier terminus. The difference of the wind-mixing condition in the upper layer was judged to be due to the different degree of the topographic screening effect of the end moraine or the dead-ice zone on the valley winds near the water surface. Tsho Rolpa has little screening effect on the valley wind, since the crest of the end moraine upwind of the lake is almost level with the water surface. This topographic condition can induce strong wind mixing and wind-driven currents in the surface layer. Imja and Lugge have the dead-ice zone at downlake, the height of which is 10 to 25m (Imja) or ca. 28m...

Scale and System Influences

To be effective in minimizing the rate of global temperature increase, the various approaches must be implemented nationally and globally at an accelerated rate. The IEA BLUE Map scenario (which would cut projected GHG emissions in 2050 by 50 relative to 2005 emissions) evaluated in the recent IEA Energy Technology Perspectives report estimates that, each year, 17.5 GW of new coal-fired power plants with CCS, 32 GW of new nuclear plants, 5 GW of biomass-burning power plants, 14,000 new wind turbines, and 215 million m2 of solar PV panels will need to be installed to achieve the targeted GHG reduction goals 4 . Although these estimates are global, it is clear that the level of plant and infrastructure construction and introduction of new technologies is significantly higher than our existing regulatory systems have had to address in the past. Indeed, it is arguably a larger technical change than has happened in human history, particularly in terms of the fraction of the global...

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Wisconsin lawmakers have enacted a minimum renewable electricity standard that requires utilities to provide 22 percent of the state's power from renewable sources by 2011. To meet this goal, the Wisconsin Public Service Corporation installed 14 wind turbines in Kewanee County that are expected to provide enough electricity for 3,600 homes and generate tax revenue. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory also estimates Wisconsin as having the solar potential to provide electricity generation.

Limits of Climate Variability and Ecosystem Response

Although the answer to this question of limits is partially related to the timescale for which we have information, it is also related to the physics or biophysics of the climate event and ecological response in question. This is well demonstrated for white spruce in Interior Alaska (chapter 12), where the gateways in the suggested model are specifically related to certain limiting values of climate variability (e.g., summer temperature and its relation to drought) and ecosystem response or preexisting condition (e.g., growth reserves). In another case, Schaefer (chapter 8, p. 154) states although there is no fixed upper limit to the amount of rain that can fall within a 24-hour period, there are no records that . . . it has exceeded 600 mm in Puerto Rico. A longer record might produce a higher 24-hour record. Particular wind velocities are used to define the strength category of a hurricane, but the highest category, 5, is open ended at a wind velocity exceeding 69 m sec (155 mi hr)....

Wind and air temperature distribution night

As the downslope wind storm reaching the bottom of the eastern slope is too strong, a hydraulic jump motion of air occurs near the ground surface of Kangnung downtown, bounding up to the 1 km height over the coastal sea and causes the generation of lee-side internal gravity waves. Maximum speed of wind storm on the lee slope of the mountain reaches 15m s, but nighttime surface wind speed of 2 m s near Kangnung city beneath of the internal gravity waves is much weaker than daytime one of 5 m s, under the sea breeze.

Research and Development

Even though the predictions on global temperature are generally consensual, disparities exist in the behavior of the hydrological cycle in the regional responses to the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas content. Questions also remain on the response of our natural environment to global warming, e.g., land use changes (particularly the natural or cultivated vegetation), the storage of carbon (particularly in the ocean and in the continental biosphere) or the possible modifications in oceanic circulation. Research on the regionalization of climatic changes must be carried out, with focus on improving the techniques themselves, but also the evaluation of the impact of climate change on agriculture and the environment. In relation to the forecasts currently available, there is a need to enlarge the range of variables considered, e.g., global solar radiation, as well as air humidity and wind speed, variables which affect agricultural and forestry production. Also, it would be...

Radio Occultation Soundings in Ionosphere and Space Weather Applications Achievements and Prospects

German Space Weather Application Centre

Example of a new idea is e.g., the detection of the sporadic E-layer by monitoring the amplitude data from the RO soundings (Viehweg et al 2007). Another interesting new area is the GNSS reflectometry . Using the reflected GNSS signals to determine the wind speed over the oceans and for ocean surface altimetry has been demonstrated with real RO data (Beyerle et al. 2002 Gleason et al. 2005 Yunck and Hajj 2005). To use the reflected GNSS signals also to measure the electron density distribution in the ionosphere has been proposed by Pallares et al. (2005).

Validation of GOMOSEnvisat High Resolution Temperature Profiles HRTP Using Spectral Analysis

Radio Occultation

The criteria for data selection derived above are very strict. In the altitude range of HRTP, only radiosonde data satisfy the vertical resolution requirements. It is important to note that the time separation results in additional spatial separation in the atmosphere caused by advection of air masses. For example, provided a very moderate wind speed of 20 m s for altitudes 15-30 km, air parcels probed at the same geographical location with a time interval of 30 min will be separated by 36 km in the atmosphere. Relatively long measurement time of temperature profiles (i) ratio of horizontal wind speed to balloon ascend speed is much smaller than the anisotropy coefficient n (in Gardner and Gardner (1993), n 22 is taken). This means that the time required to ascend through a temperature irregularity of characteristic vertical dimension is short compared to the time required to advect the balloon horizontally through the irregularity with the characteristic horizontal size. The spectral...

What Causes Microclimates

Temperature Alpine Rner Silene

Receiving more energy, so it is a little warmer than its surroundings. On the other hand, if it is shaded it may be cooler on average, because it does not get the direct heating of the sun. Its humidity may differ water may have accumulated there making things damper, or there may be less water so that it is drier. Also the wind speed may be different, affecting the temperature and humidity because wind tends to remove heat and water vapor. All these influences go into making the microclimate. 4.1.2 Above the surface the boundary layer and wind speed If we now go upwards from the soil surface into the air above, there is another succession of microclimates. When wind blows across bare soil or vegetation, there is always some friction with the surface that slows the wind down. This slowing down causes the air just above the soil to form a relatively still layer known as the boundary layer. Within a few millimeters of the soil surface, the friction is severe enough that the air is...

The current renewables boom

These new technologies are increasingly attracting global investment from large corporations (such as Mitsubishi and Shell), venture capital and mainstream international banks. From 1995 to 2005, global investment in renewable forms of energy grew from about US 8 billion to over US 39 billion (see Figure 19.2). Current investment in wind power already greatly surpasses investment in nuclear (see Figure 19.3), showing that wind, like other renewables, must be taken seriously as a mainstream source of energy for the future. Global wind energy generation has more than tripled since 2000, providing enough electricity to power the homes of about 25 million Americans. After lagging behind Europe for more than a decade, the US led the world in wind energy installations in 2005. European and Asian countries have led the development of most of these technologies over the past decade. The prominent positions that Germany and Spain hold in wind power, for example, and that Japan and Germany...

A dfCOV MA dTA 1 COV M

Declustering records prior to fitting a GP distribution discards excess data and loses information, as noted by Coles (2001b). A more efficient GP estimation may come from retaining all excess data (also those within a cluster) and modelling the serial dependence. Fawcett and Walshaw (2006) present Monte Carlo evidence supporting this approach and an example where the AR(1) persistence model is applied to hourly wind-speed data from central and northern England (time interval 1974-1991, 10 sites 1975-1984, 2 sites). An alternative for efficient GP estimation (Fawcett and Walshaw 2007) may be inflating the co-variance matrix (Eq. 6.14). Referring to a preprint by Smith RL, this paper advises to replace the covariance matrix by H-1VH-1, where H is the Fisher observed information matrix and V is the covariance matrix of the likelihood gradient vector. Ferro and Segers (2003) devised an automatic declustering scheme that relies on the extremal index (Section 6.2.5.2), which is estimated...

Reconstructing Historical Hurricanes

Actual wind damage in each hurricane was classified using Fujita's system (1971) for assessing wind damage in tornadoes and hurricanes. Fujita's damage classes extend from F0, minor damage caused by gale or storm force winds, to F5, extreme damage in the most severe tornadoes. Each F-scale (Fujita scale) class is defined by specified levels of damage to common cultural and biological features of the landscape. For New England we used a slightly modified version of Fujita's original system, whereas for Puerto Rico we made additional changes to account for different building practices and higher wind speeds (table 2.1). Though wind damage to exposed forests is strongly dependent on composition and structure (Foster and Boose 1992), as a general rule, F0 loss of leaves and branches, F1 Sustained wind speed (m s)a Trees Notes PR Puerto Rico. Corresponding sustained wind speed values are derived from Fujita's equations (1971), assuming a wind gust factor of 1.5 over land. bDescribed as...

Renewable energy options for the future

Primary energy sources are those that contain energy in a form (high potential) that enables them to be converted directly to lower forms of energy that are directly usable by people. These include fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable resources such as biofuels, geothermal energy, hydroelectricity, solar power, tidal power, and wind power. Fossil fuels will Wind power captures the energy of the wind by placing large wind turbines in persistently windy locations. The wind turns the blades of the turbines that cause the rotation of magnets that in turn generate electricity. Some locations are prone to steady and strong winds, and these locations can be the sites of wind farms where many tall towers with large blades are set up to harness the wind's power. This source of energy is clean, produces no chemical or air pollution, and is renewable. The blades of the turbines are high off the ground, so wind farms on land can function along with the primary use of the land, such as...

Carbonless Energy Carriers

Two disadvantages of hydroelectric energy storage appear in the context of future energy systems. The large scale nature of hydroelectric storage indicates that little if any cost saving will exist for electric distribution systems connected to a pumped hydroelectric facility. Finally, in the context of solar or wind intensive energy systems it seems unlikely that sufficient sites could be found in convenient locations (i.e. where natural formations provide low per kWh storage costs) to contribute more than a minor role in overall energy storage. River-fed reservoir hydroelectric capacity is probably best used to offset seasonal variations in solar or wind electric generation. Transmission technology advances can also play a role in carbonless energy systems, potentially easing local renewable resource constraints by enabling solar and wind energy to be harnessed at greater distances from urban load centers. Transmission is expected to incrementally improve by going to higher...

Extreme Weather Events

In general, the IPCC projects an increased incidence of extreme weather events.42 Droughts, flash floods, heat waves, and wildfires are all projected to become more frequent and more intense in regions where such events are already common. Intense tropical and mid-latitude storms with heavier precipitation and higher wind speeds are also projected. There is evidence that many of these events already occur more frequently and have become more intense.43 Projections indicate fewer cold spells and a decrease in the frequency of low-intensity storms. As a consequence, the Tropical and mid-latitude storms. Projected patterns of change are similar for both tropical cyclones, including typhoons and hurricanes, and extratropical cyclones (mid-latitude storms). Tropical storms may become less frequent overall, yet are expected to reach higher peak wind speeds and bring greater precipitation on average. The decrease in frequency is likely to result from fewer weak tropical storms, whereas...

Animal Responses to Heat Load

Thermal Shock Animals

Direct effects involve heat exchanges between the animal and the surrounding environment are related to radiation, temperature, humidity, and wind speed (Johnson 1987). Because the thermal environment is more than just heat, the term heat stress is somewhat misleading. The term heat load has been used to highlight the importance of the interactive effects of the fore-mentioned factors. Within breed, animal variation (phenotypes), differences among breeds (genotypes), management factors such as housing and nutrition, physiological status (stage of pregnancy, stage of

Sensitivity of energy balance and implications

A simple study of the sensitivity of the energy balance to different parameters and its variation with height was carried out. This is represented in Figure 3.8. We can observe a minimum of the net energy balance at about 4600 m a.s.l., which corresponds well with the maximum extension of penitentes. The shape of the curve is relatively sensitive to initial temperature and relative humidity and very sensitive to wind speed. Wind speed was fairly constant and moderate to light at the upper AWS, with values that are very similar to recorded values in a previous campaign in the Argentinian Andes at similar latitude and height. Increased wind speed decreases dramatically the net energy balance and would prevent the formation of penitentes, as the turbulent fluxes are proportional to roughness. This was observed on the upper section of the Juncal glacier, where wind is higher on unsheltered slopes and snow is less metamorphosed and relatively smooth. However, penitentes were found not far...

Ocean Biotic Feedbacks with Centennial Climate Change

Dust Ocean Carbon Cycle

Several coupled atmosphere-ocean models have been used to project the effect of climate change on marine biota (Sarmiento et al., 1998 Joos et al., 1999 Gabric et al., 2003 Pierce, 2003). These models include some or all of the processes associated with carbonate chemistry and gas exchange, physical and biological uptake of CO2, and changes in temperature, salinity, wind speed, and ice cover. They account for simple changes in biological productivity, but not for changes in external nutrient supply, or changes in the biogeography of planktonic species, which is a major deficiency as they thus cannot simulate more complex biological feedbacks (Gabric et al., 2003).

Precipitation accumulation and sublimation

Some aspects of precipitation and accumulation over the ice sheet were outlined in Chapter 6. Accumulation basically represents the net effects of direct precipitation, its redistribution on the surface via wind scour and drifting, and mass losses due to melt and evapo-sublimation. Accumulation is typically assessed via snow pits or ice cores. Based on coastal station observations of precipitation, adjusted for wind speed, and accumulation data from recent ice cores, the annual precipitation averaged over the ice sheet is estimated to be 340 mm (Ohmura etal., 1999). On average, only 40 of the total annual precipitation at the coastal stations is in solid form. However, at Danmarkshavn, this figure rises to 83 . There are zones of maximum precipitation exceeding 2000 mm in the southeast coastal area and 600 mm in the northwest. Amounts in the north-central area are around 100 mm. The southeastern maximum is strongly influenced by orographic uplift of southeasterly flow associated with...

Flarei TFGhk NCVk EFk k

Measurement of fugitive emissions may also be based on the CH4 concentration in the atmosphere immediately above the plant or in a plume downwind. Such atmospheric measurement data would generally measure emissions from the entire plant, and does not separate between the different sources. In addition to CH4 concentration the area of the plume and the wind speed must be measured. The emissions are given by Equation 3.26. WS wind speed at the plant, m s

The Demand and Supply in India

Based power are limited by supply constraints, as many of the recent natural gas based power plants in the private sector have been facing fuel supply shortages. India has significant hydroelectricity resources, but there are a number of problems, including shortage of funds, inter-state water use conflicts, lack of suitable transmission infrastructure, long gestation periods, geological uncertainty in the Himalayan regions, high environmental impacts, and problems of resettlement and rehabilitation of displaced people 26 . The potential for nuclear power development is not high in the short to medium term, because of limited domestic natural uranium resources and various international restrictions that have held back the Indian nuclear power industry 27 . Electricity from renewable sources are relatively small and used mainly in niche applications even wind power, which has grown significantly in the last decade, is mainly concentrated in a few states in India.

Partitioning of net radiation 581 Characteristics over sea ice

Figure 5.10, also from Persson et al. (2002), illustrates annual cycles of the turbulent energy fluxes and conduction at the SHEBA site in comparison with other estimates. Recall that our convention is that non-radiative fluxes are positive when directed away from the surface and negative when directed toward the surface. The SHEBA results are representative of reasonably thick ice. They show the sensible heat flux as directed toward the surface in winter and variously toward or away from the surface in the other months. The salient point, however, is that the fluxes are small, peaking in February at about -8 W m-2. The latent heat flux is also quite small, ranging from essentially zero in the winter months to about 7 W m-2 upward (i.e., evaporation and sublimation is occurring) in June. Again, there are some considerable differences with respect to other estimates. As with the radiative fluxes, the turbulent terms show large day-to-day variability. Typically, observed peaks...

What Scientists Know Speculate And Do Not Know About Global Warming

Because the Earth's climate is a huge, complicated system of many components (such as atmospheric temperature, humidity, wind systems, ocean currents, and the influence of topography) at many different scales (local, regional, and global), there are many things scientists do know about global warming, but there are also some things they still do not know.

Turbulent heat fluxes

Here, Ta(zref), Q(zref) and M(zref) are the air temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed respectively at the reference height zref, while To and Qo are the temperature and specific humidity at the snow surface. Qo may be taken as the specific humidity of air saturated with respect to ice at temperature To. to is the surface stress and CD, CH, and CQ are the bulk transfer coefficients for momentum, heat, and water vapor, respectively. In order to calculate fluxes using (3.11), it is necessary to determine these coefficients that, in general, will depend on both surface roughness and atmospheric stability. This is most satisfactorily accomplished through the framework of the Monin-Obukhov surface layer similarity theory (see, e.g. Garratt, 1992, pp. 4958). This approach also takes into account that the reference height Zref zref HS above a snowpack of depth HS will change with time as HS increases or decreases. The surface layer similarity functions express how profiles of wind...

Effect Of The Antarctic Continent On Atmospheric Circulation In The Southern Ocean

The term katabatic (after Greek for go down ) refers to a wind caused by the local descent of cold air down a slope. In the Antarctic, katabatic winds are a large-scale phenomenon, similar to trade winds in the magnitude of energy transfer (Weller, 1982). A high ice plateau, coupled with low cloud cover, permits intense radiational cooling near the ground, and this sets up strong surface inversions (i.e., air temperatures increase with height, which is the reverse of the normal situation in the lower atmosphere). Having the coldest air closest to the ground means an atmospheric column is very stable to vertical motions, and so convection is severely limited. However, the cold air can drain off the plateau down to the coastal regions, with the Coriolis force generating a westward component of motion. With topography playing such a large role in the surface wind regime, the directionality of the flow is often remarkably constant. Some locations are more prone than others to katabatic...

Voluntary Observing Ships

Currently, VOS typically report every six or three hours interval, and make observations of surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, humidity, sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric sea level pressure (SLP), cloud (including type, amount and height), wave and swell parameters and weather (including

Simulation of the AMSRE brightness temperatures and retrieval algorithm development

Retrieval Algorithms For Lst

The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is the basis for the development of retrieval algorithms of the ocean surface and atmospheric parameters. Modeling of AMSR-E measurements over the open ocean was carried out with an updated microwave radiative transfer program. The program and calculations of the brightness temperatures were described in (Mitnik and Mitnik 2003). Some modifications were made in the program. In particular, formulas for dielectric permittivity of saline and fresh water which are used in calculation of the sea surface emissivity and cloud absorption respectively were taken from (Meissner and Wentz 2004). Dependence of the sea surface emissivity on wind speed was also corrected in accordance with (Meissner and Wentz 2004). A contracted form of the RTE can be written as where 6 is an incidence angle, Ts is sea surface temperature (SST), W is sea surface wind speed, kwv,h is the water surface emissivity at the vertical (V) and horizontal (H) polarization, Ts ts +...

Transition Paths Toward Carbonless Energy

Our starting point is a scenario that efficiently uses natural gas and nuclear electric generation while transportation is fueled by natural gas (lower right point in Figure 6.2. In assessing different carbon reduction strategies, there is generally consensus that improved efficiency and fuel switching to natural gas are no regrets measures. To take this into maximum account, we have therefore chosen to measure scenarios using solar and wind electricity against a no regrets technically advanced carbon-conscious scenario fueled by natural gas.

Numerical weather prediction models

Figure 9.13 Time series of 24-48 hour Polar MM5 forecasts (thick solid lines) and corresponding AWS observations from the Summit site on central Greenland (thin solid lines) for April through May, 1997. Time series are shown of surface pressure, near-surface temperature, wind speed, wind direction and mixing ratio. Surface pressure in MM5 is interpolated from the height of the model grid point elevation to the height of the AWS station. The model wind speed is interpolated from the lowest model level to the height of the AWS station. The remaining modeled variables are given as the value of the lowest model level (from Bromwich et al., 2001b, by permission of AMS). Figure 9.13 Time series of 24-48 hour Polar MM5 forecasts (thick solid lines) and corresponding AWS observations from the Summit site on central Greenland (thin solid lines) for April through May, 1997. Time series are shown of surface pressure, near-surface temperature, wind speed, wind direction and mixing ratio. Surface...

Local scale measurements

Additionally, we measured the liquid soil water content with Time Domain Reflectometry, the soil temperature at depths of 5, 10, 20 and 30 cm using thermocouples, as well as the short wave solar radiation with a pyranometer. Complementary meteorological data (air temperature, precipitation, sky cover, wind speed, relative humidity) were received from the MeteoSwiss station in Grachen.

Southern Ocean Currents

A third aspect Rintoul stresses is that global warming is also impacting the wind patterns in the Antarctic and causing them to change. Wind systems are migrating to the south, away from Australia, which is causing drought conditions in the western coastal areas. This, in turn, is negatively impacting Australia's agricultural resources through reduced productivity.

Simultaneous heat and water model SHAW validation

The daily simulated ET fluxes and measured fluxes from the 73-m EC system are shown in Figure 11.6. EC flux measurements are affected by the size of the areal flux source as determined by wind speed, direction, and atmospheric stability (Baldocchi 1997 Lee 1998) and are also influenced by the crane tower when wind direction is outside the optimal direction of fetch. The data presented in Figure 11.6 are not filtered for inappropriate fetch direction and do not include advected fluxes and

Polar Lows 461 Definition

Polar Lows are intense maritime mesocyclones of typically 100-500 km in diameter. They may intensify rapidly and surface wind speeds can sometimes reach hurricane force (Businger and Reed, 1989). They tend to be short lived, generally lasting only 3-36 hours. Polar Lows are the most intense category of the family of mesoscale cyclonic vortices found poleward of the main polar front, which are known generically as polar mesoscale cyclones. Polar Lows, which can present significant hazards to shipping, are also known as Arctic Instability Lows, comma clouds and, in the Southern Hemisphere, Antarctic coastal vortices. In the north polar regions, Polar Lows are particularly common in the Nordic Seas, the Labrador Sea, the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska and the Sea of Japan. Hundreds of mesoscale lows can develop in these regions on an annual basis (Renfrew, 2003). Satellite images of two Polar Lows appear in Figures 4.15 and 4.16. The characteristics of Polar Lows have been examined in a...

Vertical movement by bluegreen algae

Civilization Earth

While it appears likely that in most cases the advantage conferred on blue-green algae by buoyancy control resides in the ability of the cells to locate themselves at a depth where light intensity is optimal, there is some evidence that the more rapidly moving forms, such as Microcystis and Anabaena, can indeed periodically sink down through the thermocline where, like the flagellates referred to earlier, they can take up phosphate before rising up to photosynthesize again in the illuminated, but nutrient-depleted, surface layer.432 In hypertrophic Hartbeespoort Dam (South Africa), nutrients are always present in excess, but wind speeds and water turbulence are low, and enormous populations of M. aeruginosa develop. Zohary and Robarts (1989) attribute the success of this alga to its ability, by means of its strong buoyancy, to maintain itself in the shallow diurnal mixed layer that forms each day under the intense sunlight incident on this subtropical impoundment. Other, non-buoyant,...

The Opposition to Nuclear Power

One might hope that politicians would have the courage to take the hard decisions that are required to safeguard our long-term future. They have before them the evidence of countless scientific studies and reports by the Royal Society and the Federation of British Industry. However the next election looms larger in their minds than the future of mankind. The evidence for climate change is now so compelling that Governments have to be seen doing something about it. They dare not risk offending public opinion by choosing nuclear power. Instead they fasten on the renewables, especially wind power as a safe political choice, in spite of the arguments showing its futility. Conferences are arranged to consider the problem of global warming and climate change and consider all means of preventing these harmful emissions such as improved energy efficiency, carbon emission taxes and wind and solar power, except the one source that is demonstrably the only practicable way to solve the problem....

Smallscale Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Filtration Plants

Membrane-driven processes account for over half the existing renewable energy powered desalination in existence. Some of the reasons for this include that they are a modular technology, easy to install, compact in size, and simple to operate. Many of these advantages are also mirrored by renewable energy microgenerators, such as PV modules. These are also modular, contain no moving parts, have a long life ( 20-year warranty) and involve low maintenance. The modularity of both of these technologies has also assisted in cost reduction being achieved via economies-of-scale. Wind turbines are also available in a wide variety of sizes (from 100 W up to MW scale) and multiple turbines can be included in a system design. Therefore, it is possible to scale a renewable energy powered membrane system to almost any size. These factors, combined with RO and NF exhibiting a very low SEC for seawater and brackish water, respectively, makes membranes an obvious choice when powering such systems with...

Local Circulation and Mesoscale Disturbances

As mentioned at the beginning of previous section, local factors can sometimes significantly change the surface wind speed and direction. This change in many cases is so great that little or any connection with the large- scale circulation exists. In addition, local circulation and other mcsoscale phenomena such as polar (also called Arctic) lows can also markedly change the parameters of wind. Thus to describe large-scale atmospheric circulation, we cannot use the observations of wind speeds and directions from the stations (especially land stations) where local influences are great. In such cases it is better to use geostrophic winds as an indicator of surface winds.

Michael Renner Sean Sweeney and Jill Kubit

The number of green jobs is already on the rise. Most visible are those in the renewable energy sector, which has seen rapid expansion in recent years. Current employment in renewables and supplier industries stands at a conservatively estimated 2.3 million worldwide. The wind power industry Some industrial regions that have become Rust Belts, such as parts of the U.S. Midwest or Germany's Ruhr Valley, are gaining new vitality from wind and solar development. Rural communities receive additional income when farmers place wind turbines on their land. Installing, operating, and servicing renewable energy systems provides additional jobs local by definition, these are resistant to outsourcing. In Bangladesh, the spread ofsolar home systems which might reach 1 million by 2015 could eventually create some 100,000 jobs.3 Wind and solar are poised for continued rapid expansion. Under favorable investment projections, wind power employment worldwide could reach 2.1 million in 2030, and the...

David Viner James IL Morison and Craig Wallace

The geographic distribution of plant species, vegetation types and agricultural cropping patterns demonstrate the very strong control that climate has on plant growth. Solar radiation, temperature and precipitation values and seasonal patterns are key determinants of plant growth through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms. Other climatic characteristics are also major influences, such as wind speed and storm frequency. There is a rapidly growing number of well-documented instances of change in ecosystems due to recent (and probably anthropogenic) climate change (Walther et al., 2002). For example, there are several lines of evidence in the Arctic, ranging from indigenous people's knowledge to satellite images, that show that species distributions have changed, with growing shrub cover and increasing primary productivity (Callaghan et al., 2004). Another example is that plant species composition in the mountains of central Norway has changed over a 70-year period, with lowland...

Florida International university

The steady increase in societal and economic risks associated with storm events comes at a time when researchers in the United States have linked the increasing number of north Atlantic hurricanes to climate change. In 2007, the State of Florida took a step in advancing its climate research capabilities and ability to significantly reduce hurricane damage by awarding 18 million for hurricane research, including 15 million for the construction of the International Hurricane Research Center (IHRC) located at FIU. The IHRC houses a machine called the Wall of Wind powered by race car engines and capable of simulating Category 4 hurricane winds and rain, to create and test hurricane-resistant construction techniques and materials in order to improve the safety of residences and businesses.

Pilot testing and upscaling1

Statkraft, an energy utility owned by the Norwegian government, is today the largest generator of renewable energy in Europe. With generation capacity within hydropower, wind power, gas power, and soon also solar power, the company has a large portfolio of environmental energy solutions. But it is clear to the company that to maintain a leading position within renewable energy it is necessary to focus on innovation with a clear ambition to deliver the energy solutions of the future. With over 100 years of tradition in hydropower, working with pressurized water and sustainable project development, it was natural that Statkraft turned the focus toward PRO already in 1997. Statkraft has specified that in order to be competitive to other new, renewable sources of energy, a power output of 5 W m2 for flat-sheet membranes is required, whereas due to the higher packing densities obtainable, a target in the range of 3 W m2 should be sufficient for hollow fiber membranes. This is based on the...

Snow and ice penitentes

Table 3.2 Instruments used for measuring air temperature, relative humidity, snow temperature, incoming and outgoing short-wave radiation, wind speed and wind direction Table 3.2 Instruments used for measuring air temperature, relative humidity, snow temperature, incoming and outgoing short-wave radiation, wind speed and wind direction

Canadian Association for Renewable Energies

The association has been involved in a variety of projects. They began offering the first green internet hosting service in Canada in September of 2001. The service is powered by green energy produced by wind turbines in Alberta the electricity from the turbines is distributed by ENMAX and both generation and distribution are certified under Canada's Ecologo program. This initiative can thus be seen as a carbon offsetting program. A slight premium is charged to cover the extra cost of the green energy. A related program that provided green domain tag

The Okanagan Valley Canada

Tteir efforts to manage climate-related risks, which to them are the ones they can readily adapt to, include measures such as fruit thinning or 'dropping crop' in cold and wet seasons to address poor weather for the grapes, and investing in risk-reducing technologies such as wind machines. By reducing the cropload, more energy is available to achieve a higher quality of grapes.

Tropospheric Cloud Albedo Enhancement

Feasibility Several methods have been proposed to support long-term seeding of marine stratocumulus clouds. One suggested method would be to continuously emit sulfur dioxide over the ocean, which would convert to sulfate particles and seed clouds overlying the ocean 22 . A more recent proposal is to aerosolize seawater using unmanned wind-powered vessels, resulting in salt particles to operate as CCN 30, 31 . Both studies projected implementation costs, which would equate to

The Evaluation of Thermal Stress

An extension of the temperature threshold is the utilization of an apparent temperature that takes into account humidity (and wind speed in certain cases) as well as temperature. Several different formulations of the apparent temperature exist, including the Heat Index (Steadman 1984), used widely in the USA and Australia, and the Humidex (Masterton and Richardson 1979), developed in Canada. These indices are especially useful in locations where summer absolute humidity levels can vary widely, hence their widespread use in North America. Thresholds can then be developed as with temperature the 40.6 C threshold of heat index across much of the USA is a prime example (Watts and Kalkstein 2004). Another method of assessing meteorological conditions for application to the heat-health issue involves the classification of weather types, or air masses. The philosophy behind this synoptic methodology is to classify an entire suite of meteorological variables and thus holistically categorize...

Discussion and Conclusion

Next, a lagged multiple regression technique was performed on the basis of satellite altimetry collected since 1992. The results reveal that interan-nual sea-level variability in the southeast Indian Ocean and Indonesian seas is largely driven by remote equatorial winds, as predicted by Clarke and Liu (1994). The dominating effect of ENSO, through its modulation of Pacific equatorial winds and associated equatorial Rossby wave response, has been proposed and recognized in a series of studies (Clarke and Liu, 1994 Meyers, 1996 Ffield et al., 2000 Potemra, 2001 Wijffels and Meyers, 2004). The penetrating wave signal is visible in both in the coastal wave guides and as free Rossby waves propagating westward into the southeast Indian Ocean. Equatorial Indian Ocean winds have different timescales than Pacific winds. Indian Ocean wind energy penetrates along the Lesser Sunda island arc and into the internal Indonesian seas, controlling both sea level and thermocline depth along the eastern...

Renewable Energy Potential

The market is growing for many forms of renewable energy. Approximately 74,223 MW of power is generated from windmills worldwide. Several European countries and the United States produce the largest percentage of wind energy. Denmark is the world leader in this technology. The present worldwide manufacturing output of the photovol-taics (PV) industry is more than 2,000 MW per year. Japan, Germany, and the United States contribute 90 percent of all photovoltaic installations in the world. Solar energy use is also growing at a faster rate in developing countries, such as Kenya and India. Worldwide, approximately 8,000 MW capacity of geothermal power plants are in operation. A 750 MW geothermal power plant, The Geysers in California, is the largest in the world. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world. It produces ethanol (biofuel) from sugarcane, contributing 18 percent of the country's automotive fuel demand. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the...

Calculating Your Carbon Footprint

Reason your carbon footprint is partially determined by where you live. Some areas rely on energy (such as electricity) generated mainly from coal (a dirtier fuel), others from cleaner energy sources such as wind energy. reason This calculates the amount of CO2 generated by taking the total electricity used and dividing it by the price of power in the area. This number is then multiplied by the area's emissions factor, which relates to the type of energy the area uses. It also factors in the use of natural gas, heating oil, or propane, and whether a household participates in any renewable energy programs such as wind energy or solar power.

Renewable Energy In The World Today

Solar Energy Locations

From Fig. 1, it can be seen that wind power has an installed capacity of 121 MW worldwide. The wind industry this is growing at annual rate of 30 , with widespread use in Europe and the USA 4 . The annual manufacturing output of the photovoltaics (PV) industry reached a record 6.9 GW in 2008, bringing the installed capacity to 13 MW with the largest solar farms'' operating Germany, Spain, and Portugal. Several large solar thermal power plants operate in USA and Spain with the largest of these being the 354 MW SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. While being more geographically restricted than other renewable energy sources, the world's largest geothermal power installation is located in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW 4 . Hydroelectricity is also, by its nature, more geographically limited and growth in this area has been less, about 8 for small-scale hydro projects and 3 in large-scale hydro projects. Brazil is leading the world in ethanol production from sugar cane,...

Onshore and Offshore Wind 561 Technology Description and Status

The commercial and technological development of wind energy has been closely related to turbine size. From 10 m in the mid-1970s, wind turbines have grown to diameters of 126 m, with multi-MW installed power (Fig. 5.1). Increasing the rotor diameter is an important prerequisite in developing turbines for offshore applications. All new offshore wind farms are expected to have turbines exceeding 1.5 MW. Modern wind turbines are designed to have a lifetime of 20 years. Other technological developments include variable-pitch (as opposed to fixed-blade) rotors, direct drives, variable-speed conversion systems, power electronics, better materials and improved ratios between the weight of materials and generating capacity. Source German Wind Energy Institute (DEWI), 2004. Up-scaling wind turbine rotor diameter has allowed for multi-megawatt turbine output. Fig. 5.1 Development of wind turbine size Source German Wind Energy Institute (DEWI), 2004. Up-scaling wind turbine rotor diameter has...

Profit Infra Marginal Electricity Producer Curve Integration Of Cost

This can best be observed with wind power, which has recently become a significant player in some European countries. At about the same time, their electricity markets underwent deregulation. In deregulated markets, the price is set where supply and demand curves meet. The demand for electricity is relatively inelastic - it does not change much with the price. Typically, the supply is made up of various power technologies wind, hydro, nuclear, combined heat and power plants, coal and natural gas plants, and gas turbines. In a power market the supply curve is called the merit order curve and goes from the least to the most expensive units, taking account only of the marginal variable costs (mostly fuel costs). Utilities bill all kilowatt hours sold on deregulated spot market at the price set by the last and most costly unit. Therefore, they get the benefit of so-called infra-marginal rents. How wind power influences the power spot price at different times of the day. How wind power...

The hurricane Ike evacuation

According to the special situation of the City of Galveston, a hindering factor for an extrahospital ground transport evacuation is the 2 mile long causeway leading to Galveston County. Ambulances can only pass this bridge safely if wind-speeds are below 40 mph. Such wind speeds may occur as early as 12 hours before the hurricane makes landfall. As such, planning efforts need to assure that an evacuation should be finished no later than this time point of 12 hours. This specific time was calculated for Friday, September 12th 2008 at 12 00 noon. The evacuation plan of UTMB envisions for such kind of storm tide events, and a countdown of 120 hours (5 days) begins and a countdown clock from H-120 hours tracks significant events against the time remaining before tropical storm force winds arrive. The phase of 120 to 73 hours pre arrival of the hurricane estimates a normal hospital duty roster and two daily conferences in the Emergency Operations Center, under the leadership of the...

International solar Energy society IsEs

The ISES has several publications, most notably its official journal Solar Energy, which includes articles on the science and technology of solar energy applications. The journal also publishes articles on indirect applications of solar energy, such as wind energy, and biomass.

Impacts of Climate Change in Japan

Climate Change Heatstroke

In the future an increase of the intensity of typhoons is expected, they will probably shift their course leading to other areas at risk and cause increased wind speed and ocean waves. Furthermore, it is expected that wave-overtopping rates due to sea level rise increases, the erosion and loss of sandy beaches will diminish 90 with one meter sea level rise, the flood control safety levels decrease and landslide disasters increase due to snowmelt.

Przybylak Arctic Winds

Mean wind speed in the Arctic is strongly negatively correlated with the magnitude of atmospheric pressure and simultaneously it is also highly positively correlated with the intensity of cyclonic activity. Mean wind speed in January (Figure 2.6) in the regions characterised by low atmospheric pressure and high cyclonic activity (Atlantic, Baffin Bay and Pacific regions) oscillates between 6 m s and 10 in s. On the other hand, the regions with high atmospheric pressure and high anticyclonic activity (almost the whole Arctic Ocean and the northern and western parts of the Canadian region) have the lowest wind speeds (4-6 m s). The highest wind speeds observed in the central Arctic rarely exceed 25 m s. The maximum wind speeds in the most windy part of the Arctic (i.e. in the Atlantic region) are twice as strong (up to 50 m s) (Gorshkov 1980). These storm winds are probably connected with vigorous moving cyclones or with such mesoscale phenomena as polar lows (for details see the next...

Box 11 Climate change mitigation in developing countries

Renewable energy technologies are becoming commercially available to developing countries, following development and deployment in the industrialised world. But the preferred options differ from country to country, and importing technology is not the only option. For example, China is among the top world investors in renewables (US 7 billion in 2006) and is the world's largest solar heating manufacturer, with installations in more than 30 million households (Graham-Harrison, 2006). India competes with Denmark and Germany as a leading wind turbine exporter and is also a leader in biomass technologies. Brazil, meanwhile, obtains almost all of its electricity from hydropower and is a world pioneer in producing automotive fuel using sugarcane ethanol.

Misleading and Irresponsible Statements

(l) 'The carbon dioxide emissions from wind turbines are less than those from nuclear power stations'. This may or may not be true, but it is irrelevant to the choice between them. The results from several studies are given in Table 6.2, and it is apparent that they differ considerably. However, the important point is that they are about a hundred times less than the emissions from fossil fuel power stations, and so the first objective should be to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and then decide between nuclear and the other possibilities using the other criteria already discussed. It may also be mentioned that coal power stations emit more radioactivity than nuclear power stations, but in both cases the amounts are minuscule and so this is not a valid argument in favour of nuclear. As in so many other cases, it is necessary to look at the relevant numbers in order to reach a correct conclusion.

Applied Energy services

AES is researching cleaner forms of energy, such as wind and solar power, and other means of environmental protection. Two decades after building its first U.S. power plant, the first AES wind farm was built in Texas, in 2006. The European countries of Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom also boast new AES wind farms. AES may also expand into liquefied natural gas. AES is also a partner with United Kingdom-based AgCert in AES AgriVerde, a coalition dedicated to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by tens of millions of tons per year, by the year 2012. Additionally, through other environmentally conscious endeavors, including capturing methane released by power generation reactions, the company plans to further reduce emissions by equivalent values. The power plants that participate in the emissions reductions are selected plants from Africa (northern), Asia, and Europe. BIBLIoGRAPHY. Daniel Czamanski, Privatization and Restructuring of Electricity Provision (Praeger Publishers,...

Airsea Interaction under Hurricane Wind Conditions

Wind Driven Rain Drag Coefficient

Where U10 -the wind velocity at a standard meteorological height H10 10 m. which relate this coefficient to U10 are obtained either by generalizing empirical data (Garratt, 1977 Large & Pond, 1981, Taylor & Yelland, 2002 Fairall et al., 2003) or by numerical models (see, for example, Janssen, 1989 Janssen, 1991, Makin et.al, 1994 Hara & Belcher, 2004). Numerous field measurements give increasing dependencies of CD on wind speed, which relates to increasing of wave heights with the wind. where the hot reservoir is the ocean with the temperature TS and the cold reservoir is .the troposphere with the temperature To. The details of construction and operation of this heat engine are presented in (Emanuel, 1986 Emanuel, 1995, Emanuel, 2003), but one of the most important characteristics of a tropical cyclone, the maximum surface wind velocity, which determines its category, can be estimated without details from the Carnot theorem. According to the Carnot theorem, the maximum efficiency of...

Experimental Approaches for Investigating Crop Production in Elevated [CO2

In the field, crops can be grown in OTCs, where plants are rooted in the ground and exposed to natural light and precipitation through the top of the chamber (Heagle et al. 1989 Leadley and Drake 1993 Whitehead et al. 1995). OTC walls are typically clear plastic, allowing light penetration, and air enriched with CO2 is introduced to the chamber by a blower system. Although OTCs eliminate some of the problems associated with greenhouses and growth chambers, OTCs alter the environmental conditions, such that temperatures and relative humidity are higher, wind velocity and light intensity are lower, and light quality is changed (Leadley and Drake 1993). Another problem with OTCs is their small plot size. Typically, agronomic trials also use buffer rows, with a width approximately twice the height of the crop. However, with OTCs, most of the treated crop is within the buffer zone, which causes edge effects and could exaggerate the response to elevated CO2 (McLeod and Long 1999). Fig. 7.1...

Organism Concentration in Wastewater and Downwind Aerosol

Aerosol particles may be up to 20 im in diameter, which is large enough to transport bacteria or virus. Aerosols will be produced any time that liquid droplets are sprayed into the air, or at the boundary layer above agitated water surfaces, or when sludges are moved about or aerated. Aerosol particles can travel significant distances, and the contained pathogens remain viable until inactivated by desiccation or ultraviolet light. The downwind travel distance for aerosol particles depends on the wind speed, turbulence, temperature, humidity, and presence of any barrier that might entrap the particle. With the impact sprinklers commonly used in land application of wastewater, the volume of aerosols produced amounts to about 0.3 of the water leaving the nozzle (Sorber et al., 1976). If no barrier is present, the greatest travel distance will occur with steady, nonturbulent winds under cool, humid conditions, which are generally most likely to happen at night. The concentration of...

Impact of Climate Change on Animal Agriculture

In the animal context, climate change needs to be viewed as more than global warming. As previously mentioned, some areas will become cooler, and this may only have minor impacts on the animals (but could alter feed availability). On the other hand, extreme events such as heat waves can have major impacts on non-adapted animals. Heat waves are recurring events in many current climates, and are projected to increase in number and intensity (Mearns et al. 1984 Gaffen and Ross 1998 IUC 2002). The risk of floods and droughts are also predicted to increase. While there may be little change per se in a region, extreme events may increase in both intensity and duration leading to substantial changes in animal management practices. Climatic variables which need to be assessed include ambient temperature, relative humidity, the day to night and seasonal variations in ambient temperature, rainfall, wind speed, solar and terrestrial radiation, evaporation rates, and atmospheric CO2 (Folk 1974...

Energy Use And Economic Growth

Then in 1973-1974, the conflict in the Middle East between Israel and its neighbours triggered a four-fold increase in oil prices in six months. Many countries, in particular in Europe and newly industrialised Japan, depended heavily on the Middle East for their oil, and consequently put into place a series of policies designed to reduce such dependence. For some, such as the UK and Norway, this stimulated the search for an exploitation of oil resources within their own territories. But most didn't have this option available to them, and thus they pursued aggressive policies designed to promote energy efficiency and conservation. They increased taxes on petroleum consumption, introduced subsidies for home insulation, and changed building codes to increase the efficiency of new homes. Some also worked hard to develop alternative sources of energy notable was Denmark's early promotion of wind energy, and Brazil's methanol programme.

Mesoscale cyclones Okhotsk

Aqua MODIS visible image taken at 02 25 UTC i.e. about 9 h before the Envisat data acquisition is given in Fig. 2b. Water clouds, increased total water vapor content and wind speed variations are responsible for lows' detection by Aqua AMSR-E before (at 02 25 UTC, Fig. 2a) and after (at 16 15 UTC, Fig. 2d) Envisat ASAR acquisition. Cyclonic circulation was also registered by QuikSCAT scatterometer (Fig. 2e). Maximum wind speed (12-15 m s) was measured to the south of the large low. This is consistent with radar backscatter (brightness) variations on ASAR image. The total atmospheric water vapor content V and total cloud liquid water content Q were retrieved from TB(23.8 V) and TB(36.5 V) (Mitnik and Mitnik 2003). The maximum V and Q values located to the southeast, east and northeast from the cyclone center in the spiral bands' area reached 79 kg m2 and 0.12-0.14 kg m2 correspondingly. The width of the bands in Q-field was about 20-30 km. Typical values in the cyclonic eddy...

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