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O.OOgL' O.OlgL' 0.1 gL' l.OgL' lOgL Magietite dose Figure 5 The increase in relative permeate throughput for Moorabool water treated with 3.2mg L ofalum (as Al3*) and various doses of magnetite. O.OOgL' O.OlgL' 0.1 gL' l.OgL' lOgL Magietite dose Figure 5 The increase in relative permeate throughput for Moorabool water treated with 3.2mg L ofalum (as Al3*) and various doses of magnetite. 3.2 Magnetite-Alum-Polyelectrolyte Pre-treatment Membrane Performance The membrane performance was also...

Conclusions

A significant improvement in the laboratory-scale performance of drinking water microfiltration was achieved by combining a magnetite treatment step with conventional alum treatment at pH 6.0. The permeate throughput at which the permeate flowrate declined by an arbitrary value (25 ) increased by up to a factor of four for magnetite doses up to lOg L, although the water quality after magnetite-alum treatment was not substantially better than that achieved with alum alone. This improvement would...

Abstract

Severn Trent and Anglian Water serve over 13 million customers in central and eastern England. Following recent droughts both companies see the River Trent as a potential new drinking water resource capable of safeguarding existing supplies in the East Midlands and Lincolnshire. The River Trent, hitherto an 'untapped' resource for potable supplies, contains the treated sewage from 4 million people together with the influence of industrial discharges from the Midlands means that the river...

Introduction

The River Trent drains the large urban catchment of the Midlands. The industrial and domestic waste from Birmingham, Nottingham and Leicester, in addition to run-off from highways and agricultural activities, all contribute to the contamination of the River Trent. Historically the river has always been considered to be 'too polluted' for drinking water abstraction but, due to the improvement in quality of its tributaries and the tighter standards and compliance of sewage effluent, the river has...

Results And Discussion

The programme of work at the AWTP includes routine sampling and analysis to optimise performance of each treatment process relative to the feed water quality, regular spiking trials of key risk compounds to ascertain cost effective removal and special projects such as disinfection by-product control. Figure 2 shows the removal capability of GAC and RO treatments for high levels of key risk compounds actually found to date in River Trent feed water. Boron being such a small element is unusual in...

Cip

0.2 im pore size PP, symmetric and hydrophobic non chlorine resistant Suction pressure via centrifugal pump Low air pressure on outside of membranes filtrate from in-to-out and draindown Acid and caustic (4h) 0.1pm pore size PVDF, asymmetric and hydrophilic chlorine resistant Suction pressure via centrifugal pump Low air pressure on outside of membranes filtrate from in-to-out with small overflow Chlorine and hydrochloric acid (2h) Periodic back pulse with chlorinated filtrate The absolute...

Summary

The implementation of membrane case studies is important to support decision making activities when designing, constructing and initiating a membrane process for potable water production. The value of the study is often dependent on the manner in which the study was performed. Site specific variables impact the results of the pilot investigation. Pilot investigations assist in confirming design criteria, water quality goals, concentrate disposal parameters, membrane replacement estimates,...

Modelling Temperature And Concentration Polarisation In Ultrafiltration Of Nonnewtonian Fluid Under Nonisothermal

Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Development of new generation of membrane processes, in particular, in biotechnology and oil processing, requires development of advanced and more complex methods of calculation where phenomena of temperature and concentration polarization have to be described. Proposed method is based on hybridization of submodels for baro- and thermomembrane operations. Submitted paper covers the following aspects (A) temperature field (B) concentration field...

New Plant Description

The new sea water desalination system consists of the following main stages (Figure 1) sea water screens and intake pumps quarry pool pumps pre-treatment with auxiliaries high pressure system pumps and RO trains with energy recovery product pumps and product water stabilisation The plant is designed to have the daily output of 6000 m3 day of permeate with a quality of less than 400 mg 1 TDS, based on a feed water quality of 37,734 mg 1 TDS. Full output can be maintained over the sea water...

Immersed Membrane System

An immersed membrane filtration plant is composed of parallel tanks into which cassettes are immersed. One tank normally corresponds to one production unit (one train) and is equipped with dedicated permeate pump and blower. This approach allows the construction of large trains of up to 20 000 m d. When compared to pressurised membrane systems, where the train size is limited to approximately 4 000 m3 d, this greatly limits the number of ancillary equipment, pumps, blowers and valves. This...

RSC iP so

ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY J JL The Proceedings of the Conference being held by the Water Chemistry Forum of the Royal Society of Chemistry and the European Desalination Society on Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment at the University of Lancaster, UK, on 27-29 March 2000. Special Publication No. 249 ISBN 0-85404-800-6 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Royal Society of Chemistry 2000 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for...

Edr Pilotplant Facilities

Ionics built the 2 stage EDR unit as a new EDR 2020 system. Figure 2 shows the system. It consisted of two hydraulic and two electrical stages, each containing 250 cell pairs. The anion membranes were of type AR204-SZRA and the cation membranes were of type CR67-HMR, both manufactured by Ionics. The flowspacers were the new Mark IV (thickness 0.76-mm, size 46x102 cm, with an effective area 3450 cm2). The product flow was set at 14 m3 h by a variable speed drive controlling the feed pump. The...

History

3.1 Operation, Water Supply and Demand Natural aquifers account for only 3 of the raw water supply. Unfortunately, some of the highest yielding catchments have the smallest reservoirs. A network of raw water pumping stations has been developed to fill the reservoirs from remote stream sources and also provide a flexible means to supply Handois and Augres Water Treatment Works. The maximum storage available is 2,677,340 m3. This represents only 4 months demand. The maximum daily demand up to...

Formation Water Chemistry

The need for water injection was identified very early on during the development stage for the Janice Field. Water injection is need for reservoir pressure maintenance and to sweep the oil towards the production wells. The most readily available and obvious source of injection water is filtered seawater. However, down hole formation water samples from Janice were recovered, and found by two independent analyses to contain 10,000 mg 1 Ca. With seawater containing 2900 mg 1 Sulphate (S04), this...

Drinking Water Quality

Following the installation of the nanofiltration plant the improvement to the quality of the drinking water is significant. In addition to the information displayed in Table 2, Table 3 gives typical results for final water from treatment works before and after commissioning of the nanofiltration plant.

System Design

All the outsourced systems presented have several design features in common. Reclamation of wastewater presents several challenges to any treatment system. All the presented designs have filtration and reverse osmosis (CA membranes) Reverse osmosis membranes are sensitive to suspended solids, using the SDI measurement gives a good indication of the suitability of the feed water for reverse osmosis. The two pass filtration system with in-line coagulant dosing produces an SDI15 < 5, this is...

Application Of Edr In An

Using EDR in the IMS, it can be placed either as final process unit or as first process unit. Figure 1 shows these possibilities. In addition, the performance of EDR can be affected by staging. In the research, a 2 stage and 3 stage EDR units were compared used as first process unit as well as final process unit in the IMS. The following items were incorporated in the research to find the optimum IMS configuration and EDR system 1. The desalination characteristics of a 2 and 3 stage EDR system....

Sulphate Reduction Package Project Milestones

The contract was awarded to Axsia Serck Baker on a fast-track basis in June 1997. Due to the central location of this package on the vessel it was critical to the overall vessel construction program that the package was delivered on time. The completed package was delivered on-time and to budget during February 1998. The completed vessel float-out occurred during November 1998 and first oil was produced during February 1999. The sulphate removal package was commissioned during August 1999 and...

Design Of The Advanced Water Treatment Plant

Conventional Wastewater Plant

The Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) was designed following preliminary pre-treatment and Reverse Osmosis (RO) studies. Spiking trials on single RO elements were carried out to compare the rejection of Trent risk compounds (boron, bromide, nitrate and isoproturon) achieved by both High Rejection (HR) and Ultra Low Pressure (ULP) RO membranes. There was some deterioration of rejection achieved by the ULP RO (55 to 40 ) for boron removal but all other spiking compounds were removed by > 95...

Dow Filmtec Sr90400 Membrane

The SR90-400 membrane is defined as a thin film composite membrane consisting of three layers a polyester support web, a microporous polysulfone interlayer, and an ultra thin barrier layer on the top surface. In the SR90-400 membrane the barrier has a negative surface charge which repels anions (negatively charged ions). Monovalent anion rejection (for example chloride ions) decreases with increasing salinity because the high concentration of positive cations starts to shield the negative...

Adhesion And Cohesion

Within minutes of contact with non-sterile water, the first microorganisms will adhere4. Primary colonisation is strongly influenced by the concentration of cells in the water phase. Among the spectrum of various microbial species, a clear preference for given membrane materials can be observed one example is the preferential colonisation of polysulfone by Pseudomonas diminuta and Staphylococcus warneri as investigated by Flemming and Schaule10. In order to investigate such preferences, samples...

Edr Flow Diagram Of Ami Plant

Block Diagram Plant Watering Watcher

The Township of Imola, has general quality features - and especially micro-biological features - which make traditional disinfecting treatment unnecessary. The system has a limited throughput, but has all the features of a true productive installation. Also, since it was designed as a pilot plant, it has been provided with a data acquisition system on a PC connected to the automatic management PLC of the system this PLC also acts as a service system for automatic collection of water samples...

Evolution Of Fourth Generation Cmfs Technology

USF Memcor introduced its CMF microfiltration technology in the early eighties. The first generation of systems were relatively expensive and were therefore limited to high value low volume process streams such as wine, fruit juice, and pharmaceutical applications. They were typically manufactured into small skid mounted units using standard plumbing fittings. Further cost reductions and simplifications were made in the second generation Ml and M2 series by using injection moulded manifolding...

Chemical Pretreatment To Inhibit Scales

Feed water quality determines allowable plant operating conditions, which will dictate the optimum system recovery and overall production rate. It is necessary to make a full and detailed water analysis to identify all major anions and cations, which contribute to scale formation and general fouling. The major scaling fouling ions are calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulphate, silica, iron and barium. Many natural waters will deposit calcium carbonate on the membrane surface if untreated....

Case Study For The Yorkshire Water Keldgate Plant

Box 89 7550 AB Hengelo The Netherlands Earth Tech Engineering Wentworth Business Park Tankersley, Barnsley South Yorkshire S75 3DL United Kingdom Cryptosporidium and other chlorine resistant micro-organisms are a problem for potable water supply companies throughout the world. Numerous problems have been reported with the Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee (USA) which occurred in April 1993 as most notorious example. Cryptosporidium and Giardia form cysts which...