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stations, water quality monitoring, selection of,

120-122, 125, 174

point source discharges, downstream location of, on RF1 reach, 122, 159-162, 174 streamflow ratio (see Streamflow, ratio, summer)

temporal, filtering, Before and After CWA

years, 120-121, 126 worst-case, summary statistics:

tenth percentile, for dissolved oxygen,

ninetieth percentile, for biochemical oxygen demand, 143, 156

DDT: ban, on, 324, 388 bioaccumulation of, 246, 247 criteria, exceedance of, 408 mosquito control, spraying of, 246, 277 sediment contamination, 408 "Dead zone", of low dissolved oxygen Delaware estuary, 275 Gulf of Mexico (see Gulf of Mexico) Decomposition:

bacterial, of organic matter, 24, 25, 43, 44, 46, 106, 116 organic carbon of, 24, 43, 46, 116 organic matter of, 6, 24, 106, 116 rate of, 138

sewage sludge beds of, 368 wastewater of, 26

zone, of active, in a river, 116, 118, 155, 156, 173

DECS (see Delaware Estuary Comprehensive

Study) Deforestation, 269

Degradation zone, of dissolved oxygen (see

Dissolved oxygen) DEL USA (see Delaware Estuary Use

Attainability Study) Delaware Bay, 130, 133, 256-259, 261, 264, 276 Delaware estuary, 12, 184, 192, 193, 255, 256,

258, 260-281 Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study (DECS),

262-263, 270

Delaware Estuary Use Attainability Study (DEL USA), 271

Delaware River, 189, 255-264, 266, 270, 273, 275, 277, 279-281, 417, 432, 437, 447 acidic conditions, in river, 262 advanced waste treatment, 273 advisory, fish consumption, 281 anoxic, 262, 279

bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 262 bacteria, improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 273, 279, 280 bacteria, fecal coliforms, effluent discharges from wastewater, 279 bioaccumulation, of toxic organic chemicals, 280 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), water quality, 266 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), loads, nonpoint source, rural runoff, 264, 265 nonpoint source, urban runoff, 264, 265 municipal and industrial point sources,

263-265, 273, 276, 279 relationship, of effluent loads and dissolved oxygen, 189-191 ultimate BOD, and wasteload allocation (WLA), 270 birds:

shorebirds, 260 waterfowl, 261, 273 chlorides, 269

Clean Water Act, of 1972 (see legislative and regulatory history) combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 264, 281 dams and reservoirs, 257, 259, 273 fishery resources, effect of, on, 274, 275 regulation of streamflow (see streamflow) DDT, mosquito control, spraying of, 277 DECS (see Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study)

DEL USA (see Delaware Estuary Use Attainability Study) development and growth, history of, colonial era, 261, 273 industrial revolution, 261 dissolved oxygen, water quality, 265, 266, 275, 280

"dead zone", low levels of, 275 minimum oxygen, 265, 266, 280 sag, critical location, 265, 273 drainage area:

Delaware River of, 256 Schuykill River of, 256

DRBC (see Delaware River Basin Commission) economic benefits, of Clean Water Act, 280 effluent limits:

technology-based, 263 water quality-based, 263 fall line, at Trenton, New Jersey, 258, 263 fish consumption advisories (see advisory, fish consumption) fish kills, 274

fishery resources, 260, 273 -280 Alewives, 277

American shad, 260, 273, 275-277, 279, 280 Herring, 273, 277 Sheepshead, 273 Striped bass, 260, 275-277, 279 Sturgeon, 260, 273, 275-277, 279 White perch, 277 commercial, 277, 280 recreational, 277, 280 spawning, 274, 275, 277 wastewater loads, effect on, 276 "fishable standards," 281 habitat, destruction of, 279 heavy metals:

sediment contamination, 280 sources of, 280 water quality, 273 hydrogen sulfide, 262, 279, 368 hypoxic, 262

INCODEL (see Interstate Commission

Delaware River Basin) land use, 259, 260, 263, 269 agricultural practices, 269 deforestation, 269 legislative and regulatory history, 262, 263 Clean Water Act, of 1972, 263, 270, 271, 280

Lower Delaware, 257, 259, 261, 264

marshes, 260, 273

models, surface water quality, 262

Dynamic Estuary Model, (DEM), 184, 271, 272

hydrodynamic, 271 review, literature of, 270-271 evaluation, of wastewater upgrades, 189, 194, 271-273 nitrification, 269, 271 nitrogen, water quality, 266, 269, 273 ammonia-nitrogen, 266, 271, 273, 280 cycle, 271

nitrate-nitrogen, 269, 271 organic-nitrogen, 271 total, 266 nitrogen, effluent loads, 279 nitrogenous BOD (NBOD), 270 nonpoint sources, export coefficients, land use dependent, 263 -265 phosphorus, water quality, 266, 269, 273, 280 phosphorus, effluent loads, 269, 279 ban, on phosphate detergents, 269 population, 281

DEL USA (continued):

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 260 density, 260

trends (1940-1996), 259, 260 primary treatment, 262, 270, 271 productivity, biological, 258, 259 rank, national, of Delaware River by length and flow, 255 raw sewage, 262, 281 Reach File Version 1 (RF1), reach, 266 recreation, water-based, 280 riverfront, 279, 280

deterioration of, and water pollution, 279 economic revitalization of, 279, 280 salinity, 258

intrusion, 259 secondary treatment, 262, 263, 270, 271, 273 sediment toxicity, 281 shellfish, 260, 278 blue crabs, 277 commercial landings of, 277 hard clams, 277 horseshoe crabs, 277 lobsters, 277 oysters, 260, 277, 279 shipping, navigation, 258 stormwater runoff, 280 streamflow, 257-258, 273

gage, USGS monitoring, at Trenton, New

Jersey, 257 drought, 259

during early 1960s, 257 low-flow, 257, 273

regulation of, by dams and reservoirs, 257,

259, 273 mean, summer, 1940-1995, 257 mean, monthly, 257 suspended solids, water quality, 273 tidal freshwater, 258 transition zone, 258, 259 toxic organic chemicals, 280 turbidity, 258, 259

waste load allocation (WLA), 262, 263, 270, 271, 281

wastewater, industrial, 261, 262, 273, 275, 279 effluent flow, 271 effluent loads, 264-266 wastewater, municipal, 261, 273, 275, 279 communities served, by, 262 effluent flow, 271 effluent loads, 264-266 water quality:

degradation, from water pollution, 261, 273 improvements, from water pollution control,

266, 273, 277, 280 issues, contemporary, 280-281 issues, historical, 261-262 water quality standards, 263, 270, 273 water quality zones, in Delaware estuary, 263

wetlands, 274

withdrawal, of water, for water supply: industrial, 259, 260 intakes, 261, 269 municipal, 260 Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC), 259,

262-263, 265, 269-271 Denitrification, 271

Department of Natural Resources, Georgia, 339 Depletion, of dissolved oxygen (see Dissolved oxygen) Des Plaines River, 22

Dilution, in-stream, of wastewater, 26, 108, 110,

DMRs (see Discharge Monitoring Reports) NPDES (see National Pollutant Discharge

Elimination System) Disease, waterborne, 28 "Dark" Ages, during, 18 Great Sanitary Awakening, 19, 21, 96 Greek and Roman empires, and, 18 International Sanitary Conferences

(1851-1938), 19 Snow, Dr. John, 19, 347, 364 Talmud, Old Testament, 18 Thames River, 19, 23

chlorination, of water supplies, and, 19, 20,

22, 237, 242, 243, 245, 300, 368 cholera epidemics, 19 household piped water supply, introduction of, 19

nineteenth century, during, 19 public health and, 18-20, 22, 96 public sanitation and, 18, 19 public water supplies and, 19 shellfish beds, closure (see Shellfish) twentieth century, during first half of, 19 typhoid epidemics, 19, 20, 242, 368 Dissolved oxygen (DO): analytical methods, 107 aquatic organisms, and survival, 110 data mining, Before and After CWA, example of methodology, for, 9-13, 123-125 decomposition zone, active, 116, 118, 156, 173

degradation zone, 116, 118, 156, 173 demand, for, 26, 43, 47, 95, 110, 118, 179, 406 indicator, of water quality, as, 23 -25, 106, 120,

176, 179, 392 location, critical, for dissolved oxygen sag, 118,

154, 162, 298 natural factors, effect of, on, 6, nitrification, effect of, on, 24, 116 population impacted, estimate of, by Clean

Water Act, 177, 179 reaeration, atmospheric, 6, 116, 118, 120, 179 recovery zone, 116, 118, 156, 159 saturation (see Dissolved oxygen, saturation) seasonal variation of, 110, 120, 123, 292 sediment oxygen demand (SOD), 271, 319

signal, effect of point source discharges on, 7, 9, 12, 105-108, 118-119, 144, 154-155, 159, 176, 181 spatial scale:

aggregation of data, 126, effect of, on trends of, 7, 9-12, 105-107, 119, 125-126, 154-162, 173, 176 streamflow, effect of, on, 110, 377-379, 385, 391

wastewater discharges, effect of, on, 2, 7 water temperature, effect of, on, 110, 116, 118 worst-case conditions, for, 9, 12, 106-108, 118-119, 121, 125-126, 162, 164, 171, 181

case study waterways, summary of, 184 spatial dependence of, 116-119, 125-126, 172

statistics of, (see Statistics, dissolved oxygen)

temporal dependence of, 108, 110-111, 116 Dissolved oxygen (DO), water quality, 206, 241, 248, 356, 377-379 before and after Clean Water Act, changes in, catalog units, 130, 138-139, 143, 144, 154, 175

major river basins, 162, 164, 171, 176 POTW upgrades, Connecticut River 207 RF1 reaches, 127-130, 154, 175 degradation of, from water pollution, 334, 335, 336, 379

depletion of, 26, 194, 205-206, 221-222, 273, 276, 285, 290, 292, 301, 306, 315, 324, 350, 367, 371, 376, 404, 406 drought, during early 1960s, effect of, on, 298 drought, during 1988, effect of, on, 352, 377, 379

historical, records of, 286, 290, 292, 298, 319,

325, 368, 376, 384 improvement of, from water pollution control,

336, 371, 372, 376, 377, 379, 385 low levels of, 275, 368, 370, 411 minimum, levels of, 265, 266, 280, 292, 294,

315, 320, 323, 324, 368, 377 models, water quality of, 292, 295, 298, 323,

324, 384-385, sag, 118, 119, 154-156, 159, 162, 173, 189,

192, 193, 266, 275, sag, critical location of, 144, 154, 265, 273, 292,

298, 319, 320, 325, 352, 377, 379, 385 spatial distribution of:

in hypothetical river, 116-118 in streams and rivers, 6, 105, 116-118, 265, 267, 268, 292, 298, 319, 353, 376, 406, 407, 409 STORET, as data source, 377 trends, long-term of:

case study waterways, 184, 188, 189,

206-207, 238, 247, 336, 265-266, 292, 294, 319-321, 352-353, 377-379, 406 catalog units, (1961-1995), 143-144, 154-156, 159, 162, 175

RF1 reaches, (1961-1995), 130, 133-135, 156, 159, 162, 175 Dissolved oxygen (DO), criteria and standards: benchmark, 5 mg/L, 6, 12, 110, 120,

127-130, 139, 194 cold-water, fish and biota, 6 criteria, water quality (WQC), 6, 7, 31, 32,

189, 336, 351 saturation, as water quality criterion, 24, 120 standards, water quality (WQS), 27, 154, 273, 294, 298, 300, 317, 324, 385, 390 warm-water, fish and biota, 6, 120, 125, 127 Dissolved oxygen (DO), effluent characteristics, of municipal wastewater, 78

Dissolved oxygen (DO), saturation, 164, 179 degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 222, 368 factors, influencing, in natural waters, 24, 108, 110, 116

improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 247 indicator, of water quality, as, 120, 179 trends, long-term of, in New York Harbor, 238, 247

wastewater effluent, levels of, 78, 108 DO (see Dissolved Oxygen) Domestic wastewater, 54, 453

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 26 Drainage area (see also River basin name) case study river basins of, 199, 200, 213, 256, 285, 286, 311, 312, 318, 319, 327, 328, 346, 363, 399 contributing to streamflow at USGS gage, 110, 364

Hydrologic Regions of, 199, 213, 255, 285, 327,

362, 345, 399 Mississippi River basin of, 361, 382 Drainage basin (see also Watershed): Delaware River of, 269, 273 Hudson River of, 215, 249 nonpoint source runoff, and, 73, 74 Mississippi River of, 361 Ohio River of, 346 Upper Mississippi River, 361, 366 DRBC (see Delaware River Basin Commission) Dredged channels, 382, 383 Drought (see Streamflow) Ducks (see Birds, waterfowl),

Eagles (see Birds, fish-eating) Eagle Creek, 156

East River, 225, 228, 229, 235, 238, 239, 243 Economic benefits, of Clean Water Act (see Benefits)

Efficiency, of wastewater treatment (see Wastewater, municipal, removal efficiency) Effluent characteristics (see Wastewater, municipal; also Wastewater, industrial) Effluent guidelines (see Wastewater, industrial)

Effluent limits (see Wastewater, municipal, effluent limits) Effluent regulations, 119, 181

BPT (see Best practicable treatment) Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs) (see

Monitoring, of effluent quality) discharge limitations, 33 discharge permits, 4 economic considerations, 36 minimum technology, 3, 4, 38, 93, 96, 171, 175, 189

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System (NPDES), 4, 34, 38, 40, 42, 47, 57, 70, 85, 95-96, 206, 264, 336, 342, 370, 405 percent removal, 37, 40, 41 secondary treatment, as minimum requirement, 36, 189

Enforcement, interstate conferences, for water pollution control, 184, 415-446 Connecticut River, 205 joint state-federal, (1957-1971), 184, 419-423

potential enforcement actions, (1963), 184,

416-419 Upper Mississippi River, 361 Egrets (see Birds, wading): Embayments, 221, 294, 311 Environmental Protection Division, Georgia

(EPD) (see Chattahoochee River) EPD (see Environmental Protection Division, Georgia)

Epidemics, of cholera and typhoid fever (see

Disease, waterborne) Estuarine:

case study waterways, 183, 184 circulation, 285 fishery (see Fishery resources) models, water quality, 13, 184, 189, 242, 262, 270, 271, 294, 321, 325 Eugene, Oregon, 400, 403, 404 Eutrophication, 210, 242, 271, 292, 294 cultural, 182, 214

Lake Erie of, 182, 422, 424, 426, 427, 432, 447 Lake Pepin, of (see Upper Mississippi River) nutrient enrichment (see Nutrients) Expenditures, water pollution control, 4, 13, 90, 91, 93, 95, 98, 105, 194, 501 Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index, 90, 93 Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF),

1, 3, 5, 13, 90-91, 95, 98-99, 501, 502 Construction Grants Program, 1, 3-5, 31, 13, 30-32, 34, 39, 70, 85, 90, 92, 93, 96, 98-99, 194, 205, 224, 229, 336, 501, 502 Grants Information and Control System

(GICS), 90-92, 503 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 93 Pollution Abatement Cost Expenditures

(PACE), 4, 91 State Revolving Fund (SRF) (see Clean Water State Revolving Fund): capital costs, 1, 4, 13, 93, 98

future, projected, for water pollution control,

13, 70, 93, 95, 98 operations and maintenance costs (O&M), 1,

4, 13, 98, 336, 501, 504-506 private sector, 4, 17, 90-94, 98, 194 public sector, 4, 17, 90-94, 98, 194

Fall Creek, 156

Fall line, 258, 263, 285, 286, 290, 315 Fecal coliforms (see Bacteria) Federal Reserve Board of Governors, 593, 594 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments

(see Legislative and regulatory history) Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments of 1972 (see Legislative and regulatory history, Clean Water Act of 1972) Federal Water Pollution Control Administration (FWPCA), 31 -33 monitoring program, water quality, 368 network, national surveillance, 138 Fin rot (see Fishery resources) Fish (see Fishery resources) Fish consumption advisories (see Advisory, fish consumption) Fish kills, 6, 274, 290, 334, 341, 380, 383, 404 Fish ladders (see Dams) "Fishable and swimmable", 4, 34, 194, 195

"fishable standards", 281 Fishery resources (see also Shellfish), 219, 273, 275-281, 301, 306-308 Alewife, 221 American lobsters, 277 American shad, 209, 245, 261, 273, 275-277,

279, 280, 290 Atlantic salmon, 204, 207, 210 Bass Master Tournaments, 208, 311, 324, 357, 358

Blue sucker, 389

Catfish, 6, 315, 340, 341, 389, 411 Common carp, 389 Crappies, 411

Largemouth bass, 308, 324, 340, 409 Pacific salmon, 405, 408, 410, 411 Paddlefish, 389

Shortnose sturgeon, 248, 273, 275-277, 279

Smallmouth bass, 183, 324

Smallmouth buffalo, 389

Steelhead, 409, 411

Striped bass, 221-223, 245, 248, 261,

275-279, 324 Sturgeon, 221, 248, 261, 273, 275-277, 279, 411

Walleye, 183, 368, 389 White perch, 277-278 Winter flounder, 245

commercial, 221, 245, 280 dams, effect on fish (see Dams) estuarine, 221 fin rot, 245

habitat, for, 219, 221, 246, 247, 274, 279, 301, 302, 304, 306-308, 324, 356-358,

362, 380, 392, 399, 411 spawning of, 245, 273, 275, 277, 290, 302, 409-411 Fishing:

commercial (see Fishery resources) sport (see Recreation, water-based) Flint River, 183, 327, 437 Floods, 110, 287, 324, 363-365, 370, 380-383, 386, 392

Flow-augmentation (see Streamflow)

Fossil fuel, 269, 335

Fox River, 130

Fox River, lower, 143

Free-flowing, river, 122

Frequency distributions, of dissolved oxygen (see

Statistics, dissolved oxygen) FWPCA (see Federal Water Pollution Control Administration)

Gaging stations, USGS, streamflow (see

Streamflow, gaging stations, USGS) Galveston Bay, 79, 182, 424, 427, 437, 447 GAO (see General Accounting Office) GDP (see Gross Domestic Product) General Accounting Office (GAO), 4, 182, 194 Georgia EPD (see Environmental Protection

Division, Georgia) GICS (see Grants Information and Control System)

Grants Information and Control System (GICS)

(see Expenditures, water pollution control) Great Basin, Hydrologic Region 16

dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 Great Flood of 1993, Upper Mississippi River (see

Streamflow) Great Lakes, Hydrologic Region 4, dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 Great Miami River, 152 Great Sanitary Awakening (see Disease, waterborne)

"Great Stink", London (see Wastewater, collection and disposal systems) Greater than secondary (see Secondary treatment) "Green Movement", 34 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 93, 505-506 Gulf of Mexico, 84, 327, 329, 361, 433 Action Plan, NOAA and EPA, for Gulf of

Mexico Initiative, 382 "Dead Zone", and algal blooms, 382 nitrogen load, of Mississippi River, to, 382

Habitat, for fish (see Fishery resources) Habitat, destruction of, 221, 274 Hackensack River, 228 Hard clams (see Fishery resources) Harlem River, 228

Hartford, Connecticut, 199-201, 203-208 Heavy metals (see also Copper and Lead), 370, 380, 391

contaminant, as, for water supply users, 2 deposition, atmospheric of, 75, 280, 389

water quality, 273, 354, 355, 370, 408 effluent load of, 235, 248 effluent load, controls, for, 44, 189, 234, 248,

370, 371, 391 issues, contemporary, for water quality management, as, 195, 222, 280, 358, 380, 391, 392, 408 pretreatment, industrial, 234, 391 sediment bed, contamination, by, 235, 280,

382, 383 sediment bed, cores, and, 370 sources of, 280, 370, 371, 392 standards, water quality, for, 222, 408 state variables, of water quality model, as, 223, 235

storm water, urban, runoff characteristics, and, 75

wastewater, industrial loads, and, 71, 392 Hepatitis, infectious, 221, 242 Herons (see Birds, wading) Heterotrophs, 106 Hoosic River, 183, 417, 438 Houston Ship Channel, 1, 182, 447 HUC (see Hydrologic unit code) Hudson River, 182, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221, 225, 226, 228, 229, 232, 235, 238, 239, 243, 245, 248, 422, 427, 432, 438, 447 Lower, 221, 226, 228-235, 243, 245, 591 Middle, 226, 228, 235 Upper, 591

Hudson-Raritan estuary, 12, 213, 216, 218, 223, 226, 235, 243, 246-249 advanced primary, 226, 232 advisory, for fish consumption, 248, 249 algae, blooms, 222, 249 bacteria, contamination of shellfish beds, 221, 222

bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 222 bacteria, improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 237, 243, 248, 249 beaches, recreational, 225, 242-243, 245,

248 -249 closure of, 222, 242, 243, 245 Enhanced Beach Protection Program, 245 re-opening of, 243, 248 -249 benefits, of water pollution control, 249 bioaccumulation, of toxic organic chemicals,

222, 246, 247 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): effluent loads, 232 per capita loading rate of, 232 water quality, 206, 207, 238, 248 birds:

Canada goose, 246 eagles, 222, 246 egrets, 213, 246, 247 herons, 213, 246-248 ibises, 213, 246, 247 ospreys, 246, 248 peregrine falcons, 247, 248

Hudson-Raritan estuary (continued ):

chlorination, of wastewater effluent, 242, 243, 245

Clean Water Act (see legislative and regulatory history)

combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 215, 220,

222, 224, 238, 249 capture of, 238, 243, 249 CSO Abatement Program, New York City, 224 CSO controls, 243 CSO Strategy, national, 224 effluent load, 235, 237

fecal coliform bacteria, as source of, 222, 237, 242

data sources, for case study, 213

DDT, for mosquito control, spraying of, 246

debris, floatable, 245

development and growth, history of, 214-216, 218

disease, waterborne, 221, 242 gastroenteritis, 242 hepatitis, infectious, 221, 242 swimmer's itch, 242 swimmer's ear, 242 typhoid fever, 221, 242 dissolved oxygen, water quality, 238, 241,

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