Info

marine borers, (see shipworms) Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, 220, 221, 223

models, surface water quality, 222, 223, 242 heavy metals, 223, 235 hydrodynamic, 242 System Wide Eutrophication Model,

(SWEM), 242 toxic organic chemicals, 235 monitoring, water quality, 220, 221, 248 twentieth century, early, 220, 221, 248 twentieth century, latter half, contemporary, 248

nitrogen, water quality, 238, 248

ammonia-nitrogen, 238, 248 nitrogen, total, effluent loads, 232, 233 nonpoint sources, 206, 226, 235, 249 urban runoff, 215, 235 watershed runoff, 237 phosphorus, total, effluent loads, 233, 234

ban, on phosphate detergents, 234 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 222, 223,

235, 246 population:

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 216, 218 served, by municipal wastewater facilities,

226, 228, 229, 237 trends (1940-1996), 218 pretreatment, industrial (see wastewater, industrial) primary treatment, 223, 232 rank, national, of Hudson River by length and flow, 213 raw sewage, 220 -222, 225, 226

bypasses of, from failure of collection system, 226, 245 elimination, of discharges of, 226, 232, 237, 243, 249 recreation, water-based, 249 boating, 249 fishing, 220, 249 Sanitary Commission, 225 secondary treatment, 225, 226, 229, 232, 242 sediment contamination, 249 copper, 235 lead, 235, 248

polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 235

toxicity, and, 235 shellfish, 221, 222, 245, 248

beds, closure of, 221, 222 beds, re-opening of, 245, 248 clams, hard, 221

contamination, of beds, by raw sewage, 221 oysters, 221 scallops, bay, 221 shipping, navigation, 219 shipworms, (marine borers), 241, 248 sludge, disposal: biosolids, and, 224 dewatering, and, 224 ocean dumping, as practice for, 224 standards, water quality:

bacteria, fecal coliform, 222, 243 heavy metals, 222 streamflow, 215

drought, early 1960s, 215, 224

gage, USGS monitoring, at Green Island,

New York, 215 mean, summer, trends, (1940-1995), 215 mean, monthly, 215 suspended solids, 232, 237 effluent loads, 232 per capita loading rate, 232 watershed runoff, 237 toxic organic chemicals, 222, 223, 241, 246, 248

wastewater, industrial, 215, 221 effluent flow, 215 effluent loads, 235 pretreatment, 222 wastewater, municipal, 215, 226 effluent flow, 215, 226, 229, 232 effluent loads, 226, 235 water quality:

issues, contemporary, 249 issues, historical, 220-222 water uses, 219

withdrawals, of water, for water supply, 219

per capita use, rate of, 229, 232 wetlands, 214, 219, 246 Hydrogen sulfide, 25, 220, 262, 279, 367 Hydrologic region, definition of, (see Hydrologic

Unit Code) Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC), 8, 9 accounting unit, definition of, 8, 9 catalog unit, definition of, 9 hydrologic region, definition of, 8 major river basin, definition of, 8 subregions, definition of, 8 Hydroelectric, as source of power, (also hydropower), 358, 363, 366, 403 Hypoxia, 262, 382, 384

IBI (see Index of Biotic Integrity) Ibises (see Birds, wading)

IFD (see Industrial Facilities Discharge database) Illinois River, Upper, 183 INCODEL (see Interstate Commission Delaware River Basin)

Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 306, 307, 340, 357, 389

Indicators, biological, 248, 369 Industrial Facilities Discharge database (IFD), 122 Industrial pretreatment (see Wastewater, industrial)

Industrial Production Index (IPI), 591, 593, 594, 597

Industrial revolution, 261

Industrial wastewater (see Wastewater, industrial) Industrial water use (see Withdrawals, industrial, self-supplied) Infectious hepatitis (see Hepatitis, infectious) Infiltration and inflow, 41

as component of wastewater flow, 50, 54 International Sanitary Conferences (see Disease, waterborne) Interstate waters, 27, 29-32, 96, 405, 417 Interstate Commission Delaware River Basin

(INCODEL), 262 Interstate Sanitation Commission, NY-NJ-Ct

(ISC), 223, 229 Inventory, of municipal wastewater (see

Wastewater, municipal), Investment, in water pollution control (see

Expenditures, water pollution control) IPI (see Industrial Production Index) ISC (see Interstate Sanitation Commission)

Jamaica Bay, 221, 228, 238

314-321, 325 James River, 184, 311-318, 321, 322, 324, 325, 432, 438

advanced primary, wastewater treatment, 318 advanced secondary, wastewater treatment, 324

algae, 315, 324

assimilative, capacity, of James River, 316 beaches (see recreation, water-based) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD):

water quality, simulated, with James River

Model(JMSRV), 322 upstream, ultimate BOD, 319 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads, 318, 320, 321, 323, 325 birds:

cormorants, 324 eagles, bald, 324 egrets, cattle, 324 herons, great blue, 324 ospreys, 324

vultures, turkey, 315, 324 carbon, effluent loads, 315

removal of, 320, 325 chlorophyll, 321

Clean Water Act, of 1972 (see legislative and regulatory history) combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 319 dams and reservoirs, 324 fish ladders, 324

James River (continued): flood control, 324

regulation of streamflow (see streamflow, regulation of) dissolved oxygen, water quality, depletion of, 315, 324 historical, records of, 319, 325 minimum, levels of, 315, 320, 323, 324 sag, critical location of, 319, 320, 325 simulated, with James River Model(JMSRV),

323, 324 spatial distribution of, 319 DDT, 324

drainage area, of James River basin, 311, 312, 318, 319

effluent limits, water quality-based, 324 expenditures, water pollution control, 316 fall line, at Richmond, Virginia, 315 "fishable", 316 fish kills, 315 fishery resources:

Bassmasters Fishing Tournament, 311, 324 catfish, 315

recreational (see recreation, water-based) Smallmouth bass, 324 spawning, 324 Striped bass, 324 habitat, for wildlife, 324 land use, 311

legislative and regulatory history, 316 Clean Water Act, of 1972, 316, 321, 324 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, of 1956, 316

Section 208 Areawide Study, Richmond-Crater, 316 models, surface water quality, 316, 321, 325 evaluation, of phosphorus controls, 321 evaluation, of wastewater upgrades, 189, 194 James Estuary Model (JEM), 316 James River Ecosystem Model, 316 James River Model (JMSRV), 316, 321 nitrogen, effluent loads, 315 nitrogenous BOD(NBOD), 319 nonpoint source, runoff, loads, 319 nutrient:

effluent loads, 315, 321, 325 enrichment, 316, 317 water quality, 325 phosphorus, effluent loads, 315, 318

ban on phosphate detergents, 316-318, 321, 325

controls on, 317, 318, 321 population, 314, 315 growth, 316

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 314 trends (1940-1996), 315 primary treatment, 317, 321-323, 325 rapids, whitewater, Class IV, 311, 325 raw sewage, 315 recreation, water-based, 315 boating, 311

fishing, sport, 311 kayaking, 325 rafting, whitewater, 325 Richmond, Virginia, 280, 311-317, 319-321,

323-325 riverfront:

Canal Walk, 325

deterioration of, and water pollution, 315 revitalization of, 325

secondary treatment, 316, 318, 320-322, 324, 325

greater than, 324, 325 State Water Control Board, 316 stormwater overflow basin, 316 streamflow, 311, 319

gage, USGS monitoring, near Richmond,

Virginia, 311 floods, 324

low-flow, 318, 322, 323, 324 mean, annual, 311 mean, summer, (1940-1995), 312 mean, monthly, 312 regulation of, by dams, 324 suspended solids, effluent loads, controls on,

316 tidal, 320

Upper James River, 324

Upper James River Wasteload Allocation Plan, 316

waste load allocation (WLA), 316, 318 wastewater, collection system, 315 wastewater, industrial, 316, 317 wastewater, municipal, 316, 317 water quality:

degradation, from water pollution, 315 improvements, from water pollution control,

320, 321, 324, 325 issues, historical, 315 plans, management, 316 water quality standards, 321 dissolved oxygen, 315, 324 nutrient enrichment, 316 withdrawals of water, for water supply: industrial, 312 municipal, 311, 312

Johnson, Lyndon, B., President, 301

Kill van Kull, 221, 228, 246, 247 Kolmogorov-Smirnoff (KS) test (see Statistics, dissolved oxygen)

Ladder, water quality (see National Water

Pollution Control Assessment Model) Lake Dubay, 143

Lake Erie, 182, 422, 424, 426, 427, 432, 447 Lake Itasca (see Upper Mississippi River) Lake Pepin (see Upper Mississippi River) Lake Sidney Lanier (see Chattahoochee River) Lake Washington, 182, 447

Land use:

350, 362, 366, 382, 399 characteristics of, 154, 204, 218, 259, 260, 263,

290, 311, 332, 345, 350, 361, 366, 403 deforestation, 269

export coefficients, for nonpoint source runoff,

75, 206, 264, 381 forest, 74, 75, 204, 290, 332, 366 industrial, 332, 345, 350 influence, on watershed runoff, 74, 106, 206,

264, 366, 380 transformation of, 75 urban, 154, 259, 290, 332, 345, 366 Lawrence Experiment Station, 5, 25 Lead:

combined sewer overflows (CSO), as source of, 73

loads, historical trends of, 234

contamination, of sediment bed, 234, 248 model, water quality of, 235 Legislative and regulatory history, of water pollution control, 17 Clean Water Act of 1972, (PL 92-500) (also Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972), 1, 27, 33, 36, 40, 263, 334, 390, 391, 415

195 history of, 34

improvements, in water quality, attributed to, 4,

13, 99, 119, 324, 411 national policy of, 34, 195 secondary treatment, as minimum technology,

42, 118, 171, 181 Waste-water discharges, regulatory controls on: Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977, (PL

95-217), 38 Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966 Clean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF) (see Expenditures, water pollution control) Construction Grants Program (see Expenditures, water pollution control) Delaware River Basin Commission(DRBC), establishment of, 262-263 Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948,

(PL 80-845), 28, 30, 223, 350 Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Amendments of 1952, (PL 82-579), 30 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1956, (PL 84-660), 30, 85, 205, 223, 290, 316 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1961, (PL 87-88), 30, 31

Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Amendments of 1971, (PL 92-240), 32 Federal Water Pollution Control Act

Amendments of 1972, (PL 92-500) (see Legislative and regulatory history, Clean Water Act of 1972) Georgia Water Quality Act, of 1964, 335

International Sanitary Conferences

(1851-1938), influence on, 21 Interstate commerce clause, of U.S.

Constitution, 96 Interstate Commission Delaware River Basin

(INCODEL), establishment of, 262 Interstate Sanitation Commission, NY-NJ-Ct

(ISC), establishment of, 223 Interstate waters (see Interstate waters) Metropolitan River Protection Act, 1973, of

Georgia (MRPA), 335 Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, of New

York, establishment of, 220 Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Construction Grants Amendment of 1981, (PL 97-117), 39 National Municipal Policy of 1984 (49 FR

3832-3833), 40 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) (see Effluent Regulations) Nixon, President Richard M. (see Nixon,

Richard M.) Oil Pollution Act of 1924, 28 Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission

(ORSANCO), establishment of, 345, 346 Oregon State Sanitary Authority, establishment of, 405 Public Health Act of 1848, Great Britain, 21 Public Health Service Act of 1912, 28 Rivers and Harbors Act of 1890, amended

1899, 27, 28 Roosevelt, President Franklin D. (see

Roosevelt, Franklin D.) Secondary Treatment Regulations (see

Secondary treatment) Section 208, areawide basin plans, 271, 316, 383

Soil Erosion Act, of 1975, Georgia, 335 timeline, of federal water pollution control acts, 29, 35

waivers, Section 301(h), for marine wastewater discharges, 33, 38, 52 Water Pollution Control Act, of 1945,

Minnesota, 373 Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (see Legislative and regulatory history, Clean Water Act of 1972) Water Quality Act of 1965, (PL 89-234), 31,

224, 300, 316, 351, 405 Water Quality Improvement Act of 1966, (PL

89-753), 32 Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970, (PL 91 -224), 32, 33 Lehigh River, 182, 261, 438 Less than secondary (see Secondary treatment) Locks (see also Dams), 363-365, 382, 383, 386,

387, 392 London, England, 22

Long Island Sound, 1, 199, 201, 204, 210, 215, 220, 228, 229, 242, 245, 424, 427, 432, 439

Louisville, Kentucky, 345, 347, 348, 352, 353,

355-357 Low-flow (see Streamflow) Lower Connecticut River (see Connecticut River) Lower East River, 225, 238, 239 Lower Hudson River (see Hudson River) Lower Fox River (see Fox River), 143 Lower Great Miami, 143 Lower New York Bay, 238, 248 Lower Spokane River, 143 Lower Mississippi, Hydrologic Region 8

dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 Lower White River (see White River)

Macroinvertebrates, aquatic, 341, 408 benthic fauna, 341, 357, 369, 408 blood-worms, 341 caddisflies, 408

marine borers (also shipworms, Teredos), 241, 248

shipworms, 241

mayflies (Hexagenia), 371, 372, 391, 408, 409 pollution intolerant, 248, 306, 357, 408-409 pollution tolerant, 341, 358, 408-409 shipworms, 241, 248 sludgeworms, 408 stoneflies, 408, 409 Teredos, 241, 248 Mammals, fish-eating, 388 Marine borers (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) Marshes (see also Wetands), 214, 246, 260, 273, 277

Massachusetts State Board of Health, 21 Mathematical models, of water quality (see

Models, surface water quality) Maumee River, 130, 135 Mayflies (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) Mercury:

contamination, of water column, 280 contamination, of sediment bed, 280, 370, 371,

372, 379 dental amalgam, as source of, 392 deposition rates, historical trends of, 371 loading, 372, 391 model, water quality of, 235 sources of, from municipal and industrial wastewater, 371, 391 standards, water quality, violations of, 223, 408 Merrimack River, 22, 417, 427, 432, 433, 439 Metropolitan River Protection Act, 335 Metropolitan Sewerage Commission, of New

York, 23, 220, 223 Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), 184, 219,

260, 289, 314, 331, 349, 366, 403 Mid-Atlantic, Hydrologic Region 2, 164, 213, 255, 285, 311 dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 drainage area of, 213, 255, 285 Milwaukee River, 130, 134 MSA (see Metropolitan Statistical Area) Minimum technology, for wastewater treatment (see Effluent regulations)

Minneapolis, Minnesota, 111, 144, 162, 189.

361 -363, 366, 367, 369, 372, 388 Minnesota Department of Health, 389 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 383 Minnesota River, 9, 154, 363, 366, 373, 376-378, 380-382, 384, 386, 391, 392 land uses, 369

phosphorus yield of, 381, 382 sediment yield of, 369 Minnesota River Assessment Project, 382 Minnesota-Wisconsin Boundary Area

Commission, 388 Mississippi River, 22, 77, 78, 85, 97, 345-347, 361, 362 annual mean flow, 361 drainage area, of basin, 361, 382 land use, agricultural, 382 length of, 361

rank, national and international, of Mississippi River, by length and flow, 361 Missouri, Hydrologic Region 10, 164, 171, 362 dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164, 171

nonpoint source load, rural, of BOD5, ca. 1995, 84

Models, surface water, 13, 183, 184, 189, 194, 242, 270, 271, 294, 316, 321, 382, 383 AESOP, Upper Mississippi River, 383 Chattahoochee River, 336 Delaware Estuary Comprehensive Study,

(DECS), 262, 270-271, Dynamic Estuary Model, (DEM), Delaware estuary, 184, 271, 272 James River, (JMSRVM), 184, NWPCAM (see National Water Pollution

Control Assessment Model) QUAL-II, Upper Mississippi River, 383 Potomac Eutrophication Model, (PEM), 184, 294

System Wide Eutrophication Model, (SWEM),

New York Harbor, 242 WASP5-EUTRO5, Upper Mississippi River, 184, 383

biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) of,

116-118, 270, 271, 383 carbon, organic, 271

dissolved oxygen of, 116-118, 242, 270, 271, 382, 383

eutrophication of, 242, 271, 382, 383 heavy metals of, 223, 235 hydrodynamics of, 242, 271, 382 nutrients of, 116-118, 271, 294, 382, 383 sediment transport of, 382 spatial distributions, simulated, of

BOD, DO, nitrogen, phosphorus, algae, for case study waterways, 189, 384, 385 carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, in a hypothetical river, 116-118 toxic organic chemicals of, 235, 271 Monangahela River, 345, 346 Monitoring, of effluent quality, of wastewater dischargers, 336, 371, 376, 391

Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs), 47 Permit Compliance System (PCS), 76 Monitoring, of streamflow, at USGS gages (see Streamflow, gaging stations, USGS) Monitoring, of water quality:

data, availability of historical, 179 evaluations, of long-term trends of, 248, 342,

354, 358, 369, 377 FWPCA, technical assistance, for, 224, 368 FWPCA, surveillance network, 107-108 programs, 13, 27, 39, 47, 105, 223, 248, 393, 406

programs, historical, during early twentieth century, 22, 24, 107, 248 stations, Before and After CWA changes, dissolved oxygen, 7, 9, 106, 119, 123, 125, 127, 154, 172, 174 stations, location of, 7, 9, 10, 106, 118-119,

155, 156, 173, 174, 206, STORET, as national archive of data, 176, 177 MSX, disease, of oysters (see Shellfish) Municipal wastewater (see Wastewater, municipal) Mussels, freshwater (see Shellfish)

Narragansett Bay, 182, 183, 440

National Commission on Water Quality (NCWQ),

184, 383, 415, 446, 581 National Marine Fisheries Service (see National

Oceanic Atmospheric Administration) National Pretreatment Program, 73 NCWQ (see National Commission on Water Quality)

National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Action Plan, for Gulf of Mexico Initiative (see Gulf of Mexico) National Marine Fisheries Service, 245 typical pollutant concentration (TPC) (see Wastewater, industrial) NOAA (see National Oceanic Atmospheric

Administration) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

(NPDES) (see Effluent regulations) National Urban Runoff Project (NURP) (see

Storm water, urban runoff) National Water Pollution Control Assessment Model (NWPCAM), 6, 71, 155, 177 Clean Water Needs Survey (CWNS), as data source, 76

Industrial Facilities Discharge Database (IFD), as data source, 122 Permit Compliance System (PCS), as data source, 76, 122 Reach File Version 1 (RF1), as data source, 76, 122

Reach File Version 3 (RF3), as data source, 76 framework, 17, 34, 76, 271 water quality ladder, 76 Navesink River, 245 Navigation:

channels, 258, 364, 383

interstate waters, impedance of, in, 27, 28 locks and dams, and, 363, 364, 382, 392 maintenance of river, for, 382, 383 projects, 380, 392

water use of waterway, as, 204, 215, 219, 298, 345, 350, 363, 366, 382, 403 NBOD (see Nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand)

Needs Survey (see also Clean Water Needs Survey), 45, 65-68, 76, 84, 97, 122 Neches River, 183 Neshaminy Creek, 182, 257 New England, Hydrologic Region 1, drainage area of, 199 New England Interstate Water Pollution Control

Commission (NEIWPCC), 204 New York City, 19, 23, 107, 189, 213-215, 218, 220, 222-225, 228, 232, 233, 237, 242, 243, 245, 247, 248 New York City Department of Environmental

Protection (NYCDEP), 224, 240, 245, 248, 249

214-216, 218-222, 227, 234, 237, 238, 241 -244, 247, 248, 277, 280 New York State Board of Health, 21 Newark Bay, 221, 228, 235 Ninetieth Percentile (see Statistics, biochemical oxygen demand) Nitrate (NO3-N):

consumption, of dissolved oxygen, during nitrification, 24, 43 conversion from ammonia-N, as end product of nitrification, 24, 43, 118, 210, 269 eutrophication, to coastal, as contribution, 210, 382

product, end, of organic matter decomposition, as, 24

spatial distribution of, in hypothetical river, 116, 118

removal, by denitrification, in advanced wastewater treatment of, 45, 64 state variable, of water quality model, as, 271, 384

trends, long-term, water quality of, 269 Nitrification:

advanced secondary treatment, as unit process,

369, 372, 376, 377, 379, 384-386, 390 advanced waste treatment, as unit process, 45, 64

BOD5, contribution to of, 47

BOD ultimate, contribution to, 26, 43, 46

consumption, of dissolved oxygen, and, 6, 43,

47, 48, 116 inhibition of, 46, 454 initiation of, 46, 118

laboratory samples, for BOD5 measurements, in, 46, 47 suppression of, in, 47

model, water quality, kinetic process, as, 271, 361

natural waters, in, occurrence of, 269

Nitrification (continued):

"seed" population, of nitrifying bacteria, for, 46, 118

sequence, of reactions, during, 24, 118 Nitrite (NO2-N):

consumption, of dissolved oxygen, during nitrification, 24, 43 conversion from nitrate-N, as intermediate product of nitrification, 43 state variable, of water quality model, as, 271, 384

product, intermediate, of organic matter decomposition, as, 24 Nitrobacter, 43 Nitrosomonas, 43 Nitrogen:

ammonia (NH3 -N) (see Ammonia) denitrification (see Denitrification) effluent controls, on, 249, 292 effluent loading of, 242, 292, 298 eutrophication, of coastal, as cause, 210, 382 hydrolysis (see Organic nitrogen) influent, characteristics, of municipal wastewater, 76-78 limitation, of algal bloom, 294 model, water quality, cycle of, 271 nitrification (see Nitrification) nitrate (NO3 -N) (see Nitrate) nitrite (NO2-N) (see Nitrite) organic nitrogen (see Organic Nitrogen) ratio, stoichiometric, of oxygen to nitrogen (see

Stoichiometry) reactions, sequential, in cycle of, 24, 118, 271 removal, in advanced wastewater treatment of, 45

removal, and ultimate BOD, in wastewater treatment of, 176 spatial distribution of, in hypothetical river, 116-118

total Kjedhal nitrogen (TKN) (see Total

Kjedhal nitrogen) total nitrogen (TN) (see Total nitrogen) wastewater, in, constituent species of, 43, 47,

48, 315 water quality, and, 47 Nitrogen, effluent characteristics of: combined sewer overflows, 73 -74 industrial wastewater, 71 -73 municipal wastewater, 76-78, 454 rural runoff, 73 -75 urban storm water, 73 -75 Nitrogen, effluent, of municipal wastewater, national trends, as NBOD, 454 loads, trends (1940-1996), 59-60, 473 loads, projected trends (1996-2016), 64-69, 473 removal efficiency, trends (1940-1996) of, 63-64

removal efficiency, projected trends (1996-2016) of, 473 Nitrogenous biochemical oxygen demand (NBOD)(see Biochemical oxygen demand)

Nitrogenous BOD (NBOD) (see Biochemical oxygen demand) "No discharge", 48, 49 Nixon, President Richard M., 34 Nonpoint sources (NPS):

best management practices (BMPs)(see Best management practices) data mining, methodology for, and, 122 degradation, of water quality, from, 342 dissolved oxygen, on, impact of, 7 flow, effect of, on, 120, 380-382, 384 land uses, and, relationship of, 73 -75, 249, 263 land uses, and export coefficients (see Land use)

load, as component of total point and nonpoint source load, 6, 17, 70, 76-79, 84, 85, 97, 98, 155, 181, 206, 226, 235, 264, 265, 319, 382, 383, 406 load, of BOD5, national, (ca. 1995), from, 84-85 load, of nutrients, 380, 392 load, of pesticides, 392 load, of phosphorus, 382 load, of sediments, 369, 392 management and control of, 74, 75, 177, 195, 335, 358

National Water Pollution Control Assessment

Model, as input to, 71, 76 strategies, for control of, 75 watershed, in, origin of, 73, 74 NPS (see Nonpoint sources) NPDES (see Effluent regulations) NRC (see National Research Council) NURP (see National Urban Runoff Project) Nutrient(s):

benthic flux of, 271 cycle, 106

enrichment, 106, 195, 222, 316, 317, 411 improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 189, 325 loads, from point and nonpoint source of, 235, 237, 292, 298, 302, 308, 315, 321, 325, 363, 380, 392, 411 loads, reduction of, 316, 325 plant production, and, 106 plant uptake of, 304 pollutant, as, of natural waters, 2, 85 removal, in wastewater, by treatment processes of, 44, 45

removal, in Potomac River, by submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds of, 307 state variables, of water quality model, as, 271, 294, 382, 383 NWPCAM (see National Water Pollution Control

Assessment Model) NYCDEP (see New York City Department of Environmental Protection)

O&M (see Expenditures, Operations and maintenance) Oconto River, 143, 151

Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 203, 216, 260, 288, 314, 331, 348, 403

Ohio River, 2, 12, 84, 85, 164, 167, 184, 345-353, 355-358, 363 advisory, fish consumption, 358 bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 345, 350, 358 bioaccumulation, of toxic organic chemicals, 358 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), water quality, 353

municipal and industrial, point source loads, 352 biota of, 356

combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 358 dams and reservoirs canalization, 347

regulation of streamflow by, (see streamflow) wicket, submergible, 347 data sources, for case study, 345 development and growth, of river basin, 347 disease, waterborne, and epidemics, 345, 350 dissolved oxygen, water quality, 356 depletion of, 350 drought, 1988, effect of, on, 352 minimum, critical location of, 352 sag, 352

trends, long-term, 353 drainage area, of Ohio River, ORSANCO

DistriCt, 346 effluent limits, 352

expenditures, water pollution control, 351 fish consumption advisory (see advisory, fish consumption) fishery resources:

bass tournaments, 357, 358 commercial, 355, 357 dissolved oxygen, effect of, on, 356, 350 diversity, of species, 355, 356 sport fishing (see recreation, water-based) surveys, 356 heavy metals, water quality, 354, 355, 358 hydropower, development of, 358 Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 357 land use:

agricultural, 345, 350 industrial, 345 mining, of coal, 350 legislative and regulatory history: Bense Act, of 1908, 350 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, of 1948, 350

Federal Water Quality Act, of 1965, 351 ORSANCO CompAct, of 1948, 350 Lower Ohio, 347

nitrogen, water quality, ammonia-nitrogen, 354 nonpoint sources, controls on, 358 ORSANCO (see Ohio River Valley Sanitation

Commission) phosphorus, water quality, 354 population, 347, 352 density, 345

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 348 trends (1940-1996), 348, 350

rank, national, of Ohio River, by length and flow, 345 raw sewage, 345, 352 recreation, water-based, 345, 350, 358 contact (i.e, swimming), support of, 358 sport fishing, 355, 357 secondary treatment, 351, 352, 358

equivalent, for industrial dischargers, as, 351 minimum for municipal dischargers, as, 351 shipping, navigation, 345, 350 streamflow, 346, 347 drought, 350 drought, of 1988, 352 gage, USGS monitoring, at Louisville,

Kentucky, 347 low-flow, 347, 352 mean, monthly, 347

mean, summer, trends (1940-1995), 347 regulation of, by dams, 347 taste and odor, 350 toxic organic chemicals, 358 turbidity, 353

wastewater, industrial, 345, 351 wastewater, municipal: effluent flow, 352 effluent loads, 352 population served, by, 351 standards, for treatment, 351 water quality:

degradation, 350, 358

improvements, from wastewater upgrades,

351, 352, 354, 358 issues, contemporary, 358 issues, historical, 350

management, regional of, 345, 346, 350, 351,

352, 358 monitoring, 354

water quality standards and criteria, 353, 354 bacteria, coliform, 351 dissolved oxygen, 352 watershed, characteristics, physiographic of, 346

water uses, 345, 350, 358 withdrawals, of water, for public water supply, 345, 350, 358 Ohio, Hydrologic Region 5, 345

dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 drainage area, of basin, 345 nonpoint load, rural, of BOD5, ca. 1995, 84 Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission

Operations & maintenance (O&M)(see

Expenditures, water pollution control) Organic matter, 2, 3, 24-26, 43, 44, 46, 47, 106, 116, 182, 455 breakdown, in wastewater, 25 carbon-to-dry weight ratio (C:DW) decomposers of, 25 decomposition, and, 6, 24, 106, 116 degradation, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 26, 116

Organic matter (continued):

dissolved organic matter (DOM), labile, 46, 47, 271, 295, 384, 386 oxidation of, 26, 44, 47, 118, 295, 319, 384, 386, 450

particulate organic matter (POM), 455 production, 106

refractory, 46, 271, 295, 384, 386 wastewater, in, 25, 386 Organic nitrogen:

cycle, nitrogen of, as component, 24, 116, 118, 271

decomposition, of organic matter, as produCt, 43 hydrolysis of, 24

state variable, of water quality model, as, 271, 384

nitrification, and, 46 wastewater, in, form of nitrogen, as, 48 ORSANCO (see Ohio River Valley Sanitation

Commission) Ospreys (see Birds, fish-eating) Oxidation ponds, 48, 49 Oxygen (see Dissolved oxygen) demand (see Dissolved oxygen) depletion (see Dissolved oxygen) sag (see Dissolved oxygen) saturation (see Dissolved oxygen) Oysters (see Shellfish)

PACE (see Pollution Abatement Cost

Expenditures) Pacific Northwest, Hydrologic Region 17, 399 dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164, 171

drainage area of, 399 PAHs (see Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) Pamlico-Albemarle Sound, 182 Passaic River, 22, 184, 220 Pasteur, Dr. Louis (see Disease, waterborne) Pathogens, 2, 20, 44, 75, 85, 177, 242, 245 PE (see Population equivalent) Per-capita water use, 41, 50, 97 Peregrine falcons (see Birds, fish-eating) Permit Compliance System (PCS), 76, 122, 583 Persistence, of low-flow, dry conditions (see

Streamflow) Pesticides, 280, 363, 380, 392, 408 pH, 37, 38, 46, 262, 294, 353, 356 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 215, 216, 255, 256, 258-263, 265, 266, 269, 270, 273, 275, 276, 279, 280 Phosphorus:

308, 339, 354, 380 ban, on phosphate detergents, 234, 269,

316-318, 321, 325, 339, 380 benthic release of, 384 biological removal of, 339, 391 effluent controls, on, 292, 298, 302, 317, 318, 321, 383

export coefficients, for total phosphorus yield, 381, 382

influent, characteristics, of municipal wastewater of, 76-78 Lake Pepin Phosphorus Study, 366, 380 load, budget, of point and nonpoint sources of, 382

load, nonpoint sources of, 380-382, 384 load, point source effluent of, 233, 234, 269,

279, 315, 318, 338, 339, 380-382, 384 land use, and, nonpoint source loads, 366, 380, 381

model, water quality, case study waterways of, 189, 321, 384, 385 model, water quality, evaluation, of phosphorus controls, 321 phosphate, 24

sediment bed concentration, of phosphorus, 380

streamflow, effect of, on nonpoint source load of, 381, 382, 384 soluble reactive (SRP), 380 suspended solids, and interaction of, 384 total (TP), 45, 73, 210, 226, 233, 266, 268, 269, 273, 279, 280, 380-382 Phosphorus, effluent characteristics, of: combined sewer overflows, 73 -74 industrial wastewater, 71 -73 municipal wastewater, 76-78 rural runoff, 73 -75 urban storm water, 73 -75 Photosynthesis, 44, 106, 298, 308 Phytoplankton (see also Algae), 294, 315, 321 Piedmont, 138, 255

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 19, 345, 347, 350 Plants, aquatic, 106, 206 Eurasian watermilfoil, 301 Hydrilla, 307 macrophytes, 301

submersed (also submerged) aquatic vegetation

(SAV), 189, 301-308 Water chestnut, 301 PMSA (see Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area) POC (see Carbon, organic, particulate) Point source (PS):

controls, effectiveness of, 7, 176, 177 controls, regulatory of, 99, 171, 189, 242, 321, 406

criteria, for case study selection, as, 183 data mining, screening rules, for, 119, 122, 173, 174

definition of, 70

degradation, of water quality, from, 342 effluent flow of, 237, 583 effluent load, as component of total point and nonpoint source load of, 76, 78, 85, 97, 98, 319, 381, 382, 384, 406 effluent load, of BOD5, for catalog units, ca.

1995, from, 155 effluent load, from, 12, 138, 264, 373, 386, 583 effluent load, industrial, decline of, 85 effluent load, reductions of, 189, 206, 263, 265 effluent permits, for discharge of, 34 expenditures, water pollution control, 1, 98

inventory, dischargers of, 122, 207, 263, 264, 317, 583

Lower White River, to, discharges of, 156 signal of, and link to dissolved oxygen, 7, 9, 10, 12, 106-108, 119, 121, 122, 154, 155, 159, 172, 173 strategies, for control of, 75 Pollution Abatement Cost Expenditures (PACE), 4, 91

Pollution intolerant (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic)

Pollution tolerant (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic)

Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs), 222, 223, 280, 388, 389, 390 ban, on, 389, 390

lipid-normalized, in fish tissue, 389 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), 235, 280

Population, of case study counties, 184-185 Population, of United States:

impacted, as of 1990 census, by Clean Water

Act of 1972, 177, 179 rural, long-term trends (1900-1990), 23-24 total, long-term trends (1940-1996), 42 urban, long-term trends (1900-1990), 23-24 Population density, 203, 260, 331 Population equivalent (PE), of untreated municipal wastewater, 54, 453, 581, 584 Population served, by municipal wastewater facilities, 63, 99, 105 case study waterways, and, 206, 228, 229, 232, 234, 291, 335, 350, 351, 358, 367, 374, 405 data sources, for historical trends of, 50,

450-452, 581 -583 data sources, for projected trends of, 454-455 impacted, by Before and After CWA changes in dissolved oxygen, 127, 138, 175 measure, of performance, for water pollution control expenditures, as, 4 301(h) waivers, granted, with, 52 in 1950, 26 in 1968, 6, 52, 96-97 in 1972, 3

in 1996, 6, 52, 96-97, 127, 175 trends, historical, (1940-1996), 6, 50-52, 229, 449

wastewater treatment of, categories, by, 52, 64, 96, 229, 358 Population served, by public water supply systems, 591-593, 595 Population served, by wastewater collection systems, 22, 229 Portland, Oregon, 189, 280, 399, 401, 403-408, 410, 411

Potomac estuary, 12, 182, 184, 189-193, 285, 286, 288-292, 294-300, 303, 307, 308 Potomac River, 22, 189, 285-288, 290, 291, 293, 295, 298, 300-303, 305, 307, 308, 418, 420, 425, 429, 430, 441, 448

advanced secondary waste treatment, 295, 298 advanced waste treatment (also tertiary), 286,

295, 298 algae, 302, 304 blooms of, 286, 290, 298 blue-green, 294 Microcystis aeruginosa, 294 American Heritage River, designation as, 308 bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 285, 290 bacteria, effluent discharge from wastewater, 300 bacteria, improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 300 beaches (see recreation, water-based) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), water quality:

simulated, with Potomac Eutrophication Model (PEM), 294 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), effluent loads:

municipal point sources, loads, 292, 295, 298 relationship, of effluent loads and dissolved oxygen, 189-191, 306 birds:

watching of, 298, 307 waterfowl, 301, 302, 304, 307, 308 Blue Plains, wastewater treatment plant, 290-292, 294, 295, 298, 300, 301 chlorination, of wastewater effluent, 300 chlorophyll, 294, 298 combined sewer overflows (CSOs), 300 fecal coliform bacteria, effects of, 300 clarity, of water (see transparency) Clean Water Act, of 1972 (see legislative and regulatory history) Choptank River, 304, 307

data sources, for case study, 285 development and growth, history of, colonial era, 301, 302 depletion of, 285, 290, 292, 301, 306 historical, records of, 286, 290, 292, 298 minimum, levels of, 292, 294 sag, critical location of, 292, 298 seasonal variation of, 292 simulated, with Potomac Eutrophication

Model (PEM), 294, 295, 298 spatial distribution of, 292, 298 drainage area, of Potomac River basin, 285, 286 effluent limits, 294 technology-based, 294 water quality-based, 294 eutrophication, 292 fall line, at Little Falls, Virginia, 285, 290 fish kills, 290

fishery resources, 301, 302, 304, 307, 308 American shad, 290 Bassmasters Fishing Tournament, 208 commercial, 298 habitat, 301, 302, 304, 306, 307 Largemouth bass, 308 professional guide services, 308 recreational (see recreation, water-based)

Potomac River (continued): spawning, 290, 302 species diversity, 307 surveys, 306, 307

wastewater loads, effect of, on, 290 Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 306, 307 industrial activity, 290 land use, 290

legislative and regulatory history, 290 Clean Water Act, of 1972, 294 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, of

1956, 290 Water Quality Act, of 1965, 300 Microcystis aeruginosa (see Algae) models, surface water quality:

Potomac Eutrophication Model, (PEM), 184, 294

evaluation, of wastewater upgrades, 189, 294, 295, 298 nitrogen, water quality, 308 nitrogen, effluent loads, 292, 298

controls, on, 292, 298 nutrient, effluent loads, 292, 298, 302 phosphorus, water quality, 302, 308 phosphorus, effluent loads, controls, on, 292, 298, 302 plants, aquatic:

Eurasian watermilfoil, 301 Hydrilla, 307 macrophytes, 301

submersed (also submerged) aquatic vegetation (SAV), 189, 301-308 Water chestnut, 301 population:

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), counties, 288 growth, 286, 290, 292 served, by municipal wastewater, 291 trends (1940-1996), 288 primary treatment, 290, 295 primary productivity, of algae, 294, 298 rank, national, of Potomac River by length and flow, 285 raw sewage, 290, 292 recreation, water- based: beaches, 300, 301 boating, 290, 298, 300 fishing, 290, 298, 300, 307 swimming, 300, 301 riverfront:

deterioration of, and water pollution, 300 revitalization of, 300 salinity, 285, 294

toxicity, to algae, 294 secondary treatment, 286, 292, 294, 295

greater than, 298 shellfish, harvest, 300 stormwater, runoff, 300 streamflow, 286, 287

gage, USGS monitoring, at Little Falls,

Virginia, 286 drought, during early 1960s, 287, 298

floods, 287

low-flow, 287, 290, 291 mean, summer, 1940-1995, 287, 295 mean, monthly, 287 submersed (also submerged) aquatic vegetation

(see plants, aquatic) suspended solids, water quality, 308 suspended solids, effluent loads, 302

controls, on, 302 swimming (see recreation, water-based) tertiary treatment(see advanced wastewater treatment) influence, on circulation, 285 freshwater, 285 Potomac, 302, 304, 307, 308 river, 285, 290, 300, 301, 304 transition zone, 285, 294, 304 transparency, of water, 298, 302 turbidity, 302

Upper Potomac River, 285, 286 wastewater, collection system, 290 wastewater, industrial, 290 wastewater, municipal, 290, 306 effluent flow, 291 effluent loads, 292, 302 water clarity (see transparency, of water) water quality: degradation, 290

improvements, from wastewater upgrades,

286, 300, 302, 308 issues, historical, 285, 290, 308 management plans, 290 monitoring program, during early twentieth century, 107 water quality standards:

bacteria, fecal coliform, 300 dissolved oxygen, 294, 298 primary contact, for coliform bacteria, 300 secondary contact, for coliform bacteria, 298, 300

withdrawals, of water, for water supply, 290, 298 diversions, 290

municipal (also public), 290, 298 POTW (see Publically Owned Treatment Works) Pretreatment, industrial (see Wastewater, industrial)

Primary contact, and water quality standards (see Bacteria)

Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area (PMSA),

203, 216, 288, 314, 331, 348, 403 Primary treatment, of wastewater, 23, 25, 26, 44, 116, 373 effluent characteristics of, 76-78 minimum level of treatment, as, 33 Productivity, biological, 258, 259 Public:

awareness, of water pollution issues, 34, 249, 280, 281

support, for water pollution control regulations, 390, 399, 410 Public Health Service (see U.S. Public Health Service)

Public Law (PL) (see Legislative and regulatory history),

Public sanitation (see Disease, waterborne) Public supply, of water (see Withdrawals, public supply)

Publically Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), 1-2

Pulp and paper, mills, 205, 404, 405 Pure Waters Program (New York State), 224

Quinebaug River, 183, 418, 441

430, 434, 441 Raw sewage:

assimilation, capacity of waterway, for disposal of, 5

characteristics of, 54, 55, 453, 455 combined sewer systems, and, 73, 222, 242,

281, 369 decomposition rates of, 46 degradation, of water quality, from disposal of,

discharges, from malfunctions and bypasses of,

226, 242, 245, 369, 370 effluent load, accounted for by disposal of, 62, 220, 225, 226, 229, 232, 233, 243, 262, 352

elimination, of disposal of, 237, 243, 249 fish kills, caused by disposal of, 334 inventory, of municipal facilities, discharging, 49

population served, by untreated wastewater, 3,

26, 52, 229, 451-452, 581 public concern, about disposal of, 27, 220, 372 recreation, water-based, and public health impact, of disposal of, 242 shellfish, and public health impact, of disposal of, 221

urban water cycle, as weak link, from disposal of, 2

wastewater collection systems, and, 22, 372 waterborne disease, public health impact, of disposal of, 5, 345, 368, 372 Reach File, Version 1 (RF1):

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), improvements, at scale of, (see Biochemical oxygen demand, water quality )

Chesapeake Bay watershed, river network map of, 8

definition of, 7-9, 122 dissolved oxygen, improvements, at scale of, (see Dissolved oxygen, water quality): case study waterways, and, 184 reaches, paired, for major river basins of, 164 spatial scale, signal of, 144, 154, 159, 162 identification code, 11 -digit, example of, 9 -10 National Water Pollution Control Assessment Model (NWPCAM), framework, as, 76

point source discharge locations, linked to, 122, 123

population, in 1990, linked to, 177 spatial scale, hierarchal of, as component, 126, 144, 177

water quality monitoring station locations, linked to, 122 Reach File, Version 3 (RF3), 7

National Water Pollution Control Assessment Model (NWPCAM), framework, as, 76 Reaeration, atmospheric (see Dissolved Oxygen) Recovery zone (see Dissolved Oxygen) Recreation, water-based, 2, 181, 182, 194, 199, 207, 242, 332, 335, 341, 345, 350, 358, 399

boating, 199, 219, 249, 290, 298, 300, 311, 325, 386

307, 355, 357, 366, 403, 409, 410 kayaking, 325 rafting, whitewater, 325 swimming, 300, 301 Removal efficiency, of treatment processes (see

Wastewater, municipal) Reservoirs, 120, 203, 257, 259, 342, 402, 411 Residential water use, as component of wastewater flow, 50, 54 Resources, biological, 181-183, 189, 194, 308, 386

Respiration, of algae (see Algae) RF1 (see Reach File, Version 1) RF3 (see Reach File, Version 3) Richmond, Virginia, 280, 311-317, 319-321, 323-325

River basin, definition of, for Clean Water

Restoration Act of 1966, 32 River basins, major:

definition, of (see Hydrologic Unit Code) list of, in conterminous United States, 9, 163 municipal and industrial wastewater loads, of

BOD5 and TSS, by, 581-584 municipal and industrial water withdrawals, by, 593-594 Riverfront:

deterioration of, from water pollution, 199, 279,

300, 315, 391, 411 economic revitalization of, 183, 199, 279-280, 300, 325, 391, 411 River Raisin, 130

Roosevelt, Franklin, D., President, 28, 262 Root River, 130 Rum River, 363 Runoff, rural:

coefficients, export, land use dependent, for, 75,

206, 263 -265 characteristics of, 73 -75 controls, on, 391

data source, for catalog unit-based load estimates of BOD5, 6, 84 distribution, geographic of, 84, 85 issue, contemporary, for watershed management, as, 392

Runoff, rural (continued):

load, as component of total point and nonpoint source load, as, 85, 97, 155, 206, 264, 265 load, BOD5, catalog units, from (see

Biochemical oxygen demand, effluent loads ca. 1995) Runoff, watershed (see Nonpoint sources) "Rust Belt", 85

Sag, of dissolved oxygen, in a river (see Dissolved Oxygen)

Salem, Oregon, 257, 402, 403, 405, 406, 408, 409 Salinity, 235, 258, 259, 285, 294 Salinas River, 143

St. Paul, Minnesota, 1, 110, 111, 162, 189, 361-377, 379, 380, 384, 386, 391 Sandy Hook Bay, 235 Sangamon River, 22 Schuykill River, 182, 256, 265, 273 Secchi depth (see Transparency, water) Secondary contact, and water quality standards

(see Bacteria) Secondary treatment, of municipal wastewater: benefits, water quality of, 9, 39, 183 deadline, for implementation of, 38-40, definitions, regulatory, 36, 37-39 dry weather baseflow, 41 effluent characteristics of, 76-78 "equivalent", as defined in PL 97-117, 39, 40 greater than (also better than), 42, 48, 298, 324, 325, 390

historical development of, 5, 25 -27 infiltration and inflow, 41 less than, 42, 48, 57

minimum acceptable technology, as, 3-5, 17,

34, 36, 118, 171-172, 175, 176 regulations, for (see Legislative and regulatory history)

regulations, Clean Water Act, for, 36, 38-41 water quality standards, and, 30 wet weather flows from combined storm and sanitary sewers, 37, 41 Sediment bed, contamination (see Toxic organic chemicals; see also Heavy metals) Sediment bed, toxicity (see Toxic organic chemicals)

Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) (see Dissolved oxygen) Shellfish: beds, closure of, 73, 222

beds, contamination, by pathogens of, 221, 222, 245

beds, re-opening of, 245, 248 bioaccumulation, of DDT, 246 blue crabs, 277, 279

consumption, as pathway for waterborne disease of, 242 hard clams, 221, 277 harvest, commercial of, 219, 277, 278 decline of, 24, 215, 219, 221, 277 resurgence of, 277, 278

mussels, freshwater, 356 oysters, 221, 261, 277, 279

MSX, disease of, 277 protection, 301(h) criteria for of, 39 resource, natural, as, 213, 277 scallops, bay, 221

standards, bacterial, water quality, for consumption of, 300 wastewater, disposal, effect of, on, 2, 73, 221 Shenandoah River, 22, 442 Shipping, as commercial use of waterways, 215,

218, 219, 241 Shipworms (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic)

Shrewsbury River, 221 SIC (see Standard Industrial Classification)

Signal, of point source impact, on water quality (see Data mining)

Sludge:

bottom deposits of, in rivers, 341, 368, 404 disposal of, 224

sewage, 224, 290, 367, 368, 369 Sludgeworms (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) SOD (see Sediment oxygen demand) Snow, Dr. John (see Disease, waterborne) SOD (see Dissolved Oxygen, sediment oxygen demand)

South Atlantic-Gulf, Hydrologic Region 3, 327 dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 drainage area, of basin, 327 Spatial distribution, in rivers, of dissolved oxygen

(see Dissolved Oxygen) Spawning, of fish (see Fishery resources) Spokane River, 143 Sport fishery (see Fishery resources) SRF (see State Revolving Fund; see also Clean

Water State Revolving Fund) St. Croix River, 9, 154, 363, 366, 367, 373, 377, 378

phosphorus yield of, 381 sediment load of, 380 Stabilization pond, wastewater, 39, 44, 48 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), 583 Standards, water quality (see Water quality standards)

State Revolving Fund (see also Clean Water State Revolving Fund), 1, 90, 95, 98, 99, 336, 501, 502

State Water Control Board, (SWCB, Virginia), 316

Statistics, biochemical oxygen demand, "worst-case", before and after CWA, ninetieth percentile of, 143, 155, 156 Statistics, dissolved oxygen, "worst-case", before and after CWA, 7, 9-10, 106, 119, 125, 126, 156, 164, 171, 172, 174, 175 frequency distributions, for major river basins of, 164-171 paired data, Before & After CWA, 7, 126, 162, 164, 171

samples, minimum number required, 121 Kolmogorov-Smirnoff (KS) test, 164, 171

significance level, statistical, of analysis of, 162, 164

Student's t-test, paired, 126, 162, 164, 171 tenth percentile of, 121, 122, 125, 144, 154, 159, 164, 174 Statistics, streamflow:

273, 287, 322, 365 mean, annual, 213, 255, 286, 311, 327, 330,

345, 346, 361, 365, 399 mean, monthly, long-term, 201, 215, 257, 273,

287, 312, 330, 347, 364, 365, 400, 402 mean, summer, trends, long -term, 76, 110, 201, 215, 257, 273, 287, 312, 330, 347, 364, 365, 400, 402 Stoichiometry, 48, 59

carbon to dry weight (C:DW), 452, 455 CBODU to BOD5 (CBODU:BOD5), 47, 48,

55, 77-78, 295 oxygen to nitrogen (O2:N), 48, 59, 454 Stoneflies (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) STORET, USEPA water quality database, 176 archive, of historical water quality data,

106-107, 177 data source, for Before and After CWA trends, 12, 106-107, 181 potential bias of, for statistical analysis, 176

example application of methodology, 123-125

data source, for case studies, 184, 199, 213,

255, 285, 327, 345, 361, 399 inventory, of dissolved oxygen records, (1941-1995), 107, 109 Stormwater, urban runoff, 75, 370

coefficients, export, land use dependent, for, 75, 263 -265

combined, with wastewater (see Combined sewer overflow) characteristics, effluent of, 73 -75 controls, on, 391

data source, for catalog unit-based load estimates of BOD5, 6, 84 distribution, geographic of, 84, 85 heavy metals, as source of, 75 issue, contemporary, for watershed management, as, 249, 280, 342, 358, 392 load, as component of total point and nonpoint source load, as, 85, 97, 155, 206, 264, 265 load, BOD5, catalog units, from (see

Biochemical oxygen demand, effluent loads ca. 1995) pathogens, as source of, 75 National Urban Runoff Project (NURP), 75 secondary treatment, effect on compliance with effluent limits, 37 sediments, as source of, 75 systems, collection, 75 toxic organic chemicals, as source of, 75 wastewater flow, as component of, 50, 54 Stratification, 120

Streamflow, 201-203, 215, 257-258, 273, 286, 287, 311, 319, 327, 329, 346, 347, 361, 364, 399, 400 10-year, 7-day flow (7Q10) (see Statistics, streamflow) augmentation, by reservoirs of, 400, 405, 406, 410, 411

drought, 173, 220, 259, 292, 294, 334, 345, 350, 365

drought, during early 1960s, 111, 116, 155,

194, 215, 224, 257, 287, 298 drought, during 1987-1988, 111, 155, 352,

gaging stations, USGS, 110, 201, 215, 256, 257,

286, 311, 329, 347, 364, 379, 402, 537 drainage area, contributing, to, 110, 364 Great Flood of 1993, Upper Mississippi River,

low-flow, 118, 154, 257, 273, 287, 290, 291, 318, 322-324, 329, 334, 347, 352, 364, 370, 378-380, 400, 402 dissolved oxygen, on, effect of, 108, 110,

377-379, 385, 391 persistence, of dry, conditions of, 110-111,

121, 123, 155, 173 mean, annual (see Statistics, streamflow) mean, monthly (see Statistics, streamflow) mean, summer (see Statistics, streamflow) minimum, 329, 330, 336, 364 nonpoint source loads, on, effect of, 381, 382, 384

regulation, by locks, dams and reservoirs of,

201, 203, 257, 259, 273, 324, 329, 336, 347, 363, 365 seasonal variation of, 110, 120, 123 Streamflow, ratio, summer, 116, 365, 379

catalog unit maps, United States, (1961-1995), 537-539

catalog unit maps, United States, comparison of

1963 and 1988 conditions, 110-111 data mining, rules, for, 121, 173 definitions, for dry, normal, and wet conditions of, 110

example, Upper Mississippi River of, 110-111, 123

methodology, for calculation of, 110-111 runoff, normalized as cfs per square mile, for calculation of, 110, 537, 540 sliding window, for spatial interpolation of, 110-111

Student's T-test (see Statistics, dissolved oxygen) Subregion, definition of, (see Hydrologic Unit Code)

Surveys, of water pollution, during early twentieth century (see Monitoring, of water quality) Suspended solids, water quality, 189, 205, 273, 302, 308, 334, 411 data mining, as candidate for, 177 interaction, in river, with phosphorus, 384

Suspended solids, water quality (continued): state variable, of National Water Pollution

Control Assessment Model (NWPCAM), as, 76

Suspended solids, effluent characteristics: combined sewer overflows of, 73 -74 industrial wastewater of, 71 -73 municipal wastewater of, 76-78, 455 rural runoff of, 73 -75

secondary treatment, April, 1973 definition of, 36

urban storm water of, 73 -75 Suspended solids, effluent loads, industrial wastewater, national estimates, major river basins, for 1950, 1973, and 1995 of, 581 -584

Suspended solids, effluent loads, municipal wastewater, 205, 226, 235, 237, 232, 302, 374

376, 390 per capita loading rate of, 232 Suspended solids, effluent loads, municipal wastewater, national estimates, major river basins, for 1950, 1973, and 1995 of,

581 -584 trends, (1940-1996) of, 453-454 projected trends, (1996-2016) of, 454-455 removal efficiency, trends, (1940-1996) of,

453-454 removal efficiency, projected trends, (1996-2025) of, 454-455 Suspended solids, nonpoint source loads, 235, 237, 340, 380 watershed runoff, 237 Suspended solids, wastewater treatment processes, removal of, 44, 45 Susquehanna River, 150

SWCB (see State Water Control Board, Virginia) SWEM (see System Wide Eutrophication Model) Swimming beaches (see Beaches, recreational) System Wide Eutrophication Model (SWEM) (see Models, water quality)

t-test (see Student's t-test) Tennessee, Hydrologic Region 6, 8

dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164, 171

Teredos (see Macroinvertebrates, aquatic) Tertiary treatment, 45, 295, 405 Texas - Gulf, Hydrologic Region 12, dissolved oxygen, before and after CWA, 164 Thames River, 19, 21, 23 "Three-legged stool", 5, 7, 17, 95, 98, 105, 119,

154, 171, 181, 598 Tidal freshwater, 258, 259 TOC (see Carbon, organic, total) Total coliform (see Bacteria) Total Kjedhal nitrogen (TKN), 48, 55, 59, 60, 76,

374, 376, 450, 452, 454, 490 Total nitrogen (TN), 73, 118, 210, 226, 231, 266, 268, 292

Total suspended solids (see Suspended solids) Toxic organic chemicals, 85, 241, 246, 248 bioaccumulation of, (see Bioaccumulation, toxic organic chemicals) criteria, water quality, for, 408 data mining, candidate, as, 177 groundwater, contamination, by, 392 issue, contemporary, for water quality management, as, 195, 222, 223, 249, 280, 281, 358, 380, 391, 392, 408, 411 see DDT

see polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)

see polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)

sediment bed, contamination, by, 195, 222, 249,

382, 383, 392 sediment bed, toxicity, 235, 281 state variables, of water quality models, 235, 271 storm water, urban runoff, as source of, 75 wastewater, industrial, and, 392 wastewater, primary treatment, and removal of, 44

TPC (see Wastewater, industrial, typical pollutant concentration) Transition zone, in a tidal river, 258, 259, 285,

294, 304 Transparency, of water: secchi depth, 303 turbidity, 258, 259, 302, 353, 369 water clarity, 298, 302-304 Travel time (in a river), 118, 400 Trenton, New Jersey, 255-261, 263, 273, 276, 280

Turbidity (see Transparency, water)

Twin Cities, Minnesota, 144, 361, 363, 366-370,

372, 373, 378, 390, 391 Typhoid fever (see Disease, waterborne) Typical pollutant concentration (TPC) (see Wastewater, industrial)

Ultimate BOD (see Biochemical oxygen demand) U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE), 364, 382, 383, 386, 388, 402, 405 U.S. Census Bureau (USCB), 20, 21, 24, 65, 331, 454

U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC), Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 3, 91 U.S. Department of Interior (USDOI), 31, 184 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 1 creation of, as federal regulatory agency, in 1970, 31

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 388 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS):

Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) of, developer, as, 8

streamflow, data source, for historical records, as, 110

streamflow, gaging stations, USGS (see

Streamflow, gaging stations) withdrawals, of water, data source, for municipal and industrial supply, 260, 591 -594

U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS): assistance, technical, to states, for water pollution studies, 30, 223, 224 inventories, of municipal wastewater facilities (see Wastewater, municipal, national inventory)

surveys, of water pollution, 262, 290, 372 Upper Black Warrior River, 79 Upper Hudson River (see Hudson River) Upper Illinois River (see Illinois River) Upper Mississippi River, 144, 154, 162, 168, 184, 189-193, 361-374, 376-393, 421, 428, 448

activated sludge, 369

advanced secondary, with nitrification, 361, 369, 372, 374, 376-377, 379, 384, 385 advisory, fish consumption, 389 American Heritage River, designation as, 392 assimilative capacity, of river, 367, 368 bacteria, degradation, of water quality, from water pollution, 368, 370, 376 bacteria, improvement, of water quality, from water pollution control, 369, 372, 379, 392 bioaccumulation, of PCBs, 388-390 biochemical oxygen demand (BOD): water quality, trends, 377 effluent load, trends, municipal, from

METRO facility, 374, 378, 390 model simulation of, 384-385 STORET, as data source for ambient trends, 377 birds, 388

channelization, of river, as contemporary issue,

392 chlorination:

failure, of public water supply, 368

sewage effluent of, 368 chlorophyll, 380

model simulation of, 384-385 combined sewer overflows(CSOs), 369, 376, 391

coliform bacteria, and, 369, 391 expenditures, for separation of, 369 separation, of stormwater and raw sewage, 369, 372, 391 dams (see locks and dams) data mining, examples of methodology: dissolved oxygen, for, 9-13, 123-125

streamflow ratio, summer, for, 110-111 data sources, for case study, 361 DDT, 388

development and growth, history of, 366, 371, 380

disease, waterborne, and public health, 368, 372

dissolved oxygen, water quality, 377 -379 depletion of, 371, 376 degradation of, 379

drought, 1987-1988, effect of, on, 377, 379 historical records of, 368, 376, 384 low levels of, 368, 370 indicator, as, 392

minimum oxygen, 368, 377 model simulation of, 384-385 improvements, in, 371, 372, 376, 377, 379, 385

sag, 144, 154, 377, 379, 385 saturation, 368 spatial distribution of, 376 standards (see water quality standards) STORET, as data source for ambient trends, 377

streamflow, effect of, on, 377-379, 385, 391 trends, long-term, 376-379 typhoid, epidemic of, 368 drainage area:

Catalog Unit 07010206 of, 363 USGS streamflow gage, at St. Paul, Minnesota, and, 364 economy, of river basin, 362, 366 agriculture, 362, 366 forest products, 362, 366 effluent limits, 373 industrial wastewater, 373 municipal wastewater, 373 enforcement, interstate conference, for water pollution control, 361, 421 eutrophication (see Lake Pepin) expenditures, water pollution control, 373, 379,

386, 390-392 fish consumption advisory (see advisory, fish consumption) fish kills (see Lake Pepin) fishery resources: 366, 368, 389 blue sucker, 389 carp, 368 catfish, 389 commercial, 366 electro-fishing, 389 paddlefish, 389 recreational, 366 smallmouth buffalo, 389 walleye, 368, 389 wastewater loads, effect of, on, 368 flood-control, 364, 380, 383, 392 flood plain, 388

grey Cloud, Minnesota, 369, 377, 379 habitat:

alteration, and loss of, 380, 383, 392 fish and wildlife, for, 362 invertebrates, benthic, for, 372 heavy metals (see also mercury), 370, 380, 391, 392

effluent load, reduction of, 370, 371, 391 sediment cores, 370 sediments, contaminated, 382 sources of, 370, 371, 392 hydropower, 363, 366 Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), 389 Investments:

ecological integrity of river, for restoration of, 392 marinas, in, 386 riverfront development, in, 386

Upper Mississippi River (continued): Lake Itasca, 361, 362 Lake Pepin, 364, 388 algal blooms, 380, 383 eutrophication, 380-383 fish kills, 380, 383 mercury load, 391 PCB levels, in fish, 389 phosphorus, water quality, 380 phosphorus load, 380, 381 Phosphorus Study, 366, 380 sediment bed contamination of, 370, 371, 379, 392

sediment bed concentration, of mercury, 370,

371, 372, 379 sediment bed concentration, of phosphorus, 380

sediment deposition, to, 380 land use, 361, 369 agricultural, 366, 392 forest, 366 urban, 366, 392 legislative and regulatory history: Clean Water Act, of 1972, 373, 383, 390-392

Metropolitan Drainage Commission, 372 Minnesota Board of Health, 368, 372 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 373 Minnesota Water Pollution Control Act, of 1945, 373

Section 208, of Clean Water Act of 1972, 383 locks and dams, 363, 367, 382, 383

degradation, of biological communities, effect of, on, 392 dredging, 364 elevation, of river, 364 fishery resources, effect of, on, flood control, for, 363 navigation, for, 363, 364, 382, 392 regulation of streamflow (see streamflow) water quality, effect of, on, 367 mayflies (hexagenia), 371, 372, 391 resurgence of, 372, 391 scarcity of, 371 mercury, 371-372, 379, 391

dental amalgam, as source of, 392 deposition rates, historical trends, 371 loading, 372, 391

sediment contamination, in Lake Pepin (see

Lake Pepin) sources of from municipal and industrial wastewater, 371, 391 Metropolitan Council Environmental Services

(MCES), 361, 371, 373, 382, 390, 391 Metropolitan Waste Control Commission

(MWCC), 373, 374 Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant, St. Paul, Minnesota, (METRO), 123, 125, 144, 154, 361, 367-370, 373, 377, 381, 389, 391 effluent load, of phosphorus, 381

impact of on dissolved oxygen and unionized ammonia, 383 model simulation, of effluent regulations, 384-386

population served, by (see population) upgrades, 369, 372-374, 376, 377, 379, 385, 390 models, surface water quality, 361, 382, 383 advanced eutrophication of, 382, 383 bacteria of, 383

evaluation, of wastewater upgrades, 189, 194,

384-386 hydrodynamic, 382, 383 post-audit, 379, 383 review, literature of, 383 sediment transport of, 382, 383 waste load allocation, for, 383 Newport, Minnesota, 369, 379 nitrogen, water quality, model simulation of, 384-385 un-ionized ammonia, 369, 376, 383 nitrogen, effluent load, trends (1940-2000), from METRO facility, 376 ammonia-nitrogen, 369, 374, 376, 390 total Kjedhal-nitrogen, 374, 376 nonpoint sources, 369, 391, 392

export coefficients, for total phosphorus yield, 381 nutrients of, 363, 380, 381, 392 pesticides of, 363, 380, 392 rural runoff, 391, 392 sediment of, 369, 380, 392 streamflow, effect of, on phosphorus and sediment lo

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