Water Crisis FAQ

Featured Image Water Crisis FAQ

Water crisis occurs in different forms. Besides, the causes for the crisis differ depending on circumstances. But, in most cases, water challenges revolve around quality, access and sustainability. The best quality waters tend to be expensive to access. This means only a few individuals can access clean waters. Well, there are more challenges when it comes to water. That is why many people are asking burning questions this article would like to address.

Sometimes it is surprising to hear there’s water shortage in most parts of the world when 75% of the world is covered by water. The truth is, abundant as the water bodies may be, it may take ages before everyone gets access to clean and cheap water.

The water issue doesn’t end at just water availability or access. Consuming contaminated water may lead to conditions or illnesses. This compounds the situation further. Read on to get answers to some of the most common water crisis questions.

Problems force thinkers to create solutions. When it comes to water, treatment options like chlorine are in use. This helps minimize infections and outbreaks like cholera. Besides, the fact that good water drinking habits boosts the immunity makes it necessary to have your water in plenty and regularly.

Some people wonder how to deal with such situation. In some places water is a basic need that is readily available while in other areas you have to struggle to get it. Another sad fact is the fact that some humans are responsible for the absence of steady supply of water. The reason behind this is to satisfy their personal needs and greed. They are so mean that they do not care the consequences of this to other people. We will discuss everything to do with water scarcity. This will broaden our understanding of the same and help us find possible solutions to some of these problems.

Frequently Asked Questions

More than 1 billion of the people on earth do not have access to water! This is ridiculous! Such number is so big that it contributes to the global water crisis. Other than the close to 1.2 billion whose access to water is blocked, there is another lot of people who have partial access to water. The number of this lot stands at 2.5 billion. These are just not any other statistics! These are people, humans like you and me not able to access clean water.

When totaled, you already have close to 4 billion human beings having problem getting water. This affects their health and through this endless diseases and outbreaks come up. In fact, some people drink extremely dirty water because that is all they have access to. For some, they succumb and lose their lives. Others have had immune systems that mutilated to be able to withstand the hard conditions. If this goes on, more people may lose their lives and the world would be a bad place to be.

Water scarcity can be defined in two ways. The first case is when the supply of water is insufficient compared to the demand. On the other hand, lack of access to clean water can also be termed as water scarcity. In both cases, there are casualties, but, it’s more severe in the latter case. When there’s no enough clean water, every living thing is affected.

Water scarcity can be natural or influenced by men. For instance, most arid areas experience scarcity. This inadequacy is mainly caused by the irregular and insufficient rains that are mostly unreliable. In other places, poor infrastructure in place makes it hard to supply enough water to needy areas. In some situations, some individuals choose to hijack water sources and sell water meant for needy people for their own benefit. The sad bit is the fact that some of these individuals hold high positions in societies and are influential people.

One easy way to solve problems is attack the source. One question to ask ourselves when coming up with a solution is what, where, and who are the sources of this water crisis. Beyond doubt, plastics are a major source of water crisis. These toxic materials end up in water bodies and contaminate the water. Besides, they also enter the soils and emit chemicals that end up in the water.

Finding alternatives to plastic material will do our water sources a lot of good. The world today is controlling the production and usage of plastic material. That may not be enough. Even the little plastic production is causing damage to the world. If we could get rid of plastics production for good we would go far. Besides, water bodies should be protected and those encroaching dealt with properly.

There should be campaigns as well. People need to know what their actions do to the water bodies. Until then, they will keep destroying these sources of life.

A quarter of the world has no access to clean water. This is close to 2 billion people. The figures are staggering and that explains the high mortality rate thanks to water borne diseases such as cholera. To put this figure into perspective, only two out of three people in the world have access to clean water. If these three interact, and only one of them has access to clean water, chances of them infecting each other with illnesses increase.

It is sad to hear that 11% of the world population cannot access steady water supply. This means, sometimes they get clean water while sometime they have to put up with contaminated water. This has a negative impact on their health and that explains why new illnesses will continue to emerge every other day.

Most pandemics and epidemics have resulted from water related illnesses. This shows how important water is to our lives and the impact it may have in our lives. Having access to clean water is not sufficient. Those that cannot access this water will get infected and transfer the sickness to the rest through day to day interactions.

The major cause of water crisis is water pollution. Responsible for this is industrialization. Through mushrooming of industries, water bodies end up as destinations for toxic wastes. This reduces the quantity of clean water leading to major water crisis in the world. Some people and organizations also misuse and/or overuse. This means other regions are left with little water no water at all. That leaves the other regions with the option of consuming dirty water.

Climate change and human settlements also impact water crisis. The former is sometimes a consequence of the latter. Humans continue to destroy the natural setting of earth and this adversely affects the clean water supply.      

Unavailability of proper institutions to manager water resources has also contributed to water crisis. In the end, only the powerful people have access to water. This explains why there’s so much corruption in water management. And that compounds further the water crisis in the world.

Research has it that it would take five years to solve the current world water crisis. The total amount needed would be $1Trillion. That translates to $200 billion a year. At the moment, concerned bodies are contributing as little as $8billion a year. The contribution is significant, but less effective when compared to the total need. That means it may take even more time and money if we continue operating the way we are.

Experts advise money is not enough to tackle this issue. There is a need to shift our thoughts and reorganize our ways. Only then can we attain our targets. If we change the way we think, we will also spend lesser money than we need and we will control the crisis the world is experiencing today. One of the things the world and its people need to work on is protecting natural sources of water. Also, we have to stop disposing waste to our water bodies. That will save us time and money to get rid of the crisis.

Water is tied and ties a lot of things. For instance, when there’s no water, plants have no supply to generate and grow. When plants die, the land becomes arid. This leads to worse consequences. Agriculture is one of the economic activities holding the world today. When there is no water, plants won’t survive and that means the decline of death of agriculture. Not only will people lose their income, they will also lose their source of food. This means death and other pandemics.

You lose your water and all of a sudden sanitation is all gone. That is why you need a steady supply of water. When there’s no proper sanitization, illnesses and break outs become rampant. The worst case scenario is where everyone loses their lives.

Water shortage comes about because or natural or man-made influences. For instance, drought may cause water shortage. This is a condition none of us has control over. It can be so bad sometimes that people lose their lives. For man-made shortages, this can be tamed through strict and punitive policies.

More than 25% of the world consumes contaminated water. This water is mixed with serious dirt like human excretion. If the body excreted these substances, taking them in the same form they were gotten rid of can disastrous. In terms of numbers, you have more than 2 billion human beings drinking water mixed with stool and urine. If diarrhea alone can cause the death of 485,000 people annually, you can imagine the total number of lives lost cumulatively due to water borne diseases.

Every other day, these germs come up and the existing ones keep mutating. That means the existing medications become less effective thus an increase in mortality rate. Statistics has it that 5000 children lose their lives daily. It’s just sickening.

Typhoid, cholera, giardia, dysentery, E.coli, hepatitis A, and salmonella are some of the commonest water borne diseases today. These infections continue to kill billions of poor people with no access to clean water. For this to change, we all have to play our roles correctly.

Top of the list is Libya. The North African country is facing the severest case of water shortage in the world. One of the major causes of water crisis is political instability as leaders focus on power rather than development. Citizens must be healthy and water is a must for a country to develop. Libya has been facing political instability for a while and that may explain why some of its residents have no access to water.

Western Sahara and Yemen are also victims of water crisis. To complete the top five nations with water problems is Djibouti and Jordan. Well, the condition is not permanent and that is why things change time and again. India has also been affected by water shortage time and again. From Asia, Pakistan is also a victim of water crisis. Generally, water crisis hugely affects developing, less developed and underdeveloped countries. It is also important to note that some developed countries to have water access problems.

Reports show that some countries risk running out of water. This is either due to their poor management or continuous human distraction on water resources. One of those under high risk is South Africa. Cape Town is one of those places with higher risks. This African country is not the only one under high risk; Djibouti and India are also at risk. In fact, reports show that India is accelerating in terms of water loss. If no intervention is observed, the Asian country risks running dry any time soon.

While researchers estimate the world would have run out of water either between 2040 or 2050, the above mentioned countries would be dry by then. As these countries continue to build industries, they move closer to running dry and water crisis. Their high levels of poor water resource management will also be a source of their misfortune. Something has to be done if they want to continue having enough water supplies.

Contaminated water will always negatively affect your body. You will start to experience symptoms like diarrhea, stomach upsets and vomiting. Some people experience skin issues and kidney problems. Well, for internal problems it may be hard to tell but you will definitely experience discomforts that will compel you to go see a doctor. For those without access to the doctor, it may be harder for them since they may not really tell what is ailing them. The problem is when these illnesses become severe they may lead to death.

When you visit the hospital, the doctors will use their experience and the symptoms you present to rule out some illnesses. Lab tests may be done like stool microscopy or culture to find out the particular infection. H pylori and salmonella are some of the most common viruses resulting from contaminated water. At the end you have more illnesses including typhoid, cholera, and many more to deal with.

The problem with these illnesses is the fact that transmission is fast and deadly. That is why you will hear of outbreaks time and again. Now, once people are infected, they lose their lives fast. Some of these water borne diseases can kill one within 24 hours of infection without medical intervention.

Death is sad as it is! It gets worse when important people in the society lose their lives. That is why this water issue has to be addressed as soon as possible. We shouldn’t shift blame but continue to work together as teams to manage the world water crisis we’re experiencing. This would mean every nation dealing with their problems and seeking international support where unable to solve by self.

There are countries that may need external support to proceed. Well, for those, regions should work together to help each other out of water problems. We also need to change the way we perceive things. This will help us come with lasting solutions to some of these water diseases and crisis.

Human beings are the major sources of water pollution. Whether it is their action, or waste, they contribute significantly to water pollution. Reducing water pollution would mean reducing these human interactions with water. If you go to a river where people live close, you will be saddened by the pollution they’ve caused. An ocean or sea with people vising or staying in the vicinity will also exhibit spots of pollution.

Keeping humans and animals away from clean sources of water will protect these sources of fresh water. Besides, water bodies should be cleaned regularly and treated to stay free from pollution. This way, water pollution will significantly reduce.

Mass education will also help in reducing water pollution. Some people pollute water out of ignorance. Others do not without the knowledge that their little action will pile and be something significant in the end. Educating such people will reduce cases of water pollution out of ignorance.

There’s so much water on earth. Unfortunately, only a small percentage is fit for human consumption. Technocrats and innovators have tried to come up with ways to purify water. But, there’s only an extent to which they can go.

For a minute, one may wonder how 0.3% could make drinkable water while 75% of the earth is covered by water. Well, water in the sea, rivers, lakes and all these huge water bodies is not considered safe for consumption unless treated. That is why the usable water capacity stands at 0.3% only when 75% of the earth is water.

If the water in the seas and oceans were safe to drink, the capacity of usable water would go higher. Unfortunately, this water is not safe unless treated. Treatment of water is an expensive process. And that makes it less accessible to the less privilege. If these naturally existing water bodies stored clean water with no need for treatment, the world would be a better place.

Fresh water is scarce. In fact, only a few places in the world can confidently say they have clean water. Top of the list is Brazil. The country has more than 8200 km square of sources of renewable water resources. Following distantly is Canada with about 4100 km square. And closing the top three lists in the world is Russia with 4067 km square. The aforementioned three are the leading in the world. Residents of these places must be the luckiest people alive.

US, China, and Colombia are other super powers with fresh water. That is why you have longer life spans of inhabitants of these places. Fresh water has a correlation with longer life spans. The countries with fresh water offer their citizens an opportunity to live longer and healthier, this means happiness too and more satisfaction.

It is also important to note that most of the countries with fresh water come from Asia and South America. According to statistics, those are the areas with highest number of sources of fresh water.

That is the last thing any human wants to imagine. But in case we get there, the world would be a desert. It would be so dry that earth would lose most of its plantations. One thing everybody would be interested in would be finding a solution to such a problem.

If we run out of water, the lands would dry. This means even plantations won’t survive. Humans rely on plants for oxygen. When these plants seize to exist, we will lose our oxygen and that will mean a significant number of people losing their lives.

Well, deserts have oasis. If the whole world becomes a desert, the super powers would fight for the oasis like they are doing today with mineral mines. Only the strong would access water and that means more loss of life. This means some people will have to be sacrificed for the rest of the survivors to access water. It would make the world a terrible place to be.

This is a question attracting mixed reactions. Well, the earth can run out of water or make more water. But all this depends on the people occupying this space. Two scenarios are likely to occur in future. At the moment, there are bodies working so hard to ensure water bodies are protected. At the same time, there are people encroaching forests and building on water bodies. Depending on who will be more effective in their efforts, the water bodies will increase or reduce relatively.

At the moment, the destroyers seem to be carrying the day. That is why we’re having a reduction in the levels of clean water. If things go on like this, the earth would have run out of water by 2040. If things change in between, there’s hope. The earth may continue to produce water enough to take care of all living things on it. That is why there’s a dire need to take care of the water resources and plants. That way, we will have enough water for everyone.

When you cut a plant, you will realize there’s some liquid inside. Human and animal bodies too have a massive liquid composition in their bodies. That said; you need water to balance these liquids inside the bodies of the humans, animals, and plants. This means without water we are all dead.

Water sustainability means taking care of these water bodies that we are able to continue using them for the longest time possible. The moment earth loses all its water; we would have lost all our lives. That is why we must strive to have sustainable water production and keep these sources of water clean. That way, we will longer lives and we will live healthier and happier.

Rationalizing water in our usage will help save water. You can recycle water and turn off taps when not using them. You should also ensure plumbing systems are okay and not leaking. That will ensure no water is wasted through leaks. Using water sparingly will go a long way in ensuring water sustainability. In the end we will save water and save our lives.

Purifying water depends on a lot of things. One of the considerations includes the source of impurity, your budget and the level of cleanliness you want to achieve. For instance, water with dangerous chemicals cannot be cleaned mechanically. That is why you have to know what kind of impurities exists in your water. Once you do, it will be easier to determine which cleaning method you will use.

There are different methods you can utilize to convert dirty water to clean water. One of the easiest and simplest ways to clean water is through boiling. However, this method applies when the level of impurities in the water are low. Boiling may not work for water with chemicals.

Using a water purifier and reverse osmosis are other alternatives to cleaning water. These require more skills unlike boiling water where you just heat the water and get it clean. Distillation, use of chlorine, and iodine are other great alternatives. Solar purification and clay vessel filtration are other good options. All the aforementioned techniques have pros and cons. Besides, their effectiveness depend on your circumstances and the water condition.

A good question! The answer is no! Why? This is because, 75% of earth is made of water and only 25% consisting of all these other things. But, we are running out of clean water. As human continue to cut down trees and practice deforestation, we continue to lose clean water. Besides, the cost of cleaning dirty water goes up considerably.

There are a few water bodies drying up by day. At the same time, others are deepening and broadening. This is a clear indication that we are not losing water. Instead, we’re having new water bodies come up and others dry up. This is a blessing to those living in areas where the water bodies are coming up. For the others living in drying areas, it is unfortunate for them.

As time goes by, we’re having humans encroach forests and build on water bodies. This may reduce the water levels on earth but we may never run out of water as a continent.

United States currently ranked 4th in 2011 in terms of source of clean water. In 2018, there was a report that was published insinuating US is running out of water. Others speculate, by the year 2040, US will have no water. Some of the states exhibiting signs of running out of water earlier include Texas and Kansas. They are not the only ones. About seven states in US show signs of running out of water. The others include New Mexico and Nevada. To add to the list, Oklahoma and Arizona look like they will dry out soon.

Now, these are just signs. The bad news is if things don’t improve, reality will hit and US will run out of water. The good news is, everything will be well if these residents and the governments work together to bring back water to US. It won’t be an easy experience but one worth pursuing.

Boiling water is one of the commonest water purification techniques. It is easy to do and does not cost much. Besides, it requires less time and won’t call for many requirements. The question of whether this method is good for you or not is subject to your circumstances.

It is a good option if you are working on a tight budget and don’t have much time to spare. If the source of your water is rain or a well, this is a good method to purify your water. The heat will soften the water and you will get rid of any living microorganisms in the water likely to cause infections.

Now, in some cases, the water you have access to may be exposed to deadly chemicals. In such an instance, boiling water is not a good idea. These deadly materials like lead etc. cannot be removed through heating. Instead, you should opt for more reliable methods. This will safeguard you and your loved ones.

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Multidecadal Drought Cycles in South Central New Mexico Patterns and Consequences

Extreme, regional droughts are the most common form of disturbance in semiarid ecosystems typified by relatively slow recovery rates. Drought-driven impacts can include regionally synchronized insect outbreaks, wildfires, and tree mortality (Swetnam and Betancourt 1990), as well as disastrous failures of agriculture, silviculture, and livestock production (Mainguet 1994). Drought conditions, accompanied by anthropogenic land mismanagement, have led to subsequent invasions of grasslands and farmlands by woody shrubs and nonna-tive forbs and grasses, contributing to the modern desertification process manifested in many parts of the world (Archer et al. 1988). In the American Southwest, the drought of the 1950s was one of the most severe climate events of the past millennium because of wide ramifications for the region's ecology (Herbel et al. 1972 Swetnam and Betancourt 1998), water resources (Thomas 1963), and economy (Regensberg 1996). As human population and resource needs increase...

Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Using Groundwater Flow Models

Abstract Climate change is a potential stressor of groundwater resources and its effects on the availability of groundwater need to be understood and determined. The impacts of climate change on groundwater systems are conceptually known, however in the context of climate change impact assessment there has been little research conducted on groundwater compared to surface water resources. One of the tools used to quantify the effects of climate change is to use groundwater flow models in conjunction with downscaled GCM (global circulation model) results and groundwater recharge estimation. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of groundwater modeling approaches to assess the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Basic requirements, challenges and different approaches to overcome them are presented. The principal challenge of any climate change impact study is the downscaling of GCM results to the basin scale. Furthermore, the estimation of the impacted...

Study of sustaining groundwater resources through percolation ponds during droughts in India

Image Showing Percolation Water

The vagaries of climate change are already being felt in many countries including India. Droughts and floods have perhaps become more common. The time series of rainfall data for c. 100 years in a semi-arid region of India shows (Fig. 1) that every fourth year is a drought year and every seventh year is a year of surplus water causing floods. Thus it becomes imperative for a country like India, situated in the monsoon region (other monsoon countries include Korea, Philippines, China, Japan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia) to develop adaptive measures to counter the climate changes. Drought year (every 4th year on average) Fig. 1. Rainfall pattern in Nalgonda district (Andhra Pradesh, India) for the last 100 years (1901-1996) showing drought every fourth year and excess rainfall in every seventh year.

Impact Of Climate Change On Hydrology And Water Resources

Circular Flow Map For Climate Change

One of the major impacts of global warming is likely to be on hydrology and water resources, which in turn will have a significant impact across many sectors of the economy, society, and environment (Figures 11.2 and 11.3). Characteristics of many ecosystems are heavily influenced by water availability. Water is fundamental for human life and many activities, in- FIGURE 11.2. Impact of climate change on water resources and agriculture FIGURE 11.2. Impact of climate change on water resources and agriculture Several simulation studies suggest that some areas of the Asian continent are expected to experience an increase in water availability, while other areas will have reduced water resources available. Global warming will adversely affect water resources in Australia. Although increases in stream flow are possible in northern Australia, decreases in stream flow seem likely in other parts of the country due to a decrease in rainfall. Estimated changes in stream flow in the...

Definition Of Drought

The definition of drought is not very simple, and the question What is drought continues to pose a problem (Sivakumar, 1991). This is because drought could mean different things to different people, and there are probably as many definitions of drought as there are users of water. In general, a drought is when a shortfall in precipitation creates a shortage of water, whether it is for crops, utilities, municipal water supply, recreation, wildlife, or other purposes. According to a WMO definition (Bogardi et al., 1994), drought is a sustained, extended deficiency in precipitation. Operational definitions of drought vary from place to place and are crucial to identify the beginning and intensity of drought. There are three main types of drought meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological (National Drought Mitigation Center, 1996c). 1. Meteorological drought is an expression of rainfall departure from normal over some period of time. Meteorological drought definitions are usually...

Will Human Civilization Face the Exhaustion of Water Resources Due to Global Change

The climate had always been changing and will continue to evolve in the future. So far the only acceptable conception has been based on the outputs of IPCC 12 , which declare that warming up of the Earth is caused by anthropogenic activities -specifically by emissions of carbon dioxide. But a series of scandals disclosed a specialized handling of the primary data so that the seriousness of the so far achieved results was challenged or even damaged. Nevertheless, the ever present question, which the public should ask with regard to climate change is, whether the planet will ever run out of water and similarly if fossil fuels would ever be exhausted. Therefore, to simply compare the exploitation of water resources with deposits of crude oil, coal and earth gas is evidently not correct. The volume of water existing on the Earth is stable and is estimated to attain 1,386,100,000 km3 13 , and has never changed. Nevertheless, due to great dynamics of water the spatial distribution of water...

Optimization offarm technologies and water resources

It is well known that on a global scale water is probably the most limited resource for agricultural production and directly sensitive to climate variability. Water resources can therefore vary strongly from year to year and within a single year. Extreme precipitation events and floods can be as devastating as droughts (Rosenzweig et al. 2002 Chang 2002), and these extremes could increase under climate change, depending on the region. Extreme precipitation can further lead to nitrogen leaching on sandy soils, which might be accelerated under increasing climate variability in more humid regions (Wessolek and Asseng 2006) and have implications for agricultural land use and management for groundwater recharge harvesting, for example in northern Germany. However, water shortage and droughts are the most important devastating factors for agriculture and food production because of their large spatial extension, especially in many subtropical regions and developing countries. Over the...

Harrison 1986 Simulating Drought In Sa Reference

Abrams, L., Drought policy water issues, The African Water Page, http www.african- Forum on Drought, Secretarial and Ops Room, Johannesburg, October 8, 1992. Adams, L., A rural voice, strategies for drought relief, Indicator S. Afr., 10(4), 41-46, 1993. Alexander, W. J. R, Floods, droughts and climate change, S. Afr. J. Sci., 91, 403 08. Association for Rural Advancement (AFRA), Drought Relief and Rural Communities, Special Report No. 9, AFRA, Pietermaritzburg, 1992. Ballard, C, Drought and economic disasters South Africa in the 1980s, J. Interdiscipl, Hist., 17, 359-378, 1986. Bhalotra, Y. P. R, The Drought of 1981-1985 in Botswana, Department of Meteorological Services, Ministry of Works and Communications, Gaborone, Botswana, 1985. Bratton, M, Drought, food and social organization of small farmers in Zimbabwe, in M. Glantz (Ed.), Drought and Hunger in Africa Denying Famine a Future, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 213-244. Bruwer, J. J, Drought policy in the...

The Global Water Recycling Situation

The population is often ignored, because they operate on a small scale and do not have the expertise. Nevertheless, population is the one and only wastewater producer directly through daily activities, but also indirectly by participating in the global economy, in which water (and, consequently, wastewater generation) plays a central role. More people means more freshwater, which means more wastewater this is the real challenge for reuse. The overall water balance should remain under control, even though populations keep growing. Population growth will eventually prove to be the central water-related problem. Even more urgent than the energy issue, water scarcity will be the limitation for further growth of established economies and development of new economies. In water-stressed regions, water conflicts are already appearing, although sometimes still hidden. by discharge of wastewater. It is evident that this caused epidemic of cholera and other waterborne diseases. It was not until...

An Overview of the Global Water Situation

According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), one in three people globally endures some form of water scarcity, one-quarter of the world's population lives in areas where water is physically scarce, and over one billion people live where water is economically scarce, or places where water is available in rivers and aquifers, but the infrastructure is lacking to make this water available to people.'' Fig. 1 shows a United Nations history of global water scarcity since 1950, and a projection to 2025. The World Water Institute states that water scarcity is not a factor of absolute quantity rather, it is a relative concept comparing the availability of water to actual use. In the United States and Europe, the average individual uses between 200 and 600 liters of water per day (UN - Coping with Water Scarcity, 2007 World Water Day, http www.unwater.org wwd07), compared to the 20 liters deemed to be the minimum daily requirement for drinking, washing, cooking, and...

Drought Types and Vulnerability

All types of drought originate from a deficiency of precipitation (Wilhite and Glantz 1985). When this deficiency spans an extended period of time (i.e., meteorological drought), its existence is defined initially in terms of these natural characteristics. However, the other common drought types (i.e., agricultural, hydro-logical, and socioeconomic) place greater emphasis on human or social aspects of drought, highlighting the interaction or interplay between the natural characteristics of the event and human activities that depend on precipitation to provide adequate water supplies to meet societal and environmental demands (Fig. 2.1). For example, agricultural drought is defined more commonly by the availability of soil water to support crop and forage growth than by the departure of normal precipitation over some specified period of time, ttere is not a direct relationship between precipitation and infiltration of precipitation into the soil. Infiltration rates vary according to...

Important Roles of the DRE Binding Proteins During Drought and Cold Stresses

Yeast One Hybrid

Signal transduction pathways between initial dehydration stress signal and gene expression. There are at least four signal transduction pathways two are ABA dependent (I and II) and two are ABA independent (III and IV). Protein synthesis is necessary for one of the ABA-dependent signal pathways (I). ABRE is involved in one of the ABA-dependent pathways (II). In one of the ABA-independent pathways, DRE is involved in the regulation of genes not only by drought and salt but also by cold stress (IV). Another ABA-independent pathway is controlled by drought and salt, but not by cold (III). Fig. 20.2. Signal transduction pathways between initial dehydration stress signal and gene expression. There are at least four signal transduction pathways two are ABA dependent (I and II) and two are ABA independent (III and IV). Protein synthesis is necessary for one of the ABA-dependent signal pathways (I). ABRE is involved in one of the ABA-dependent pathways (II). In one of the...

The basis of drought contingency planning

Tracking Tracing

Drought planning and water crisis management needs to be proactive, is is largely because overall policy, legislation, and specific mitigation strategies should be in place before a drought or water crisis affects the use of the country's water resources. Bruins (2001) provided the basic elements involved in the development of proactive drought contingency planning and their respective relationships, ese basic elements (Figure 24.1) involve drought risk analysis, drought impact assessment, and drought scenarios. Assessments have to be made of the impact of drought on the various water resources, economic sectors, population centres, and the environment. Different types of drought should be considered in the impact assessment studies. Drought scenarios have to be calculated on the basis of available information, including development of a frequency and severity index. From this, drought risk assessment can be investigated, primarily on the basis of meteorological data but may also...

Long Term Effects of Drought on Ecosystems

Several studies characterize the ecological effect of the drought of 1988. Tilman and Downing (1994) provided documentation of drought effects on plant communities other than those in agriculture. They characterized the influence of the 1988 drought on plants at the Cedar Creek LTER in Minnesota, and they measured the effects of drought and the dynamics of recovery from drought against a known baseline. Indeed, it was not until 1993, the fifth year after the 1988 drought and the twelfth year of the Cedar Creek LTER, that the effects of the drought on the species richness in successional grasslands were no longer discernible. However, the effects of the 1988 drought were still clearly evident in the oak savanna complex in 1993. About 30 of mature pin oaks died during the drought, compared to only 10 of bur oaks. Most of these dead trees are still standing. Tilman and Downing (1994) concluded that this major shift in oak species composition and reduction in oak canopy cover that will...

Drought caused by changes in Global Atmospheric circulation

Aftermath Dust Bowl

Global oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns undergo frequent shifts that affect large parts of the globe, particularly those arid and semiarid parts affected by Hadley Cell circulation. One of the better known variations in global circulation is known as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Fluctuations in global circulation can account for natural disasters, including the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s in the U.S. plains states. Similar global climate fluctuations may explain the drought, famine, and desertification of parts of the Sahel and the great famines of Ethiopia and Sudan in the 1970s, 1980s, and mid-2000s. Much of Africa, including the Sahel region, has become increasingly dry and desert-like over the past 100 years or more, and any attempts to restart agriculture and repopulate regions evacuated during previous famines in this region may be fruitless and lead to further loss of life. develop. The position of the polar front and extent...

Groundwater regime variability during the 19821994 drought period

Danube River Discharge Graph

The orographical, climatic and hydrological conditions influence groundwater occurrence, recharge intensity and regime. Our previous studies concerning the drought period in Bulgaria confirmed the sensitivity of karst springs and shallow groundwater to climate variability (Orehova & Bojilova 2001 Gerassimov et al. 2004a). For these studies the examples of springs and observational wells from the NHGN were used. The impact of the 1982-1994 drought period on groundwater was observed all over the territory of the country. The consequences of drought for the springs were comparable 20-30 reduction of discharge. The results are similar for the springs draining karstic massifs of different geological ages Precambrian marbles, Triassic dolomite and limestone, Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone. Table 2. Statistical structure of discharge (h, mm) and precipitation (P, mm) of the drought period 1982-1994 Table 2. Statistical structure of discharge (h, mm) and precipitation (P, mm) of the...

Properties Of Water In The Ground And Surface Water Systems

Salt Percent Water

The volume of groundwater is 35 times the volume of freshwater in lakes and streams, but overall freshwater accounts for less than 3 percent of the planet's water. The united states and other nations have come to realize that freshwater is a vital resource for their survival and are only recently beginning to appreciate that much of the world's water resources have become contaminated by natural and human-aided processes. Most drinking water in the united states comes from surface reservoirs or is purified from rivers, yet approximately 40 percent of drinking water in the country comes from groundwater reservoirs about 80 billion gallons of groundwater are pumped out of these reservoirs every day in the united states. Groundwater is a limited resource since it is being pumped out of the ground faster than it is being replenished by natural processes.

Meteorological Indicators Of Drought

Drought conditions are basically due to a deficit of water supply in time and or space. The deficit may be in precipitation, stream flow, or accumulated water in storage reservoirs, ground aquifers, and soil moisture reserves. In describing a drought situation, it is important to understand its duration, spatial extent, severity, initiation, and termination. Depending on the areal extent, a drought can be referred to as a point drought, small-area drought, or a continental drought. The point and small-area drought frequency are very high but are not major sources of concern at the national scale, unless they continue for a prolonged period. When the areal extent of the drought Over time, a number of drought assessment methods have been proposed. Some methods are based on qualitative observations, some on scientific criteria, and others on actual field surveys. However, to date, no comprehensive assessment method is available that has universal appeal. Different countries use different...

Snow Hydrology And Water Resources Western United States

Seasonally snow-covered areas of Earth offer special challenges for water resources management, challenges that arise from both hydrologic and social factors. Seasonal snowpacks account for the major source of the runoff for streamflow and groundwater recharge over wide areas of the midlatitudes. For example, in the western United States over 85 of the annual runoff from the Colorado River basin originates as snowmelt. Most of this is from a few small source areas in four western states, mostly above 2700 m, which comprise only 12 of the basin area. Globally, snowmelt runoff from Earth's mountains fills the rivers and recharges the aquifers that over a billion people depend on for their water resources. Future climate variability and change are expected to result in major changes in the partitioning of snow and rainfall and the timing of snowmelt, which will have important implications for water use and resource management in these regions. It is therefore important to understand the...

Examples of Expanding Deserts and Drought Disasters

Free Slave

Global climate change is causing many areas on the planet that were previously experiencing temperate climates to suffer drought conditions. Drought is very different from normal desert processes. A drought is a prolonged reduction in the amount of rainfall for a region. It is one of the slowest of all major natural disasters to affect people, but it is also among the most severe, causing more deaths, famine, and displacement than most other more spectacular disasters. Drought often presages the expansion of desert environments, and regions like Africa's sub-Saharan Sahel have experienced periods of drought and desert expansion and contraction several times in the past few tens of thousands of years. At present much of the Sahara is expanding southward, and peoples of the Sahel have suffered immensely. Droughts typically begin imperceptibly, with seasonal rains often not appearing on schedule. Farmers and herdsmen may be waiting for the rains to water their freshly planted fields and...

Global water resources and ecosystems

Mapa Mundi Vectorial

In Fig. 4.1, the long-term average mean annual runoff (MAR) of rivers is shown. This is calculated using a global runoff model (Smakhtin, VU., Revenga, C. and Doll, P, unpublished). Between regions there is a large difference in runoff. The dark areas show high runoff and the light areas low runoff. As can be expected, high yearly runoff occurs in the tropics and the yearly runoff in the desert regions is very low. The centre of North America, Australia and central Asia are places in the world where the water resources are scarce. These are the potential hotspots when CC leads to a reduction in runoff. Ecosystems need a certain amount of water to subsist and this amount varies between regions and ecosystems. For the majority of the rivers in the world there is no recommendation on the environmental water requirement. To estimate the amount of water that ecosystems need worldwide, a modelling study is performed (Smakhtin, VU., Revenga, C. and Doll, P, unpublished). This study used the...

Drought Management And Policy Initiatives

Droughts, as shown here, are a regular feature in the tapestry of South African history but have been traditionally managed from an agricultural and conservation perspective (Union of South Africa, 1923). This focus has, however, been expanded during the past decade to include a wider group of affected communities and stakeholders. During the droughts of the 1990s, the impact of the drought on rural populations, for example, was actively monitored by various task forces that emerged from a National Consultative Committee on Drought as a result of reports of severe impacts on rural communities in the country, particularly those that had been relocated during the years of apartheid. The activities of the Drought Forum raised the profile and plight of the rural poor during droughts in South Africa and ushered in a change in drought policy (Abrams et al, 1992 Adams, 1993). Building on the experiences of the 1990s drought, a strong mitigation focus for droughts has been fostered and is...

Groundwater Resources Balance Calculation

For quantification of the fractured bedrock aquifers, water resources of the mountainous regions, the upper groundwater stream (free water exchange zone and at the same time the underground component of river runoff) and the lower ground-water stream (difficult water exchange zone) are treated separately. Qv here is a variation of the groundwater natural resources within the limits of the plans. In the long-term Qv tends to zero. The results of the general water -balance calculations of the FGWR are shown in Table 13.1. The presented results are showing that the all groundwater balance elements are derivative of a precipitation and directly related to precipitation. Climate conditions play special role in formation of the potable water resources.

Groundwater Contamination

Public Health Service has established limits on the concentrations of dissolved substances (called total dissolved solids, or t.d.s.) in natural waters that are used for domestic and other purposes. The table of Drinking Water Standards for the United States lists these limits for the United States. Many other countries, particularly those with chronic water shortages such as many in the Middle East, have much more lenient standards. Sweet water is preferred for domestic use and has fewer than 500 milligrams (mg) of total dissolved solids per liter (L) of water. Fresh and slightly saline water, with t.d.s. of 1,000-3,000 mg L, is suitable for use by livestock and irrigation. Water with higher concentrations of t.d.s. is unfit for humans or livestock. Irrigation of fields using waters with high concentrations of t.d.s. DRINKING WATER STANDARDS FOR THE UNITED STATES Groundwater contamination, whether natural or human-induced, is a serious problem because of the importance of...

Municipal Drinking Water

In the United States, Whiting, Indiana and Strasburg, Pennsylvania have used ozone in their drinking water treatment process. Other cities have run pilot studies. Ozone is used as a bleaching agent for miscellaneous items petroleum, clays, wood products, and chemical baths. It has been proposed as a bleaching agent for hair and as a disinfectant for oils and emulsions. Ozone is used to modify tryptophan and indigo plant juice. It is an important factor in colorfastness. The desulfurization of flue gases by ozone has been considered an application where it promotes liquidphase oxidation. The operations are carried out with vanadium catalysts, and the oxidation step is performed in gasfluidized beds. The desulfurizing effect of ozone on light petroleum distillates has also been reported.

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Turkish Water Resources A Review

Abstract Water resources are mainly controlled by the climate conditions. Global warming will therefore have evolving impacts on water resources and poses important challenges for sustainable development. Studies are rapidly emerging with focus on potential implications of climate change on Turkish water resources. These studies can be grouped into two major fields (1) Studies investigating the degree of climate change reflected in the past observed hydro-meteorological records, and (2) studies investigating potential future impacts of climate change on water resources. In this paper, we present a summary of the current knowledge in the area of climate change impacts on Turkish water resources with emphasis on the two major fields listed above. Overall conclusion of the review is that climate change will put additional pressure on already stressed water resources in Turkey. The credibility of water management scenarios - whether focused on maintaining ecosystems or on food and energy...

Drought Exceptional Circumstances

Drought conditions of some magnitude are present almost every year in some part of Australia because of its vast size and semiarid to arid climate. Such occurrences are a part of normal life and are not of major concern at the national level. Sustained droughts, usually lasting one to two years, possibly for three years, and extending across large tracts of the country have created great disasters. These are of relatively less frequent occurrence, and each of them has different spatial, duration, and intensity characteristics. When drought conditions are so intense and protracted that they are beyond those that can reasonably be factored into normal risk management strategies, they are termed drought exceptional circumstances (Lembit, 1995). In practice, this is a drought of such rarity and severity that it occurs no more than once in every 20 to 25 years and is more than 12 months in duration (Clark et al., 2000 Dixon, 1995). Assessment of Drought Exceptional Circumstances The...

Drinking Water Quality

Following the installation of the nanofiltration plant the improvement to the quality of the drinking water is significant. In addition to the information displayed in Table 2, Table 3 gives typical results for final water from treatment works before and after commissioning of the nanofiltration plant.

Nonconventional water resources

If conventional resources are not usually available to cover excess or peak demands, non-conventional resources are employed. Among natural non-conventional water resources several possibilities are considered, but the usual ones are runoff water, natural brackish water, or desalinated seawater (Georgopoulou et al. 2001). Non-conventional water resources coming from the anthropic water cycle can also be used reclaimed wastewater will be considered (Asano & Levine 1998).

Future of Water Resources in Turkey

However, not all of the renewable water resources can be utilized because of economic and technical reasons. Exploitable portions of surface runoff, inflow from bordering countries, and groundwater are 95, 3, and 12 billion m3, respectively. Thus, the total of exploitable water resources amount to 110 billion m3. The projections for future water consumption would be valid on the condition that the water resources are protected from pollution at least for the next 25 years. It is imperative that available resources have to be evaluated rationally so as to provide clean and sufficient water resources for the next generation. Because of the climatic conditions of Turkey, the precipitation-flow relationships can change not only seasonally but also from year to year and natural water supply can falls to minimum levels in summer time, when the demands are at the highest levels. The country's water resources are very sensitive to climatic conditions, and droughts are generally present in...

Historical Examples Of Drought

Short-term drought occurred in many places in the world during the 20th century. western Europe, including England, experienced years of drought on a number of occasions, as did parts of the United States. South America, Africa, and Asia have also known years in which drought conditions occurred. In the 1960s, drought appeared in the northeastern United States. Winter snows failed in the western United States 1975-77. In 1976, western Europe suffered a summertime drought. In the late 1960s and in the early 2000s, parts of Africa suffered from drought. There are regions of the world where drought is normal. Some areas, such as the northeastern area of Brazil or other semi-arid regions, have regularly re-occurring patterns of drought. Drought in some areas of the Amazon basin, in 2005, was recorded as a 100-year drought. Some Brazilian scientists argued that it was due to deforestation that was pushing the Amazon rainforest to a tipping point where it would never recover as a...

Future of Water Resources and Wastewater Reuse in Turkey

Abstract Having a water potential of 1,500 m3 capita-year, Turkey cannot be classified as a water rich country. It is estimated that in 2030 the population will reach 100 million and consequently the water potential will drop down to 1,000 m3 capita-year. Considering the predictions about regional and global climate change trends these figures obviously indicate a probable water scarcity in the nearest future and the importance of efficient wastewater reuse in Turkey. In Turkey, waste-water reuse for irrigation purposes was done in the past by direct use or after mixing with river water. But, recently, more conscious wastewater reuse applications are practiced, considering the predictions and protection of water resources from pollution. In this paper, a general view of current water resources and wastewater reuse activities in Turkey are given. Also the future predictions and planned activities are mentioned. Keywords Wastewater treatment Water reuse Turkey Water resources...

IS there a drought iN Las Vegas

Island Heightmap

In the past decade the water seems to be diminishing. Lake Powell in Arizona has shrunk to half its capacity, and the Colorado River flow shrunk to a quarter of its typical rates. The Colorado River is used to supply 30 million people with water and irrigates four million acres of fertile farmland, producing billions of dollars worth of crops. The massive waterworks systems across seven states in the southwest were all built using river flow data for the Colorado River based on 20th century flow records. Now, studies of the ancient climate history in the region going back thousands of years indicate that the 20th century may have been one of the wettest on record for the region. The Hoover Dam, the California aqueduct, and cities across the region were all built during this high flow stage of the Colorado River, and water budgets for the region were calculated assuming these flows would continue. Now, precipitation is decreasing, and the historical records show that the region...

Drought as a Disturbance Regime

Severe drought has been implicated as a contributing factor to recent accelerated rates of tree mortality in the southeastern United States (Tainter et al. 1984 Starkey Relative to long-term mean ( ) -14 +17 Number of consecutive growing season droughts and aValues in parentheses for the number of consecutive growing season droughts represent the range of the deficit relative to the long-term mean. Adapted from Clinton et al., unpubl. data, 1999. et al. 1989 Stringer et al. 1989 Clinton et al. 1993). This pulse of mortality may have a long-term impact on stand structure and function (Clark et al. 2002). The structural pattern associated with drought-induced mortality (i.e., standing-dead snags) implies that important types of microhabitats are not produced. For example, species such as pitch pine that require large openings (Barden and Woods 1976) commonly associated with large-scale, wind-induced mortality or wildfire are at a distinct disadvantage. In addition, the lack of a pulse...

Global water use trends Ever increasing

Water is fundamental for all kinds of development. Human development and well-being, industrial and economic development, energy production and agriculture all rely on the availability of (often abundant) water resources. However, there are distinct differences between sectors of society, their relationship to water and the future implications that changes in availability may have. The 20th century witnessed a sixfold increase in human water use, while the population increased 'only' threefold (Cosgrove and Rijsberman, 2000 Gleick, 2003). It is not only direct human water use that influences the quantity of water availability could also be indirectly affected through water quality deterioration due to increased pollution and deteriorated aquatic ecosystems (Koplin et al, 2002 Baresel and Destouni, 2005 Lindgren et al, 2007). Water use statistics, should be treated carefully as they may include large uncertainties. As an example, we currently do not know if groundwater provides only 25...

What We Mean By Water Purification

When we refer to water purification, it makes little sense to discuss the subject without first identifying the contaminants that we wish to remove from water. Also, the source of the water is of importance. Our discussion at this point focuses on drinking water. Groundwater sources are of a particular concern, because there are many communities throughout the U.S. that rely on this form. The following are some of the major contaminants that are of concern in water purification applications, as applied to drinking water sources, derived from groundwater. Community Water Systems (29 ) Public Water Systems Noncommunity Water Systems (71 )

Coping Strategies with Agrometeorological Risks and Uncertainties for Drought Examples in Brasil

Map Quantil Frequency Drought

Tte 1997-1998 El-Ni o caused an extreme drought in the northeastern region with considerable losses for agriculture, livestock, water resources and society. Regionally, the impact of these anomalies can be striking. In the southeastern region, for example, in the State of S o Paulo in the El Ni o period, the effects caused by this phenomenon were quite different with above average rainfall in months like May and June, ttis situation can be observed, as indicated by the rainfall anomalies represented by the monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for the month of May in 1998 (Figure 17.1). tte occurrence of these anomalies lead the State Government to create a task force involving the various sectors of society, such as, research institutes, universities and the civil defense, to propose mitigation measures. tte National Meteorological Institute (INMET) determines the occurrence of droughts by means of the SPI, and also in deciles and the monthly deviation in precipitation...

Impacts on Water Resources Users

In response, London officials abolished cesspools and made the use of water closets, drainage pipes, and centralized sewer collection systems mandatory. Over in the United States, city officials were also feeling the pressure of a populace weary of the noxious conditions associated with open sewers. In 1910, about 10 of the urban population was serviced by centralized collection systems (FWPCA, 1969). This number increased steadily in the following decades by 1940, 70.5 million persons (53 of the population) were served by them. Unfortunately, treating drinking water with chlorine and developing efficient sewage collection systems did little to help water resources users. Raw sewage deposited into streams, lakes, and estuaries was still raw sewage, whether it was discharged through an engineered wastewater collection system or through an open ditch. Collection systems just made the dumping more efficient and complete. And though chlorine proved to be a godsend for public health, it...

Physical Water Pollution

A common form of physical water pollution is thermal pollution. This includes warm water from cooling towers, floating debris, foam, and garbage. In highly industrialized areas of the world, power plants are used in generating electricity, where warmer water generated in the process is generally released back to the environment. In nuclear plants, water is used in large quantity to cool reactors. The discharge of high-temperature water into a natural body of water can affect the downstream habitats, therefore altering the ecological balance. It can lead to cultural eutrophication, thereby promoting algal bloom. This development has the potential of threatening certain fish species, as well as disturbing the chemistry of the receiving water body. from penetrating deeper waters. Weeds can make a lake unsuitable for swimming and boating. Algae and weeds die and become biodegradable material. If the water is used as a drinking-water source, algae can clog filters and impart unpleasant...

Molecular breeding for drought and heat

In breeding applications, molecular markers may be either diagnostic (i.e. perfect markers of a specific allele within a specific gene sequence) or putative (e.g. markers associated with or flanking a QTL that has been discovered via mapping in biparental crosses or in association panels of related or unrelated lines). Diagnostic markers are preferable as they can be used to select desired alleles in any parental or progeny line of a species under any crossing strategy. Alternatively, such markers can be used to prepare a gene for transgene (genetic modification, GM) approaches within or across crop species. QTL markers from mapping studies are not perfectly linked to genes (i.e. they are 'nearby') and are frequently difficult to transfer between crosses, unless there is substantial research investment in crossing and mapping to 'fine map' the QTL to locate markers that are within a gene. The identification of QTLs for complex traits is further confounded by substantial genotype x...

Droughts and Floods Are Likely to Increase

Drought is a complex environmental impact. It is strongly affected not only by the balance between precipitation and evapotranspiration (the sum of evaporation of water from the surface and transpiration of water though the leaves of plants) and the resulting effect on soil moisture, but also by other human influences such as urbanization, deforestation, and changes in agriculture. Additionally, historical data on drought frequencies and intensities are limited, making it difficult to unambiguously attribute severe droughts to climate change. Climate model projections indicate that the area affected by drought and the number of annual dry days are likely to increase in the decades ahead. In areas where water is stored for part of the year in snowpack, reductions in snowpack and earlier snowmelt are expected to increase the risk of water limitations and drought.

Climatological Methods forManaging Farm Water Resources

Almost all of the water available on the earth, 97 percent, occurs as saltwater in the oceans. Of the remaining 3 percent, 66 percent occurs as snow and ice in polar and mountainous regions, which leaves only about 1 percent of the global water as liquid freshwater. More than 98 percent of freshwater occurs as groundwater, while less than 2 percent occurs in rivers and lakes. Groundwater is formed by excess rainfall (total precipitation minus surface runoff and evapotranspiration) that infiltrates deeper into the ground and eventually percolates down to groundwater formations (aquifers). For temperate, humid climates, about 50 percent of precipitation ends up in the groundwater. For Mediterranean-type climates, this figure is 10 to 20 percent, and for dry climates it can be as little as 1 percent or even less. The global renewable water supply is about 7,000 m3 per person per year (present population). The per capita minimum water requirement is estimated at 1,200 m3 annually, of...

The Global Water Situation

X 103 km3 yr (Global water budget data cited in this section are from Postel et al.1 and Gleick2). These are satisfied primarily by direct withdrawals from accessible runoff defined as the accessible flux of water flowing from the land to the ocean as either river water or groundwater. The remainder is satisfied by nonrenewable extractions from water stored in lakes and ground water aquifers. Direct withdrawals account for about 35 of the current accessible runoff of 13 x 103 km3 yr. If instream water uses such as navigation, maintenance of riparian ecosystems, and dilution of contamination are treated as claims on accessible runoff, this percentage increases to about 50 . Spatial and temporal fluctuations in precipitation, evaporation, runoff, and water quality create regions of varying water abundance and scarcity. This has the effect of making water resource management a regional rather than a global enterprise. The spatial variability of water resources can be described in many...

General observations regarding scenarios future climate and water resources

The IPCC prepared five reports, the latest of which, in a preliminary version, was released in January 2007. The conclusions of this report most relevant to water resources and groundwater are (IPCC 2007) The IPCC scenarios (global and regional) are based on the results from Global Circulation Models (GCMs), traditionally considered by the IPCC to be the most reliable tools for obtaining indications regarding the future climate (Troen 1993 Kattenberg et al. 1996 IPCC 2007). Uncertainties conspire to make the model output, a rough approximation at best, of what could happen under various assumptions of greenhouse gases emissions (Covey 2003 Friedlingstein et al. 2003 Bender et al. 2006 Hegerl et al. 2006 Schmidt et al. 2004 Masson-Delmotte et al. 2006 van Ulden & van Oldenborgh 2006 Zhang et al. 2006 IPCC 2007 Schneider 2007). Future scenario outputs may even be contradictory (Rosenberg et al. 1999 Gagnon & Gough 2005 Stephenson et al. 2006 IPCC 2007 Kripalani et al. 2007 Li et al....

Impact of climate change on water resources

Areas vulnerable to water stress include In a warmer climate, water availability will be reduced by increased evapotranspiration. However, the response of hydrological systems depends on many factors, such as the distribution of precipitation and storage capacity. Many regions will experience a general decrease in runoff, although the change in runoff may range between -5 and +12 . More droughts are expected in southern Europe (8). The potential for winter and springtime flooding may be greater in northern, northwestern and central Europe.

The Groundwater System

Creaming Curve

Water wells fill with water simply because they intersect the water table. The rocks below the surface are not always homogeneous, however, which can result in a complex type of water table known as a perched water table. Perched water tables result from impermeable bodies in the subsurface that create bodies of water at elevations higher than the main water table.

Threats to Freshwater Systems

Threats to freshwater systems arise from a myriad of human activities, including channelization, groundwater pumping, diversion, dam building, pollution, human-induced climate change, and overexploitation of natural resources (e.g., Postel & Carpenter 1997 Malmqvist & Rundle 2002). Nearly all major rivers and lakes worldwide have large human population densities associated with them or within their drainage basins, usually sited there with relatively little thought to the availability of potable water. The growth of the human population and the mismatch between population growth and provision of, and accessibility to, water resources is an imminent concern (Cohen 1995). An estimated 1.8 billion people now live under a high degree of water stress in areas with limited supplies of potable water (Vorosmarty et al. 2000). This stress may continue to rise, with a projected population living in these areas estimated to be between 2.8 billion and 3.3 billion by 2025 (Engelman & LeRoy 1993,...

The Global Climate Change Impact on Water Resources of Armenia

Abstract The global climate change impact on water resources of Armenia is shortly reviewed. The mountainous character of Armenia causes the great differentiation in landscape types, as well as geological characteristics, climate, soils and water resources. The present day Armenia is disposed to significant ecological risks and becomes a country which economy is based on the intensive use of natural resources which eco security vulnerability is continually increasing. It is noted that the strategy of ecological security is based on the defensive, adaptation, cooperative and other approaches but the country needs to have ecological security concept based on the ecological ideology in beforehand. We highlighted in this presentation that the reduction of water reserves will coincide with the growth of the demand on water resources, since due to the climatic peculiarities namely due to the high air temperature the households will require more potable water and the needs of agriculture in...

Figure 94 Grain production and intensity of drought in the RSFSR 19761990

Sown area not affected by drought, Some Western experts believe that the weather continued to be the dominant variable in Soviet agricultural production in this period. In 1978, Severin and Carey predicted that relatively favorable weather in the late 1970s would be reversed in the next years, bringing many problems for Soviet agriculture (1978). This did, indeed, happen. The second half of the 1970s was relatively good but the first half of the 1980s seemed to be one of the worst periods in terms of climate (Figure 9.4.). Major problems for Soviet agriculture were caused by large-scale droughts. Figure 9.4. shows that the fluctuation in grain production evidently correlated with the proportion of crop area affected by drought (this area is determined by the Hydrothermal Coefficient of Seljaninov). All the major drops in grain production in 1979, 1981, and 1984 correspond to the occurrence of severe droughts. Those of 1979 and 1981 followed that of 1975 in terms of intensity, while...

What The Current Drinking Water Standards

Steel Mill Dermatitis

Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water 4 No more than 5.0 samples total coliform-positive in a month. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month, no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive). Every sample that has total coliforms must be analyzed for fecal coliforms. There may not be any fecal coliforms or E. coli. 7 MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the...

Conclusions a strategy for plant improvement and management to exploit the plants drought response capacity

We have suggested above that it may be possible to use deficit irrigation to exploit the plant's long-distance signalling networks to enhance WUE in agriculture and to increase reproductive crop quality, in part by restricting vegetative crop development and the commitment of resources to this end (Yang et al., 2001 Davies et al., 2002). As soil dries, shoot water status can be sustained by signalling-induced restrictions in stomatal aperture (e.g. Mingo et al., 2003 Sobeih et al., 2004) (Figure 5.4). If as an alternative approach for different circumstances where we want to sustain vegetative growth we can develop genotypes that do not produce chemical leaf growth inhibitors as soil dries or have leaf growth processes that are insensitive to these signals, then we can perhaps also sustain biomass accumulation and yield of vegetative plant parts when water supply for agriculture is restricted. This strategy is dependent on identifying the different chemical signals that limit both...

Precursors for and occurrence and fate of NDMA in drinking water and wastewater facilities

As a class, tertiary amines with dimethylamine functional groups were determined to be potent NDMA precursors 28 . However, specific tertiary amines with dimethylamine functional groups that may be responsible for NDMA formation within wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies have not been identified. In contrast to the long history of NDMA measurements in food, concentrations of NDMA in drinking waters have only been measured since the 1990s. Some reported values are shown in Table 2. While the mean concentrations are low, concentrations have exceeded 100 ng L following disinfection. However, in most situations, utilities cognizant of Table 2 Concentrations of NDMA reported in drinking water Table 2 Concentrations of NDMA reported in drinking water elevated NDMA concentrations have employed remedial techniques to reduce NDMA concentrations supplied to the consumer. Dillon et al. 35 have surveyed a number of UK drinking waters and detected concentrations of up to 5.8ng L. Those...

On the Izmir Tahtali Groundwater System

This section presents an overview of the climate change impact study on the Izmir-Tahtali basin groundwater system. This study by Elgi and Fistikoglu 11 is the first published study of its kind performed for a basin in Turkey. The main goal of this study is to estimate climate change induced groundwater level and flow changes in the Izmir-Tahtali stream basin with a numerical groundwater flow model by considering the IPCC's SRES scenarios. The Tahtali dam reservoir was built on the Tahtali stream, which has a drainage area of 550 km2. It is a major water resource meeting 35-40 of Izmir's total drinking water demand. The Tahtali stream basin is a sub-basin of the larger Kuguk Menderes basin and receives an annual areal mean precipitation of 820 mm. The annual mean temperature in the area is 17.4 C. Table 8.2 Comparison of the groundwater flow model's current and future water budgets for the Tahtali stream basin (negative values in the inflow columns imply net outflow from the...

Washwater Conservation

Washwater conservation can be important for many reasons, including water shortages in some locations, energy and fee savings associated with reduced water consumption, and hydraulic limitations and or discharge fees imposed on effluent discharged to municipal sewer systems 140 . A laboratory can conserve water in several ways. These include simple steps such as checking water supply equipment for leaks, using recommended wash rates, and running washwater only during actual processing. In 1981, the EPA published a Guidance Document for the Control of Water Pollution in the Photographic Processing Industry. In its conclusions, the report states, the agency does not recommend the use of concentration-based limitations for controlling pollutants at facilities in the industry 7 . The report goes on to state that limits based on concentration tend to discourage water use reductions, whereas the agency encourages the reduction of wastewater quantities by various water-saving controls....

Transboundary Water Resources

Regarding shared groundwater resources, the Prespa - Ohrid lake system and Lake Dojran are examples of a groundwater - surface water interaction with influence on the catchment environment. In the last decade, dramatic decrease of the water surface level in lakes Prespa and Dojran has occurred. Dojran Lake, being a shallow warm-water lake experiences extreme pressure from its environment, because three quarters of the volume of water disappeared in the period 1988-2002. Some recovery is noted due to two wet years and the construction of supplementary supply system from wells in Gjavato region. Prespa Lake and Ohrid Lake are hydraulically connected through karstic massif of Galicica Mountain. Exploration of this connection is necessary in order to re-establish the water balance in the catchment. There is a requirement for a general planning and management of shared water resources in the region. Regarding Prespa and Ohrid Lakes, several projects are already under way. Regarding Lake...

Spatial Characteristics of Drought

To characterize the spatial distribution of drought throughout the North Central Region, the HPR was associated with the geographic center of each county. ArcView GIS software (ESRI 1999) was used to interpolate a surface of HPR based on the spatial association between points using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) algorithm and a spatial moving average by associating 12 nearest neighbors to interpolate values of HPR between the 1055 points. Surface grid maps of HPR were developed based on monthly values of HPR at each location, and maps of cumulative HPR from May to July were produced. Two maps based on HPR were developed using this method one shows the 20-year mean (figure 4.7b) and one shows only 1988 values (figure 4.7a). The higher HPR values (i.e., HPR 15), based on the 20-year mean, occurred primarily in the western third of the region. However, in 1988, high values of HPR (HPR 30) occurred in central Michigan, Illinois, and Iowa, and in parts of Minnesota and North Dakota.

Research Needs for Advancing Science on Freshwater Resources in the Context of Climate Change

Changes in freshwater systems are expected to create significant challenges for flood management, drought preparedness, water supplies, and many other water resource issues. Responding to these challenges will require better data and improved model projections as well as a better understanding of both the impacts of climate change and the role of water governance on future water resources. Significant gaps remain in the knowledge base that informs both projections of climate impacts on water resources and governance strategies that can build adaptive capacity of water systems to climate effects. Key research needs, which are explored in more detail in Chapter 8, include the following Improve projections of changes in precipitation and other water resources at regional and seasonal time scales. Develop vulnerability assessments of the diverse range of water users and integrative management approaches to respond effectively to changes in water resources.

Cold Drought Wetwildfires

Global warming will also have a significant impact in major urban areas. In many cities, the existing infrastructure (water supply, communication systems, energy delivery, and waste disposal) is aged, worn out, and has not been well maintained. In its weakened state, the stresses from global warming (such as drought, flooding, extreme weather) could be more than the systems can handle, causing major emergencies. Other stresses in urban areas that may also be affected are crime, chronic air quality problems, and inadequate power supply to meet peak energy demands. One positive aspect is that if winters are less severe, there will be fewer winter stresses and casualties. According to the U.S. Global Change Research Program, the major potential consequences of global warming include the impacts of rising sea level and elevated storm surges on transportation systems, increased heat-related illness and death associated with temperature extremes, increased ground-level ozone pollution...

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards) are non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. EPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply. However, states may choose to adopt them as enforceable standards. The following table summarizes the secondary standards. Table 6. Summary of National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations Table 6. Summary of National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations

Global Warming and Future Droughts

The scientists at GISS completed research in February 2007 linking future global warming with droughts in certain parts of the world, including the southwestern United States. They used records of the Sun's output in a model to illustrate how a climate dominated by greenhouse gases would ultimately change rainfall patterns. What they found was that the same areas that experienced droughts in ancient times would experience them again. One of the consequences of global warming is drought. This region in Utah has already experienced drought conditions, leaving the reservoir at lower than normal capacities for the past two years, as seen by the exposed shoreline several feet above the present waterline. Drew Shindell, GISS team leader, said that there is already evidence that some rainfall patterns may be changing. Examples can be seen in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean. If these trends continue, in a couple of decades there could be serious water resource challenges...

Agricultural Drought Risk Management Understanding the Hazard and Societal Vulnerability

Many people consider drought to be largely a natural or physical event. Although all types of drought originate from a deficiency of precipitation, it has both a natural and social component, tte risk associated with drought for any region is a product of both the region's exposure to the event (i.e., probability of occurrence at various severity levels) and the vulnerability of society to the event, tte natural event (i.e., meteorological drought or the drought hazard) is a result of the occurrence of persistent large-scale disruptions in the global circulation pattern of the atmosphere. Exposure to drought varies spatially and there is little, if anything, that we can do to alter drought occurrence. Vulnerability, on the other hand, is determined by social factors such as population changes, population shifts (regional and rural to urban), demographic characteristics, land use, environmental degradation, environmental awareness, water use trends, technology, policy, and social...

Improving Analytical Tools for Monitoring Drought and Desertification

A dearth of effective, practical tools for assessing and monitoring drought has constrained the fight against desertification. Oasis is fostering the use of quantitative and analytical methods for direct measurements of ecological processes such as evapo- transpiration from inexpensive, frequently-sampled satellite data (Rosema 1993). These remote sensing analyses are combined with on-the-ground participatory assessments of community perceptions and valuations of drought and degradation. Combined with an understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions, these tools will significantly strengthen the capacities of communities, nations and regions to develop drought and desertification predicting and coping strategies and tools.

Climate Change Impact on the Water Resources

According to climate change vulnerability assessment for water resources sector, reduction of outflows in the country is primarily caused by the climate change (Fig. 23.2) 9 . Current overall annual water demand is 2.3 x 106 m3 mil and projected for the year 2020 is 3.5 x 106 m3. On the other hand, developed scenarios for climate change impact on the water resources indicate that

Hydrology and water resources

This section focuses on the relationship of runoff, lake levels, groundwater, floods and droughts, and water quality, with observed climate variability, climate trends, and land-use and land-cover changes reported since the TAR. The time period under consideration is primarily 1975 to 2005, with many studies extending to earlier decades. Observed changes in precipitation and aspects of surface hydrology are described in more detail by Trenberth et al. (2007), Section 3.3. At present, no globally consistent trend in lake levels has been found. While some lake levels have risen in Mongolia and China (Xinjiang) in response to increased snow and ice melt, other lake levels in China (Qinghai), Australia, Africa (Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi), North America (North Dakota) and Europe (central Italy) have declined due to the combined effects of drought, warming and human activities. Within permafrost areas in the Arctic, recent warming has resulted in the temporary formation of lakes due to...

Drought Monitoring In Australia

There may be few countries in the world where drought occurrence is more frequent than in Australia. Every state has developed its own procedures to identify and monitor the drought situation. Drought eased, but still serious Drought continues, rain urgently needed Potential yields severely cut by drought NSW Agriculture has been monitoring the monthly status of drought in New South Wales. Based on this assessment, the government has provided various forms of assistance to drought-affected people. To complete this procedure, Rural Land Protection Boards (RLPBs) supply the relevant data. The RLPBs supply the information in a standard format. The information given is on meteorological conditions agronomic conditions stock numbers (change from normal) livestock condition agistment of stock (change from normal) hand feeding (change from normal) water supply environmental conditions other drought-related factors and the overall recommendation of the board....

Droughts and arid zones

On a global level, the area affected by droughts is likely to increase due to a reduction in (summer) rainfall combined with increased evaporation (Sheffield, 2008). Especially in subtropical regions and the Mediterranean, reduced rainfall is predicted to lead to more frequent and more intense droughts. By the end of the 21st century, the land surface affected by extreme droughts at one time could increase by 10-fold to 40-fold (Bates et al, 2008). The regions most affected by increased droughts will be the Mediterranean, Central Asia, Central America, and Southern and West Africa (Sheffield, 2008). The southern parts of the US and Australia - already regularly affected by droughts - are likely to see more frequent and more severe droughts. Increased droughts will cause significant problems for the water resources of large urban areas. For example, in Australia, almost all major urban centres will face reduced water availability and will therefore need to look for alternatives to...

OnSite Wastewater Systems

Water wells As described in Chapter 3, nitrogen forms can be transformed when released to the environment. Because the oxidized form of nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, is a public health concern in drinking water supplies, the areal loading of nitrogen is important. Source Leverenz, H. et al., Review of Technologies for the Onsite Treatment of Wastewater in California, Report No. 02-2, prepared for the California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2002. Source Leverenz, H. et al., Review of Technologies for the Onsite Treatment of Wastewater in California, Report No. 02-2, prepared for the California State Water Resources Control Board, Sacramento, CA, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis, 2002. In older homes and in areas where water conservation or reuse is practiced because of water shortages or lack of wastewater disposal capacity, the...

Increasing drought Risk with Global Warming in Europe

Increased drought risk associated with global warming and impacts on water resources are among the main concerns among agrometeorologists in Europe (Fig. 8.1). Several recent studies highlight the challenges that result from changes in water availability and water quality (EEA 2004, IPCC 2001, IPCC 2007, Schr ter et al. 2005, EEA 2005a). ed water is used for agriculture, in the southwestern countries (Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece) about 46 and in the central and northern countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, UK, and Scandinavia), to the contrary, agricultural use of the extracted water is limited to less than 5 (Eisenreich, 2005). By far the largest part of the water used in agriculture is used for irrigation, ttis percentage approaches 100 in the southern European countries, which at the same time have the largest share of irrigated land in Europe. While the expansion of the irrigated areas, mainly in the Mediterranean, has raised...

Drought Monitoring and Planning for Mitigation

Drought is a climatic hazard that occurs in almost every region of the world. It causes physical suffering, economic losses, and degradation of the environment. A drought is a creeping phenomenon, and it is very difficult to determine when a dry spell becomes a drought or when a severe drought becomes an exceptional drought. It is slower and less dramatic than other natural disasters, but its effects are long lasting and widespread. The cost and misery suffered from a drought are more than typhoons, earthquakes, and all other sudden climatic hazards. A drought results in less water in the soil, streams, and reservoirs, less water for livestock and wildlife, and poor crops and pastures. A chain of indirect effects follows which may include depressed farm income, closure of farm-supporting industries, and reduced hydroelectric power. A drought often induces malnutrition, disease, famine, population migration, and a chain of consequences for farm families (Stehlik, Gray, and Lawrence,...

River runoff variability during the 19821994 drought period

A recent study (Gerassimov et al. 2001, 2004a, 2004b) concerned water resources in Bulgaria during the 1982-1994 drought period. An investigation was made of precipitation (P, mm) and river discharge (runoff depth, h, mm) for two periods one with a duration of 13 years (the drought period) and the other with a duration of 106 years (1890-1995). In these studies the river discharge is calculated and used in total depth of runoff. The authors concluded that the drought period had a strong negative impact on river runoff in the country. The statistical descriptors of data such as the (arithmetic) mean (X) and standard deviation (o-) of discharge and precipitation, with comparison to the long period of 106 years, are presented in Table 2 according to Gerassimov et al. (2004a). From Table 2 it is possible to conclude that during the drought period the average values and standard deviations are considerably lower compared to those of the long series. The reductions of these values are most...

Livestock and Drought

ILRI and ASARECA, with USAID support, conducted a survey of 663 households investigating coping mechanisms of pure-pastoralists and agro-pastoralists, during the 1995-1997 drought and 1997-1998 El Ni o rains (floods) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda (Ndikumana et al. 2002). The DMP conducted a similar enquiry in Kenya (Anonymous 2004). The majority of respondents among four tribes in dry areas of Kenya were aware of traditional signs that they felt had predictive power for weather, vegetation and soil conditions. Systems analysis revealed a number of opportunities to help herders improve their preparation and coping strategies. If droughts could be foreseen longer in advance, herdsmen could reduce herd size in an orderly way, avoiding panic sales. Cooperative action among herders could avoid them being exploited by middlemen e.g. in panic sales of livestock that depress markets and strip the herders of their capital assets. Coordinated downsizing and rebuilding of herds could...

Ranching Drought Plan A Drought Planning Tool for Livestock and Forage Producers

According to the National Drought Policy Commission report, Preparing for Drought in the Twenty-First Century (2000), many agricultural producers do not have access to information to develop and implement a drought plan, and even fewer producers are receiving technical assistance to help them develop and implement such plans. In order to address this problem, the NDMC is developing a model drought planning process and web-based educational delivery system for forage and rangeland producers. tte NDMC is working collaboratively with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's (UNL) Cooperative Extension Service and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, livestock and forage production consultants, and individual ranchers to identify essential planning components and develop a generic drought planning process that can serve as a template for producers to follow. Tasks being completed for this project include Conducting a review of existing literature on livestock production and drought...

Climate Change and Water Resources Challenge of Our Civilisation

Abstract The geological view to the issue of impact climate change on water resources on the Earth is the main objective of the paper. The geological excursion into the past of the Earth clearly shows that the climate cannot be stabilized. The volume of water existing on the Earth is stable and has never changed. About 96 of countries have sufficient resources of water. The major reason for water scarcity on the Earth is not unfavorable distribution of natural resources but poverty and lack of education. Keywords Climate change Geological time scale Water scarcity

Droughts and wildfires

Fire is a natural component of many ecosystems. Often, it is the fire regime (frequency, intensity and timing) rather than drought that determines primary productivity as well as plant community (Pyne, 1997 Bond et al., 2005). Nevertheless, dry weather enhances the risk of biomass burning. For example, the severe drought of 1994 that damaged large amounts of woody plants in central and southern Spain Vegetation fires are always possible because plant biomass is a good fuel in our oxygen-rich atmosphere. Live biomass, however, does not burn easily because it has a high moisture content. Drought interacts with fires, increasing dead branches and leaf shedding. These materials (dead biomass or necromass) represent the fine fuels, which once dehydrated in hot and dry weather, become highly inflammable and increase the risk of fire. Although drought and wildfires share common causes, it cannot be concluded that more or larger fires will occur in more arid regions. For fires to occur and...

Decision Support Toolsfor Drought Risk Management

Tte mission of the National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln is to lessen societal vulnerability to drought through the application of appropriate risk management techniques, including development of preparedness plans and improved drought monitoring and early warning systems and the adoption of appropriate drought mitigation measures, tte NDMC was formed in 1995, and it has been working with local, state, and national government in the United States foreign governments international organizations and others to build awareness of drought and to implement strategies to lessen risk, tte NDMC's mission is much broader than just the agricultural sector. Agriculture is certainly one of the most drought-affected sectors, and it is one in which substantial reductions in vulnerability can be achieved through changes in management. However, in many cases, this requires access to better and more timely information. For this reason, the NDMC is focusing...

Box 83 Drought in the Amazon

In the dry season of 2005, an intense drought affected the western and central part of the Amazon region, especially Bolivia, Peru and Brazil. In Brazil alone, 280,000 to 300,000 people were affected (see, e.g., Folha, 2006 Socioambiental, 2006). The drought was unusual because it was not caused by an El Ni o event, but was linked to a circulation pattern powered by warm seas in the Atlantic - the same phenomenon responsible for the intense Atlantic hurricane season (CPTEC, 2005). There were increased risks to health due to water scarcity, food shortages and smoke from forest fires. Most affected were rural dwellers and riverine traditional subsistence farmers with limited spare resources to mobilise in an emergency. The local and national governments in Brazil provided financial assistance for the provision of safe drinking water, food supplies, medicines and transportation to thousands of people isolated in their communities due to rivers drying up (World Bank, 2005). also affected....

Droughts vines and frost fairs

Benson, L. et al. (2007) Anasazi (pre-Columbian Native American) migrations during the middle-12th and late-13th centuries - were they drought induced Climatic Change, 83, 187-213. Cook, E. R. et al. (2007) North American drought Reconstructions, causes, and consequences. Earth Science Reviews, 81, 93-134. Gill, R. B. (2000) The Great Maya Droughts Water, Life and Death. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Meko, D. M. et al. (2007) Medieval drought in the upper Colorado River Basin. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, doi 10.1029 2007GL029988. Stine, S. (1994) Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during medieval time. Nature, 369, 546-9. Woodhouse, C. A. et al. (2006) Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin. Water Resources Research, 42, doi 10.1029 2005WR004455.

Water Resources And Temperature Rise

Researchers around the globe have found that climate change is likely to impact water resources depletion and pollution significantly. There have been observed changes in surface temperature, rainfall, evaporation, and extreme events since the beginning of the 20th century. The atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased from about 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to about 369 ppmv, and the global temperature of the Earth has increased by about 0.6 degrees C. The present CO2 concentration has not been exceeded during the past 420,000 years and likely not during the past 20 million years. The current rate of atmospheric CO2 level increase is unprecedented during at least the past 20,000 years. About 75 percent of the anthropogenic emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere during the past 20 years is attributed to fossil fuel burning. The rest is predominantly due to land-use change, especially deforestation. Increased surface temperatures of the Earth are causing glaciers to melt...

Plant communities facing drought

Adaptation to semi-arid environments, namely in the Mediterranean, may be used as a paradigm for the range of plant traits adaptive to water scarcity. In Figure 6.3a, plants of group I have drought-avoiding behaviour without photosynthetic active parts during dry periods but survive in a resistant form. These are a majority in the flora of most semi-arid and arid environments (e.g. annuals, chamaephytes). Another extreme is plants of group II, which are water spenders without tolerance of dehydration, exploiting specific habitats that permit access to water during most of the year. The other groups in Figure 6.3 consist of 'drought persistent' (i.e. perennial plants that maintain some photosynthesis during the dry periods) according to Noy-Meir (1973). Some of these are true xerophytes, but others may be very vulnerable to climate change such as the lauroid schlerophyllous (group V), which are relicts from the Tertiary, such as Arbutus and Myrtus, that may be eradicated if rainfall...

Adaptation and Water Resources

Abstract Adaptation to climate change in the water sector, especially changes in water management practices, will have a very significant impact on how future climate affects the water sector. The chapter starts out by describing the range of adaptive options that are available to water managers faced with changing circumstances. One classification distinguishes between supply-side and demand-side options. Another classification scheme proposed here distinguishes between 1) technological, 2) behavioural, 3) economic and 4) legal adaptive measures to manage and extend water resources. The chapter summarise these adaptive options. It assumes that the relative merits of one adaptive technique over another can be characterized in terms of the benefits and costs of the adaptation, across a spectrum of no effect ( no adaptation or wrong choice of adaptation ) to perfectly effective ( adaptation sufficient to eliminate all effects of climate change ) at an optimal level of cost...

Heatwaves and droughts

By studying weather and climate data gathered from all over the world, and transmitted from orbiting satellites, scientists can compare it with past records to work out how much the world has warmed up. But for many people, the evidence of climate change is much more obvious. They are suffering heatwaves that can raise temperatures to lethal levels, and living with droughts that make drinking water scarce, kill their crops and farm animals, and turn fertile land to desert. Some of the droughts may be caused by natural cycles, and deserts can be partly created by poor farming methods such as overgrazing by livestock. But there is little doubt that periods of seriously hot or dry weather are getting more frequent. Reduced rainfall is making some rivers dry up. In 2005 they included the greatest river of all, the Amazon, which suffered its worst drought in 40 years. Many of its tributaries shrank to a fraction of their normal width, exposing broad areas of dried, cracked mud littered...

Species interactions with limiting water resources

Species coexistence in a situation of limiting water resources implies either avoiding interactions (niche segregation) or allowing some interaction (niche overlap). For example, the coexistence of different functional types regarding water resources enables plant communities to occupy a larger amount of physical space, exploring more resources (McConnaughay & Bazzaz, 1992). The exploitation of spatially and or temporally distinct water resources by plants allows the coexistence of different species and life forms in environments where water is scarce (Noy-Meir, 1973 Reynolds etal., 2004).

Human Food and Water Shortages

Water Shortages Avocado Production

In drought-ravaged Moyale, Ethiopia, cattle are led to one of the few remaining watering holes in the region. This lack of water, along with other climate changes, can cause a decline in food production, affecting the lives of millions of people. suffer from drought and reduced rainfall. With the world's population rapidly increasing, these problems could become very serious, producing widespread water shortages and more hunger and malnutrition, especially for people in less developed areas. According to the IPCC, hundreds of millions of people in Africa and Latin America will not have enough water to live in less than twenty years, and by 2050, hundreds of millions in Asia could face the same situation. By 2080, water shortages could threaten a total of 1.1 billion to 3.2 billion people.

Field Research To Assess Linkages Between Human Activities And Drought

To help assess the linkages between human activities and drought in northwest Africa as well as the region's increasing vulnerability to drought, the authors organized an extensive field research project in Morocco during the early 1990s. A project team led by one of the authors (Bencherifa) intensively interviewed farmers about farming practices and drought-coping strategies. These interviews were conducted in three different regions of Morocco the Chaouia (a subhumid region), the northeast, usually referred to as Maroc oriental (a semiarid region), and the Chichaoua (an arid region). The research team surveyed a total of 335 households or production units. The survey consisted of a series of six questionnaire interviews, which were administered orally to the same household units over a period of nearly 2 years, from 1992 to 1994. The interview protocol was intended to capture information about dynamic responses of producers to specific climate conditions, including both drought and...

Impacts of Climate Change on Groundwater Resources Review of a Case Study in Azerbaijan

Abstract Groundwater and surface water are the sources of water supply in Azerbaijan. The hydroeconomic balance of Azerbaijan is characterized by annual and seasonal deficits arising from the implementation of hydroeconomic measures for increasing the water supply to different branches of the national economy. When almost all available surface water resources are involved in the national economical production, the optimal use of aquifers' fresh groundwater resources are currently playing pivotal role. That is the reason that the interest in the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in Azerbaijan has developed greatly. This paper examines the scientific and technical aspects of evaluating the fresh ground-water resources formation in the hydrogeological structures, such as deposits in the mountainous regions, foothill and intermountain plains. It also investigates the role of the climatic factors and impacts of climate change on groundwater resources.

Drought Understanding Vulnerability

Recent droughts in developing and developed countries and the concomitant impacts and personal hardships that resulted have underscored the vulnerability of all societies to this natural hazard, ttis appears to be a clear sign of increasing societal vulnerability resulting from unsustainable resource use and growing pressures on natural resources. As noted previously, many factors are contributing to this trend. Adding to the concern regarding increasing societal vulnerability is distress over how the threat of global warming may increase the frequency, severity, and duration of extreme climate events in the future. As pressure on finite water supplies and other limited natural resources continues to build, more frequent and severe droughts are cause for concern in both water-short and water-surplus regions where conflict between water users has increased dramatically. Conflict has also increased within and between countries because transboundary water issues are exacerbated during...

Farmer Perceptions of Drought

A recent Oasis study in Burkina Faso (Slegers et al. 2004) found that farmers' perceptions of drought differ significantly from those of research institutions. Farmers are more focused on the agricultural and local-context effects of drought (crop stress, local variations in stress) whereas researchers tend to concentrate on the regional and meteorological aspects (regional rainfall and temperature patterns, soil erosion and impoverishment). To be more relevant, researchers need to translate their macro-level observations into micro-level recommendations that can help farmers reduce their vulnerability under the particular conditions of their own plots.

Drought Impacts on Tree Growth and Mortality of Southern Appalachian Forests

In recent years, however, Coweeta has experienced several droughts that have caused significant tree growth reduction and increased mortality rates (Swift et al. 1990 Clinton et al. 1993 Vose and Swank 1994 McNulty and Swank 1995). In this chapter, we describe the general climate and features of Coweeta as well as the impact of droughts on tree growth and mortality. The timescale of this climate variability is annual, with the potential for preexisting soil moisture conditions either providing a buffer or further exacerbating the drought conditions.

Drought And Desertification

The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts increased water shortages in Africa (74 to 250 million people affected in 2020) and Asia. Case studies, however, bring to light a contrasting picture of the consequences for migrations of these kinds of evolutions. The effect of a lack of drinking and irrigation water on migration is actually less sudden than that of hurricanes and floods, and it only generates progressive departures. On one hand, there are many well-known cases of mass population departures following droughts, in particular in Africa (Sahel, Ethiopia) with an impressive figure of one million displaced persons during the drought in Niger in 1985, but also in South America (Argentina, Brazil), in the Middle East (Syria, Iran), in central Asia, and in southern Asia. On the other hand, many researchers strongly rela-tivize the possible direct link existing between drought and emigration by highlighting the fact that the latter, in general, is the...

Drought Climatology Of The Great Plains

Historical climate records for the Great Plains provide only a brief snapshot of the drought climatology for the region. For most portions of the region, climatic records cover the period since about 1900, and at only a few locations. To learn more about the occurrence and patterns of drought before that time, tree-ring data can be used to reconstruct the drought history of the region. These data provide insights into past climates extending back many centuries. Figure 1 is adapted from the work of Weakly (1965) for western Nebraska. His work was based largely on tree rings from Red Cedar for a 748-year period, from 1210 to 1958. The results of his study showed the occurrence of 21 drought periods of 5 years or more duration. The most remarkable of these drought periods was from 1276 to 1313, a period of 38 years. However, the average duration of the droughts was 12.8 years. A similar study was conducted in northern and southern Texas by Stahle and Cleaveland (1988) for the period...

Figure 72 Grain production and scale of drought in the RSFSR 19541965

Sown area not affected by drought, dry in Kazakhstan and Western Siberia as well as in many regions of the Russian Federation (Figure 7.2.). Other key agricultural regions of the USSR, such as the Ukraine, suffered from severe droughts in 1954 and 1960. Weather did little to help Khrushchev's agricultural projects. One Soviet report evaluates 1960 to 1965 as the worst in Kazakhstan in terms of climate in the period 1946 to 1975 (Agroklimatichesky prognoz, 1978). Evidently the weather was not the only factor in the colossal losses of harvests in the virgin lands in those dry years, as inappropriate methods of cultivation (which were good in wetter conditions) exposed soils to wind erosion in the dry steppes of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. Already in the first year of the campaign, 1954, there was a drought in eastern and southern parts of the Ukraine. In this region the large losses of grain were reported to be caused exclusively by the dry autumn weather of 1953 and then by drought...

Freshwater Resources10

The availability of water for human and ecosystem use depends on two main factors (1) the climate-driven global water cycle and (2) society's ability to manage, store, and conserve water resources. Each of these factors is complex, as is their interaction. Water cycling which includes evaporation and transpiration, precipitation, and both surface runoff and groundwater movement determines how freshwater flows and how it interacts with other processes. Precipitation amounts, intensity, geographic distribu

Physiological effects of water stress

Plant organs experience heat stress (see next section). Increasing water deficit leads to changes in tissue water potentials that may be suboptimal for expansive growth and metabolism (Hsiao, 2003). Osmotic adjustment is commonly observed under water deficit to resist further dehydration and to maintain favourable gradients of water potential that permit growth to continue (Morgan, 2000). If these drought-adaptive strategies are insufficient to maintain growth and development, reproductive behaviour will be impaired leading to floret sterility and or inadequate levels of assimilation to sustain seed growth (see Barnabas et al., 2008). Cessation of growth may be followed by tissue dehydration if water stress is not relieved, potentially resulting in damage to the photosynthetic apparatus and other metabolic processes (Ghannoum, 2009). A more recently observed phenomenon under drought is that of micronutrient deficiency caused by reduced transpiration rates under water deficit. Zinc is...

Drinking Water and Irrigation

Many communities depend on glacial meltwater each spring and summer for their drinking water. In tropical regions, the glaciers melt year-round, supplying drinking water to people and animals that would not have any other source of water for survival. According to the WWF, the Himalayan glaciers alone provide a year-round supply of water to more than 2 billion people. In the Ganga, if glaciers further shrink, up to 500 million people may suffer from a shortage of drinking water. There are multitudes of people in Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru who also rely heavily on glacial meltwater as their source of drinking water. In addition to drinking water, glacial meltwater is also frequently used to irrigate crops. Areas such as South America and Central Asia rely heavily on glacial meltwater for these purposes.

Increasing Vulnerability To Drought

Since the earliest historical times, drought has been a major hazard in northwest Africa. Historical surveys of drought and other natural calamities have determined that there were 49 major drought-related famines in Morocco during the period from the late ninth century to the early 1900s (Bois, 1957) and at least 26 such episodes in Tunisia from around ad 100 to the late 1800s (Bois, 1944). While the drought hazard has perhaps always existed in northwest Africa, this hazard has been increasing during the present century (Swearingen, 1992, 1994, 1996a). It has been increasing primarily due to two key processes (1) expansion of cereal cultivation to drought-prone rangeland and (2) reduction of fallow. During the colonial period, these processes were fostered by large-scale land expropriation, by the dislodging of peasants to marginal lands, by a cereal policy offering high crop prices and other incentives, by agricultural mechanization, which facilitated the mining of marginal areas...

Vegetation Drought Response Index VegDRI

Drought monitoring is challenging because of the considerable variability in the duration, intensity, and spatial extent among specific drought events. Climate and weather data traditionally have been used to monitor drought, but the information has lacked the spatial detail required for local livestock and forage producers to use for drought planning. In response, the NDMC is developing two tools, the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI) and the Vegetation Outlook (VegOut), which utilize a combination of climate, satellite, oceanic, and biophysical (land cover and soils information) data to map and monitor the impact of drought on general vegetation conditions. Both tools produce maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution that are updated every two weeks to reflect the changing vegetation conditions, tte goal is to create tools that provide timely and more spatially precise drought-related information that can be used by livestock and forage producers in their decision-making process,...

Breeding Approaches for Heat and Drought Adaptation

Conventional breeding approaches have had considerable impact in marginal environments as well as favourable ones. For example, economic analysis shows that in the late 1990s, around 25 of global wheat production increase came from improved production in marginal environments (Lantican et al., 2003). Much of this impact was achieved by combining genes of major effect associated with agronomic type, phenology and disease resistance into good yielding backgrounds. However, impacts have also been achieved more recently through targeting specific heat- and drought-adaptive traits in cereals. These have typically occurred for integrative traits, such as transpiration efficiency and canopy temperature (CT), which are composite measures of numerous physiological and morphological processes.

Regulation Of Ndma In Drinking Water

Given that NDMA can form during water and wastewater treatment, and that in some severe cases drinking water may provide as much or more dietary NDMA as food, some degree of formal monitoring of NDMA in drinking water must be required, particularly when disinfection techniques promoting formation are practiced. Currently, NDMA in drinking water is regulated in very few countries worldwide, although it is now limited to 9 and 10 ng L by the state and provincial governments in California and Ontario, respectively. These values exceed the 0.7ng L drinking water concentration suggested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to result in a 10 6 lifetime cancer risk 76 . Further, the World Health Organization is considering a guideline value of 100ng L to be included in the second addendum to the 3rd edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality 35 . This is in agreement with German regulations for carcinogenic substances that have some...

Contaminated Water and Pressures Produced in the Landfill Site

The stresses or pressures developed with the soil-water system are caused mainly by changes in the overlying stress conditions. There are at least three types of pressures to be considered, including external loads such as surcharge weight from landfill, lateral earth pressures, and loads due to construction activities around the landfill area 13 .

Impacts on Drinking Water

From all the aforementioned, it is obvious that detergents find their way into drinking water supplies in various ways. As far as imparting odor to drinking water, only heavy doses of anionic surfactants yield an unpleasant odor 36 , and someone has to have a very sensitive nose to smell detergent doses of 50 mg L or less. On the other hand, it seems that the impact of detergent doses on the sense of taste of various individuals varies considerably. As reported by Cohen 10 , the U.S. Public Health Service conducted a series of taste tests which showed that although 50 of the people in the test group detected a concentration of 60 mg L of ABS in drinking water, only 5 of them detected a concentration of 16 mg L. Because tests like this have been conducted using commercial detergent formulations, most probably the observed taste is not due to the surfactants but rather to the additives or perfumes added to the products. However, the actual limit for detergents in drinking water in the...