Summary And Conclusions

The federal, state, and local funding for construction of municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the Connecticut River Basin has led to significant improvement in water quality since the 1960s. A river basin that during the early 1970s was considered a flowing sewer is now a popular recreational area. One measure of the improvement in the fishable/swimmable quality of the river is documented by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Dramatic improvements in water quality, along with the installation of fish ladders to eliminate physical barriers to migration, have resulted in the successful return of Atlantic salmon to the Connecticut River.

Concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the Connecticut River case study area since the CWA have followed the national trends—phosphorus and ammonia-N have decreased with associated increases in nitrate-N and total nitrogen, indicating that improved wastewater treatment has improved water quality (Garabe-dian et al., 1998). In its report Water Quality in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, 1992-1995 (Garabedian et al., 1998), the U.S. Geological Survey concluded that increasing nitrate concentrations may contribute to eutrophication in Long Island Sound.

Bondelid, T., S. Unger, and A. Stoddard. 2GGG. National water pollution control assessment model (NWPCAM) Version 1.1. Final report prepared by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gffice of Policy, Economics and Innovation, Washington, DC, November, RTI Project Number 92U-764G-G31.

Center for Environment and Man. 1975. Environmental impact assessment. Water quality analysis. Connecticut River. Report No. NCWQ 75/51. Prepared for the National Commission on Water Quality, Washington, DC, by the Center for Environment and Man., Hartford, CT, National Technical Information Service No. PB-25G 924. April.

Conniff, R. 199G. The transformation of a river from sewer to suburbs in 2G years. Smithsonian 21(1): 71-84.

CSDC. 1991. 199G Census population by municipality. State of Connecticut Gffice of Policy and Management, Connecticut State Data Center, Hartford, CT.

CTDEP. 1982. The Connecticut River—Worth the cost! Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Water Compliance Division, Hartford, CT.

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Forstall, R. L. 1995. Population by counties by decennial census: 19GG to 199G. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Division, Washington, DC.

Garabedian, S. P., J. F. Coles, S. J. Grady, E. C. T. Trench, and M. J. Zimmerman. 1998. Water quality in the Connecticut, Housatonic, and Thames River Basins, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont, 1992-1995. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1155. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

Gilbert, P. 1991. Metropolitan District Commission, Hartford, CT. Personal communication.

Isaac, R. A. 1991. PGTW improvements raise water quality. Water Environ. Technol. 3(6): 69-72.

Jobin, W. R. 1998. Sustainable management for dams and waters. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Kittrell, F. W. 1963. Report to the conference in the matter of pollution of the interstate waters of the Connecticut River; Massachusetts-Connecticut. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC. December.

Mauger, A. 1991. Water Compliance Division, State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT. Personal communication.

GMB. 1999. GMB Bulletin No.99-G4. Revised statistical definitions of Metropolitan Areas (MAs) and Guidance on uses of MA definitions. U.S. Census Bureau, Gffice of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

Reimold, R. 1991. Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., Boston, MA. Personal communication.

Savoy, T. 1991. Sturgeon status in Connecticut waters. Completion Report. Project No. AFC-18. State of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Marine Fisheries, Waterford, CT. June.

Savoy, T. and D. Shake. 1991. Population dynamics studies of American shad, Alosa sapidis-sima, in the Connecticut River. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Gceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. June 3G.

USACE. 1981. Water resources development in Connecticut 1981. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New England Division, Waltham, MA.

USDGC. 1998. Census of Population and Housing. Prepared by U.S.

Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census— Population Division, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 1980. National accomplishments in pollution control: 1970-1980. Some case histories. The Connecticut River: Salmon are caught again. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gffice of Planning and Evaluation, Program Evaluation Division, Washington, DC. December.

USEPA. STGrage and RETrieval Water Quality Information System. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gffice of Wetlands, Gceans, and Watersheds, Washington, DC.

USGS. 1989. Water resources data, Connecticut water year 1988. USGS Water-Data Report CT-88-1. U.S. Geological Survey, Hartford, CT.

USGS. 1999. Streamflow data downloaded from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS)-W. Data retrieval for historical streamflow daily values.

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