Summary

In summary, freshwater in Kuwait obtained either by RO or by MSF shows medium ranges for most mineral contents compared with bottled natural mineral water. Also, all freshwater sources in Kuwait (95 produced by MSF) are within the acceptable ranges of the WHO guideline values for drinking water (Table 4). The collected data presented in Table 4 show that the bottled natural mineral water is not better than the potable water supplied by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW) in Kuwait from...

New Plant Description

The new sea water desalination system consists of the following main stages (Figure 1) sea water screens and intake pumps quarry pool pumps pre-treatment with auxiliaries high pressure system pumps and RO trains with energy recovery product pumps and product water stabilisation The plant is designed to have the daily output of 6000 m3 day of permeate with a quality of less than 400 mg 1 TDS, based on a feed water quality of 37,734 mg 1 TDS. Full output can be maintained over the sea water...

Immersed Membrane System

An immersed membrane filtration plant is composed of parallel tanks into which cassettes are immersed. One tank normally corresponds to one production unit (one train) and is equipped with dedicated permeate pump and blower. This approach allows the construction of large trains of up to 20 000 m d. When compared to pressurised membrane systems, where the train size is limited to approximately 4 000 m3 d, this greatly limits the number of ancillary equipment, pumps, blowers and valves. This...

RSC iP so

ROYAL SOCIETY OF CHEMISTRY J JL The Proceedings of the Conference being held by the Water Chemistry Forum of the Royal Society of Chemistry and the European Desalination Society on Membrane Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment at the University of Lancaster, UK, on 27-29 March 2000. Special Publication No. 249 ISBN 0-85404-800-6 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library The Royal Society of Chemistry 2000 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for...

Results And Discussion

Sixteen NF runs were carried out during the period from January 1999 to September 1999. Table 1 lists the operation conditions of all these runs. The recovery for the whole system was set at 75 , except Run 12, which was 60 . Figure 2 shows the plot of the MTCW values obtained from Stage 1, Stage 2, and the whole NF system, respectively, versus the cumulative permeate volume for all these runs. The fouling rate and CF for each run are listed in Table 2. In the first 9 runs, no matter whether...

Edr Pilotplant Facilities

Ionics built the 2 stage EDR unit as a new EDR 2020 system. Figure 2 shows the system. It consisted of two hydraulic and two electrical stages, each containing 250 cell pairs. The anion membranes were of type AR204-SZRA and the cation membranes were of type CR67-HMR, both manufactured by Ionics. The flowspacers were the new Mark IV (thickness 0.76-mm, size 46x102 cm, with an effective area 3450 cm2). The product flow was set at 14 m3 h by a variable speed drive controlling the feed pump. The...

History

3.1 Operation, Water Supply and Demand Natural aquifers account for only 3 of the raw water supply. Unfortunately, some of the highest yielding catchments have the smallest reservoirs. A network of raw water pumping stations has been developed to fill the reservoirs from remote stream sources and also provide a flexible means to supply Handois and Augres Water Treatment Works. The maximum storage available is 2,677,340 m3. This represents only 4 months demand. The maximum daily demand up to...

Formation Water Chemistry

The need for water injection was identified very early on during the development stage for the Janice Field. Water injection is need for reservoir pressure maintenance and to sweep the oil towards the production wells. The most readily available and obvious source of injection water is filtered seawater. However, down hole formation water samples from Janice were recovered, and found by two independent analyses to contain 10,000 mg 1 Ca. With seawater containing 2900 mg 1 Sulphate (S04), this...

Introduction

The drinking water treatment plant Hitfeld of the Stadtwerke Aachen AG (STAWAG), Germany, processes 2.7 Mm3 reservoir water per year. After flocculation and pH adjustment the raw water passes a recirculation filter and a dual-media sand filter. Backwashing of these filters consumes about 10 of the treated water. Since the processing capacity of the treatment plant exceeds the annual contingent of raw water from the dam, standstills of the plant may occur in dry years. In order to achieve a...

Abstract

The recent widespread use of similar membranes for water treatment in Europe and North America has been largely driven by a need for improved disinfection, in particular the requirement to deal with Cryptosporidium. UltraBar is a novel hollow fibre membrane system, of which its main applications are in the single stage treatment of ground and surface waters to potable standards. As the system performs as a physical barrier, the most important factor is to ensure the integrity of the system. It...

Drinking Water Quality

Following the installation of the nanofiltration plant the improvement to the quality of the drinking water is significant. In addition to the information displayed in Table 2, Table 3 gives typical results for final water from treatment works before and after commissioning of the nanofiltration plant.

System Design

All the outsourced systems presented have several design features in common. Reclamation of wastewater presents several challenges to any treatment system. All the presented designs have filtration and reverse osmosis (CA membranes) Reverse osmosis membranes are sensitive to suspended solids, using the SDI measurement gives a good indication of the suitability of the feed water for reverse osmosis. The two pass filtration system with in-line coagulant dosing produces an SDI15 < 5, this is...

Application Of Edr In An

Using EDR in the IMS, it can be placed either as final process unit or as first process unit. Figure 1 shows these possibilities. In addition, the performance of EDR can be affected by staging. In the research, a 2 stage and 3 stage EDR units were compared used as first process unit as well as final process unit in the IMS. The following items were incorporated in the research to find the optimum IMS configuration and EDR system 1. The desalination characteristics of a 2 and 3 stage EDR system....

Sulphate Reduction Package Project Milestones

The contract was awarded to Axsia Serck Baker on a fast-track basis in June 1997. Due to the central location of this package on the vessel it was critical to the overall vessel construction program that the package was delivered on time. The completed package was delivered on-time and to budget during February 1998. The completed vessel float-out occurred during November 1998 and first oil was produced during February 1999. The sulphate removal package was commissioned during August 1999 and...

Design Of The Advanced Water Treatment Plant

The Advanced Water Treatment Plant (AWTP) was designed following preliminary pre-treatment and Reverse Osmosis (RO) studies. Spiking trials on single RO elements were carried out to compare the rejection of Trent risk compounds (boron, bromide, nitrate and isoproturon) achieved by both High Rejection (HR) and Ultra Low Pressure (ULP) RO membranes. There was some deterioration of rejection achieved by the ULP RO (55 to 40 ) for boron removal but all other spiking compounds were removed by > 95...

Dow Filmtec Sr90400 Membrane

The SR90-400 membrane is defined as a thin film composite membrane consisting of three layers a polyester support web, a microporous polysulfone interlayer, and an ultra thin barrier layer on the top surface. In the SR90-400 membrane the barrier has a negative surface charge which repels anions (negatively charged ions). Monovalent anion rejection (for example chloride ions) decreases with increasing salinity because the high concentration of positive cations starts to shield the negative...

Adhesion And Cohesion

Within minutes of contact with non-sterile water, the first microorganisms will adhere4. Primary colonisation is strongly influenced by the concentration of cells in the water phase. Among the spectrum of various microbial species, a clear preference for given membrane materials can be observed one example is the preferential colonisation of polysulfone by Pseudomonas diminuta and Staphylococcus warneri as investigated by Flemming and Schaule10. In order to investigate such preferences, samples...

Edr Flow Diagram Of Ami Plant

The Township of Imola, has general quality features - and especially micro-biological features - which make traditional disinfecting treatment unnecessary. The system has a limited throughput, but has all the features of a true productive installation. Also, since it was designed as a pilot plant, it has been provided with a data acquisition system on a PC connected to the automatic management PLC of the system this PLC also acts as a service system for automatic collection of water samples...

Evolution Of Fourth Generation Cmfs Technology

USF Memcor introduced its CMF microfiltration technology in the early eighties. The first generation of systems were relatively expensive and were therefore limited to high value low volume process streams such as wine, fruit juice, and pharmaceutical applications. They were typically manufactured into small skid mounted units using standard plumbing fittings. Further cost reductions and simplifications were made in the second generation Ml and M2 series by using injection moulded manifolding...

Chemical Pretreatment To Inhibit Scales

Feed water quality determines allowable plant operating conditions, which will dictate the optimum system recovery and overall production rate. It is necessary to make a full and detailed water analysis to identify all major anions and cations, which contribute to scale formation and general fouling. The major scaling fouling ions are calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulphate, silica, iron and barium. Many natural waters will deposit calcium carbonate on the membrane surface if untreated....

Case Study For The Yorkshire Water Keldgate Plant

Box 89 7550 AB Hengelo The Netherlands Earth Tech Engineering Wentworth Business Park Tankersley, Barnsley South Yorkshire S75 3DL United Kingdom Cryptosporidium and other chlorine resistant micro-organisms are a problem for potable water supply companies throughout the world. Numerous problems have been reported with the Cryptosporidium outbreak in Milwaukee (USA) which occurred in April 1993 as most notorious example. Cryptosporidium and Giardia form cysts which...