The analysis presented in Section D indicates that nationwide effluent BODu loadings from POTWs were reduced by 23 percent between 1968 and 1996. Examination of historical trends in industrial wastewater loads also suggests substantial declines in BOD loads from industrial point sources have been achieved since the early 1970s (see Luken et al., 1976). Declines can be credited to industrial pretreatment programs, upgrades of industrial wastewater treatment as required by the NPDES permit program, abandonment of obsolete manufacturing facilities in the Midwest and Northeast "rustbelt" (Kahn, 1997), and improved efficiency in industrial water use (Solley et al., 1998). The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the costs of implementing public and private water pollution control programs.
The Water Pollution Control Act of 1956 was significant because it both established and funded a grant program for the construction of POTWs for the purpose of ensuring the implementation of adequate levels of municipal waste treatment as a national
Note: Urban stormwater runoff includes areas both outside and within the NPDES stormwater permit program.
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