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The major factors, which affect membrane performance, are:

• condition of the raw water supply

• effectiveness of pre-treatment procedures

• system operating parameters

• degree of plant maintenance and continuous monitoring

• responsiveness of plant operators to significant performance changes

• the rate and degree of fouling

Membrane fouling is the most common reason for performance problems, the effects are often: - reduced membrane productivity, poor salt rejection characteristics and increasing pressure differential across the membranes.

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