infamous fire, although some water quality problems remain to be solved (e.g., urban runoff and CSOs), water quality is greatly improved. Tourist-related businesses and recreational uses along the riverfront are thriving, as are populations of herons, salmon, walleye, and smallmouth bass (Hun, 1999; Brown and Olive, 1995).

In freshwater river systems, Isaac (1991) presented long-term trends (1969-1980) of DO in the Blackstone, Connecticut, Hoosic, and Quinebaug rivers in Massachusetts to document water quality improvements after upgrades of municipal facilities to secondary treatment. Using a wealth of historical data compiled for New England, Jobin (1998) presents a number of case studies documenting long-term trends in pollutant loading and water quality for freshwater rivers (e.g., Neponset, Charles, Taunton, Blackstone) and estuarine systems (e.g., Boston Harbor, Narragansett Bay). In the Midwest, Zogorski et al. (1990) prepared a case study of the Upper Illinois River basin to evaluate the availability and suitability of water quality and effluent loading data as a demonstration of the methodology for use in national assessments of water quality trends. Zogorski et al. concluded that, although a large amount of the required data is available from national and state databases, "the suitability of the existing data to accomplish the objectives of a national water-quality assessment is limited."

In another midwestern river, a statistical before-and-after analysis of water quality in the White River near Indianapolis, Indiana, clearly showed improvements in DO, ammonia, and BOD5 after an upgrade from secondary to advanced treatment (Crawford and Wangness, 1991). (See discussion in section C of Chapter 3.) Similar water quality improvements have also been documented for the Flint River in Georgia and the Neches River in Texas (Patrick et al., 1992). Becker and Neitzel (1992) have compiled case studies of the impacts from water pollution and other human activities on water quality, fisheries, and biological resources for a number of major North American rivers. Another success story in the Pacific Northwest has documented both water quality and economic benefits achieved by water pollution control in the Boise River in Idaho (Hayden et al., 1994; Noah, 1994).

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