Conclusions

1. Continuous Microfiltration allows Reverse Osmosis technology to treat previously impractical source waters, as microfiltration allows RO feedwater quality to be controlled and consistent.

2. CMF produces a constant high quality effluent that is independent of feed water variations.

3. Microfiltration allows the membrane inventory of an RO plant to be reduced by up to 30 to 40%.

4. Microfiltration membranes have simplified the RO pretreatment process resulting in lowering the operating costs of both the pretreatment and RO systems.

5. CMF is proven to be more economical on whole life costs and is helping to drive down the cost of ownership of RO installations.

6. CMF allows TFC RO membranes to operate in a stable condition on municipal wastewater.

References

[1] G.L Leslie et al., 1997. Pilot testing of microfiltration and ultrafiltration upstream of reverse osmosis during reclamation of municipal wastewater.

[2] W.Won et al., 1999 Comparative life cycle costs for operation of full scale conventional pretreatment/RO and MF/RO system, AWWA Membrane Conference, Long Beach, March 1999.

[3] G. Craig, Overview of the long term application of wastewater reuse at a major powerstation. April 1999.

[4] T Pohjolainen, 1999 Case study of 'Closed' board mill and application studies in Finland.

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