Case Study Selection

The selected sites for presentation were associated with research projects12,13'3. All of the case studies could be described as integrated membrane systems (IMS's), however the data from each of the membranes used in the IMS's can be utilized for application of singular membrane units receiving similar water quality. The site raw water quality is shown in Table 6.

Treatment objectives for each site were established by reviewing the site raw water quality with respect to the regulatory constraints as shown in Table 7. All sites were classified as surface waters. All RO/NF membranes require control of plugging and precipitation or scaling. There is no acceptable method of determining the effects of organic or biological fouling other than conducting pilot studies, which assess each fouling mechanism separately. The case studies by site are shown in Table 8. Whereas the complete removal of any one mechanism of fouling is highly unlikely, the reduction of a particular mechanism of fouling is highly likely. The comparison of productivity declines for various scenarios for fouling control can provide an assessment of separate fouling mechanisms.

Table 6 Fouling Index Approximations for RO/NF

Fouling Index

Range

Application

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