References

AMSA. 1997. The AMSA financial survey. American Metropolitan Sewerage Association, Washington, DC.

ASIWPCA. 1984. America's clean water: The states evaluation of progress 1972-1982. Association of State and Interstate Water Pollution Control Administrators (ASIWPCA), Washington, D. C. Executive Summary and technical appendix. Technical appendix provides state inventories of population served by municipal wastewater treatment category and influent and effluent BOD5 loadings for 1972 and 1982. Clark, J. W., W. Viessman, and M. L. Hammer. 1977. Elements of water supply and wastewater disposal, 3rd ed. Harper & Row Publishers, New York. Fair, G. M., J. C. Geyer, and D. A. Okun. 1971. Elements of water supply and wastewater disposal, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 752 pp.

FWPCA. 1970. The economics of clean water. Vol. I, Detailed analysis. U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA), Washington, DC. March. Population served data for 1940 raw, primary and intermediate, and secondary treatment digitized from Figure 4, "Growth of public waste handling services," p. 75.

FWQA. 1970. Municipal waste facilities in the U.S.: Statistical summary, 1968 inventory. Publication No. CWT-6. U.S. Department of the Interior, Federal Water Quality Administration (FWQA), Washington, DC.

Gunnerson, C. G. et al. 1982. Management of domestic waste. In: Ecological stress and the New York Bight: Science and management, ed. G. F. Mayer, pp. 91-112. Estuarine Research Foundation, Columbia, SC.

Hall, J. C. and R. J. Foxen. 1984. Nitrification in BOD5 test increases POTW noncompliance. J. WPCF 55(12): 1461-1469.

Leo, W.M, R. V. Thomann, and T. W. Gallagher. 1984. Before and after case studies: Comparisons of water quality following municipal treatment plant improvements. EPA 430/9-007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Program Operations, Washington, DC.

Lung, W. 1998. Trends in BOD/DO modeling for waste load allocations. J. Environ. Eng., ASCE 124(10):1004-1007.

Metcalf and Eddy. 1991. Wastewater engineering: Treatment, disposal and reuse. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Series in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, New York. 1334 pp.

MWCOG. 1989. Potomac River water quality trends and issues in the Washington metropolitan area, 1982-1986. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, Washington, DC. April.

NCWQ. 1976. Staff report to the National Commission on Water Quality. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. p. II-5. Municipal facility inventory data for 1940 and 1974 taken from numerical data presented in FWQA (1970) figure "Trends in municipal wastewater treatment" for 1940 (2,938 primary, 2,630 secondary for a total of 5,568) and 1974 (3,032 primary, 16,987 secondary, 992 tertiary for a total of 21,011 facilities).

NRC. 1993. Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas. Committee on Wastewater Management for Coastal Urban Areas, Water Science and Technology Board, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Steel, E. W. 1960. Water supply and sewerage, 4th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York. 655 pp.

Tetra Tech. 1999. Improving point source loadings data for reporting national water quality indicators. Final Technical Report prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management, Washington, DC, by Tetra Tech, Inc. Fairfax, VA.

Thomann, R. V. and J. A. Mueller. 1987. Principles of surface water quality modeling and control. Harper & Row, Inc., New York.

U.S. Census. 1996. Population projections of the United States by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin: 1995-2050. Current Population Reports Series, pp.25-1130. Population Division, U.S. Bureau of Census, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 1972. Working file notes from EPA Office of Municipal Pollution Control, Washington, DC. Handwritten tables compiled from November 1972 EPA STORET data extraction and tabulation of population served and facilities inventory for raw, primary, intermediate (advanced primary), secondary, and tertiary treatment. Detailed types of waste treatment facilities are compiled. Secondary treatment category (total of 14,035 facilities serving 102.3 million persons) included subcategories of: other; activated sludge; extended aeration; high rate trickling filters; standard rate trickling filter; intermediate sand filtration; land application; oxidation pond; unknown filter; and unknown. Primary data sources reproduced in Tables B-39 and B-40.

USEPA. 1974. National water quality inventory, 1974. Report to Congress. EPA-440/9-74-001, Vols. I and II. Office of Water Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C. Population served and number of facilities for raw, primary, secondary, and tertiary for 1962, 1968, and 1973 compiled on p. 278. Data from 1962 and 1968 are from USPHS Municipal Waste Inventories. Data for 1973 are from STORET database.

USEPA. 1976. 1976 NEEDS survey, Conveyance and treatment of municipal wastewater. Summaries of technical data. Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for population served by no discharge, raw discharges, or tertiary treatment. Data not available for facilities inventory.

USEPA. 1978. 1978 NEEDS survey, Conveyance and treatment of municipal wastewater. Summaries of technical data. Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for raw effluent flow.

USEPA. 1980. 1980 NEEDS survey, Conveyance and treatment of municipal wastewater. Summaries of technical data. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for raw effluent flow.

USEPA. 1982. 1982 NEEDS survey, Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for raw effluent flow.

USEPA. 1984. 1984 NEEDS survey, Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for raw effluent flow.

USEPA. 1986. 1986 NEEDS survey, Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Data not available for raw effluent flow.

USEPA. 1989. 1988 NEEDS survey, Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 1993. 1992 Clean Water Needs Survey (CWNS), Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. EPA-832-R-93-002. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USEPA. 1997. 1996 Clean Water Needs Survey (CWNS), Conveyance, treatment, and control of municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflows and stormwater runoff. Summaries of technical data. EPA-832-R-97-003. Office of Water Program Operations, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

USPHS. 1951. Water pollution in the United States. A report on the polluted conditions of our waters and what is needed to restore their quality. NTIS No. PB-218-308/BA. US Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, Washington, DC. Population served and facilities inventory data for raw, primary, and secondary treatment compiled for 1950 (pp.31-33) by major river basins.

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TABLE B-l POTW Facility Inventory (Count)
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