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urban storm water, 73 -75 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, national, ca. 1995 catalog units, distribution of, by, 97 combined sewer overflows, 84, 97 industrial wastewater, 76, 78, 82-83, 97 municipal wastewater, 76-77, 80-81, 97 rural runoff, 84-85, 88-89, 97 urban storm water, 84-87, 97 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, case study waterways, 189-191, 263-265, 273, 276, 279, 292, 295, 298, 318, 320, 321, 323, 325, 332, 339, 352, 377, 378, 390, 406 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, national, for industrial wastewater, major river basins, for 1950, 1973, and 1995, 581-584 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, national, for municipal wastewater, 17, 42

historical trends, (1940-1996) of, 57-62,

96-97, 453-454 major river basins, for 1950, 1973, and 1995 of, 581 -584

projected trends, (1996-2016) of, 64-70, 97, 99, 454-455 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), influent loads, national, for municipal wastewater, 17, 42

historical trends, (1940-1996) of, 50-57, 96, 453 -454

projected trends, (1996-2016) of, 64-70, 97, 99, 454-455 Biochemical oxygen demand, (BOD), removal efficiency, for municipal wastewater, 26, 37 actual performance, 57 design-based, 42, 65

historical trends, (1940-1996) of, 59-64, 97, 453-454

projected trends, (1996-2016) of, 65-70, 97, 99, 454-455 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), types of: BOD5, 5 - day biochemical oxygen demand, 43 BODU, ultimate biochemical oxygen demand, 46, 48

CBOD5, 5 - day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, 43, 48 CBOD, carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, 43, 47 CBODU, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, 43, 48 NBOD, nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, 43, 47, 48, 55, 60, 64, 116, 118, 319

NBODU, ultimate nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand, 43, 48 Total BOD, 43 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), wastewater characteristics: ratio, of ultimate BOD to 5 - day carbonaceous

BOD, 47, 48, 55, 295 raw, untreated, 76-78 reaction rate, 386

reaction rate of oxidation, and waste treatment level, 271, 295, 384, 386 Biogeochemical, processes in natural waters, 74 Biological:

indicators (see Indicators, biological) productivity (see Productivity, biological), 258 resources (see Resources, biological) Birds, 213, 246, 302, 304, 308, 315, 324, 325, 388

Birds, fish-eating: Cormorants, 324, 388 Eagles, 222, 246, 324, 388 Mergansers, 304 Ospreys, 246, 248, 324 Peregrine falcons, 248, 388 Birds, wading:

Egrets, 213, 246, 247, 324, 388 Herons, 183, 213, 246-248, 324, 388 Ibises, 213, 246, 247 Birds, waterfowl: Canada geese, 304 ducks, 246, 302, 304, 388 gadwalls, 302, 304 widgeons, 302, 304 Blackstone River, 22, 182, 417, 436 Blue crab (see Shellfish) Blue green algae (see Algae) BMP (see Best Management Practices) Boating (see Recreation, water-based) BOD (see Biochemical oxygen demand, type of) BOD5 (see Biochemical oxygen demand, type of), 600

BODU (see Biochemical oxygen demand, type of) Boise River, 183

Boston, Massachusetts, 77, 85, 183, 215 BPT (see Best Practicable Treatment)

Caddisflies (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) California, Hydrologic Region 18, dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 Canada geese (see Birds, waterfowl) Capital costs (see Expenditures, water pollution control) Carbon:

cycle of, 24, 106 dioxide, 24, 25, 106 inorganic, 294 tetrachloride, 408 Carbon, organic:

decomposition of, 24, 43, 116 labile fraction of, 46, 271, 295 particulate (POC), municipal wastewater characteristics and loads, 449, 450, 452, 455

refractory fraction of, 46, 271, 295 removal, in wastewater treatment, 45, 176, 315,

320, 325, 582 spatial distribution of, in hypothetical river, 116-118

total (TOC) loads estimates for New York

Harbor, 235 wastewater, as source of, 315 Carbonaceous BOD (CBOD) (see Biochemical oxygen demand) Carson, Rachel, 33 Case study waterways:

literature review of, 182-183 Chattahoochee River, 327-344 Connecticut River, 199 -212 Delaware estuary, 255 -284 Hudson-Raritan estuary, 213-254 James estuary, 311-326 Ohio River, 345-360 Potomac estuary, 285-310 Upper Mississippi River, 361-397 Willamette River, 399-413 Categories, of waste treatment, municipal, 42, 44-45

Catalog Unit, definition of, (see Hydrologic Unit

Code) Cattaraugus Creek, 143

CBOD (see Biochemical oxygen demand, types of) CBOD5 (see Biochemical oxygen demand, types of)

CBODU (see Biochemical oxygen demand, types of)

Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola River basin, 327 Chattahoochee River, 12, 189, 327, 328, 330-334, 336, 337, 339-342 advanced secondary, upgrade to, 339 ammonia:

water quality, 334 removal, effluent of, 339 assimilative capacity, of river, 335 Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC), 335 bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 334

Chattahoochee River (continued):

bacteria, improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 341 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, municipal facilities, 339 water quality, 334 Clayton, R.M., municipal wastewater plant, 334, 335

improvements in effluent quality, 336, 338, 339

upgrades, 338, 339 Clean Water Act of 1972 (see legislative and regulatory history) combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 334, 339 expenditures, for separation of, 340 remedial measures plan, 340 dams and reservoirs, 335, 336, 342 Buford Dam, 329, 332, 333, 336, 341 Morgan Falls Dam, 329, 333 regulation of streamflow (see streamflow) West Point Dam, 327, 333, 340 dissolved oxygen, water quality: degradation of:

from water pollution, 334, 335, 336 improvement of:

from water pollution control, 336 drainage area:

Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola basin of, 327

Upper Chattahoochee River basin of, 328 effluent limits, 336 erosion, of soil, 335

expenditures, water pollution control, 335, 336, 341, 342

Clean Water State Revolving Fund

(CWSRF), 336 Construction Grants Program, 336 fish kills, 334, 341 fishery resources, 340, 341 bluegills, 341 catfish, 341 redbreast sunfish, 341 recreational, 341 surveys, 340

wastewater loads, effect of, on, 341 floodplain, 335

Georgia Environmental Protection Division

(EPD), 335, 336, 339, 340, 342 Georgia Department of Natural Resources

(GADNR), 342 Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 340 Lake Sidney Lanier, 327, 333 land uses, 332

legislative and regulatory history, 335 Clean Water Act, of 1972, 336 Georgia Water Quality Control Act, of 1964, 335

Metropolitan River Protection Act (MRPA), of 1973, 335 Soil Erosion Act, of 1975, 335 macroinvertebrates, benthic fauna, 341 models, surface water quality, 336

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System (NPDES), 336, 342 nonpoint sources, 335, 342 agricultural runoff, 340 construction practices, 340 sediment loading, 342 urban runoff, 334, 342 phosphorus:

ban, on phosphate detergents, 339 effluent loads, 338, 339 removal, biological of, 339 water quality, 339 point sources, impact on impairment of water quality, 342 pollution tolerant, biota, 341 population, 327, 331, 336 density, 331

Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA), counties, 331 trends (1940-1996), 331 primary treatment, 334, 336, 338 rank, national, of Chattahoochee River, by flow, 327

raw sewage, 334

Reach File Version 1 (RF1), reach, 337 recreation, water-based, 327, 333, 335, 341 secondary treatment, 336, 338, 339, 342 sludge beds, 341 stormwater runoff, 342 streamflow, 327, 329 drought, 334

gage, USGS monitoring, near Atlanta,

Georgia, 329 low-flow, 329, 334

regulation of, by dams and reservoirs, 329, 336

mean, summer, trends, (1940-1995), 330 mean, monthly, 330 minimum, 329, 330, 336 suspended solids:

nonpoint source loads of, 340 water quality, 334 wastewater, collection system, 335 wastewater, industrial, 334, 340 wastewater, municipal, 340 effluent flow, 336 effluent loads, 336, 338, 339 land application of, 339 water quality: criteria, 336

degradation, 334, 340, 341, 342 improvements, from wastewater upgrades,

336, 341, 342 issues, historical, 333, 340, 341 management, 335 monitoring, 342 standards, 336, 340 violations, 341 watershed:

characteristics, physiographic of, 328 management, 342 water uses, 332, 333

West Point Lake, 333

withdrawals, of water, for water supply, 327, 332, 333, 336, 339, 340, 342 intakes, 335, 342

power generation, 332, 333 projected increase of, 333, 342 Chemical Engineering Plant Cost Index, 90 Chesapeake Bay, 1, 8, 271, 285, 287, 301, 304-307, 311, 313, 316, 317, 324 Chicago, Illinois, 19, 26, 85 Chicago Sanitary District, 22 Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal, 22 Chickahominy River, 318 Chlorides, 22, 179, 269, 598 Chlorination, of water supplies, (see Disease, waterborne) Chlorophyll, 271, 294, 298, 321, 380, 384 Cholera (see Disease, waterborne) Cincinnati, Ohio, 345, 347, 351-353, 355-358 Clams, hard (see Shellfish) Clarity, water (see Transparency, water) Clean Water Act of 1972, (PL 92-500) (CWA)

(also Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972), (see Legislative and regulatory history) Clean Water Action Plan, 85 Clean Water Needs Survey (CWNS) (see

Wastewater, municipal, national inventory) Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) (see

Expenditures, water pollution control) Cloaca Maxima, 18

Closure, of shellfish beds (see Shellfish) CMSA (see Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area)

Coastal plain, 138, 255, 258, 273, 311 Cold-water fish, and dissolved oxygen (see

Dissolved oxygen, criteria and standards) Coliforms (see Bacteria) Columbia River, 399-401, 404

rank, national, of Columbia River by discharge, 399

Combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 17, 33, 41,

70, 205, 215, 220, 264, 281, 319, 334, 339, 358, 376 capture of, 238, 243, 249 closure, of beaches and shellfish beds, 73 coliform bacteria, and, 369, 391 CSO Abatement Program, New York City, 224 CSO controls, 243 CSO Strategy, national, 224 effluent characteristics of, 74 effluent load ca. 1995, BOD5, catalog unit distribution, 84 effluent load, from, 206, 235, 237 expenditures, for separation of, 340, 369 fecal coliform bacteria, as source of, 206,

222, 237, 242 fecal coliform bacteria, effects of, 300 inventory of facilities, national, 84 remedial measures plan, 340

secondary treatment, effect on compliance with effluent limits, 37 separation, of stormwater and raw sewage,

23, 340, 369, 372, 391 water quality, effect of, on, 73 Commercial fishery (see Fishery resources) Commercial and industrial water use, as component of wastewater flow, 50, 54 Connecticut Department of Environmental

Protection (CtDEP), 209 Connecticut River, 12, 183, 199-210, 417, 426, 432, 436, 447 bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 205 biochemical oxygen demand(BOD), water quality, 206, 207 Clean Water Act, of 1972 (see legislative and regulatory history) combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 205 dams and reservoirs, 205 effluent load, 206

fecal coliform bacteria, as source of, 206 fish ladders, 207, 210

fishery resources, effect of, on, 204, 207, 208 regulation of streamflow (see streamflow): development and growth, history of, 204 dissolved oxygen, water quality, 206, 207 before and after POTW upgrades, 207 drainage area, of Connecticut River basin, 199, 200 effluent limits:

technology-based, 206

water quality-based, 206

enforcement, interstate conference, for water pollution control, 205 eutrophication, 210

expenditures, water pollution control, 205, 210

Construction Grants Program, 205 land use, 204

legislative and regulatory history, 205 Clean Water Act, of 1972, 200, 205, 206 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, of 1956, 205

Lower Connecticut, 199, 201, 203, 207 -210

nitrogen, water quality, 210

nonpoint sources, export coefficients, land use dependent, 206 phosphorus, water quality, 210 population:

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 203 served, by municipal wastewater facilities, 206

trends (1940-1996), 203-204 primary treatment, 205 recreation, water-based: boating, 199 fishing, 209 resources, fishery, 207 -209 Atlantic salmon, 207-208 American shad, 209, 210

Connecticut River (continued): riverfront:

deterioration of, and water pollution, 199 economic revitalization of, 199 secondary treatment, 205 standards, water quality, 206 bacteria, fecal coliform, 206 dissolved oxygen, 206 "fishable and swimmable", 206 streamflow, 201 -203

gage, monitoring, at Thompsonville,

Connecticut, USGS, 201 mean, summer, trends, (1940-1995),

201 -203 mean, monthly, 201 -203 regulation of, by dams and reservoirs, 201, 203

suspended solids, effluent discharge of, 205 wastewater, industrial, 205 -206 effluent loads, 206 pulp and paper mills, 205 wastewater, municipal, effluent loads, 206 water quality:

issues, contemporary, 210 issues, historical, 204-206 water supply: agricultural, 204 municipal, 204 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area

(CMSA), 218, 260 Construction Grants Program (see Expenditures, water pollution control) Copper:

contamination, of sediment bed, 234, 248, 280 contamination, of water column, 280, 358 loads, historical trends of, 234 model, water quality of, 235 standards, water quality, 223, 408 trends, of improvement in water quality, 354 Cormorants (see Birds, fish-eating) Corvallis, Oregon, 405

Criteria, water quality (WQC) (see Dissolved oxygen, criteria and standards) Critical location, of oxygen sag (see Dissolved oxygen) Crow River, 363

Cuyahoga River, 1, 182, 420, 437 CWA (see Legislative and regulatory history) CWNS (see Clean Water Needs Survey) CWSRF (see Clean Water State Revolving Fund)

Dams, 257, 259, 273, 335, 342 Buford Dam, Georgia, 329, 332, 333, 336, 341 canalization, of Ohio River, 347 degradation, of biological communities, effect on, 392

dredging, of locks and dams, 364

fish ladders, 207, 210, 324, 410, 411

fishery resources, effect on, 204, 207, 208, 274,

275, 405, 409, 411 flood control, 324, 363

flow augmentation, by reservoirs, of streamflow

(see Streamflow) Holyoke Dam, Connecticut, 205 locks and dams, 363, 367, 382, 383 Morgan Falls Dam, Georgia, 329, 333 navigation, and locks and dams, 363, 364, 382, 392

regulation of, streamflow, by locks, dams and reservoirs (see Streamflow) water quality, effect of, on, 367 West Point Dam, 327, 333, 340 Data mining, 12, 106, 119-126, 162, 173-174, 177, 179

filtering, hydrologic, for dry, low-flow conditions, 121, 130, 143, 173 rules, for data screening, 7, 119-126, 173-174,

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