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Examples of community water quality objectives are total hardness, taste & odour, and colour. Some community water quality objectives may be classified as secondary standards or those standards, which do not affect consumer health. Community water quality objectives are shown in simplified form in Table 3. Once the treatment objectives are known, potential membrane systems can be determined for meeting these goals. Some general statements can be made regarding current treatment concerns:

1. Diffusion controlled membranes (RO & NF) are required for control of inorganic contaminates such as total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), chlorides, etc. and DBP precursors.

2. Charge controlled membranes (EDR) can remove TDS, TH, chlorides etc.

3. Size exclusion controlled membranes can control particles, turbidity and cysts.

Table 2 Summary ofMembrane Process Applications for Drinking Water Regulations
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