Contents

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xix

Acronyms xxiii

1. Introduction 1

Background 2

Study Approach 4

The First Leg: An Examination of BOD Loadings Before and After the CWA 5

The Second Leg: An Examination of "Worst-Case" DO in Waterways 6 Below Point Sources Before and After the CWA

The Third Leg: Case Study Assessments of Water Quality 12

The Target Audience for this Book 13

References 13

2. An Examination of BOD Loadings Before and After the CWA 17

A. History of Water Supply and Its Effects on Public Health 17 Impacts on Water Supply Users and "The Great Sanitary Awakening" 19 Impacts on Water Resources Users 21

B. Evolution of Wastewater Treatment 23 Primary Treatment 23 Dissolved Oxygen as an Indicator of Water Quality 23 Secondary Treatment 25 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as a Measure of Organic Wasteload Strength 26

C. The Federal Role in Implementing Secondary Treatment in the Nation's POTWs 27

The Federal Role in Secondary Treatment Before the Clean

Water Act 27

The Federal Role in Secondary Treatment After the Clean

Water Act 33

D. Nationwide Trends in BOD Loading from POTWs 42 Types of BOD Reported in this Trends Analysis 43 Trends in POTW Inventory 48 Trends in Population and Influent Wastewater Flow to POTWs 50 Trends in Influent BOD Loading to POTWs 52 Trends in Effluent BOD Loading from POTWs 57 Trends in BOD Removal Efficiency 63 Future Trends in BOD Effluent Loading 64

E. BOD5 Loadings from Point and Nonpoint Sources 70 Pollutant Loading from Sources Other than POTWs 71 BOD5 Loads from the National Water Pollution Control

Assessment Model (NWPCAM) 76

Comparison of Point and Nonpoint Sources of BOD5

at the National Level 85

F. Investment Costs for Water Pollution Control Infrastructure 85 The Construction Grants Program 85 Other Investment Costs for Water Pollution Control Infrastructure 90 Future Infrastructure Needs 93

G. Summary, Conclusions, and Future Trends 95 Key Points of the Background Sections 95 Key Points of the BOD Loading Analysis Sections 96 Key Points of the Investment Costs Section 98 Conclusions and Future Trends 98

References 100

3. An Examination of "Worst-Case" DO in Waterways Below Point

Sources Before and After the CWA 105

A. Background 106 Sources of DO Data 107 "Worst Case" Conditions as a Screening Tool 107 The Role of Spatial Scale in this Analysis 119

B. Data Mining 119 Step 1—Data Selection Rules 119 Step 2—Data Aggregation Rules from a Temporal Perspective 120 Step 3—Calculation of the Worst-Case DO Summary

Statistic Rules 121

Step 4—Spatial Assessment Rules 122

Step 5—Data Aggregation Rules from a Spatial Perspective 125

Step 6—Development of the Paired Data Sets

(at Each Spatial Scale) 126

C. Comparison of Worst-Case DO in Waterways Below Point Source Discharges Before and After the CWA at Three Spatial Scales 126 Before and After DO at Reach Scale 127 Before and After DO at Catalog Unit Scale 130 Comparison of the Change in Signal Between the Reach and Catalog Unit Scales Using the Upper White River

Basin (Indiana) as an Example 154

Before and After DO at Major River Basin Scale 162

D. Summary and Conclusions 171 Key Points of the Background Section 172 Key Points of the Data Mining Section 173 Key Points of the Comparison Analysis Section 174 Conclusions 176

References 179

4. Case Study Assessments of Water Quality 181

A. Background 181

B. Selection of Case Study Waterways 183

C. Before and After CWA 184

D. Policy Scenarios for Municipal Effluent Discharges 189

E. Discussion and Conclusions 194 References 195

5. Connecticut River Case Study 199

Background 199

Physical Setting and Hydrology 200

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 203

Historical Water Quality Issues 204

Legislative and Regulatory History 205

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 206

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 206

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 207

Summary and Conclusions 210

References 211

6. Hudson-Raritan Estuary Case Study 213 Background 213

Physical Setting and Hydrology 215

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 215

Historical Water Quality Issues 220

Legislative and Regulatory History 223

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 225

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 225

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 242

Summary and Conclusions 248

References 249

7. Delaware Estuary Case Study 255

Physical Setting and Hydrology 256

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 259

Historical Water Quality Issues 261

Legislative and Regulatory History 262

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 263

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 263 Evaluation of Water Quality Benefits Following Treatment

Plant Upgrade 270

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 273

Summary and Conclusions 279

References 281

8. Potomac Estuary Case Study 285

Physical Setting and Hydrology 286

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 288

Historical Water Quality Issues 290

Legislative and Regulatory History 290

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 291

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 291 Evaluation of Water Quality Benefits Following Treatment

Plant Upgrades 294

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 298

Summary and Conclusions 308

References 309

9. James River Estuary Case Study 311

Physical Setting and Hydrology 311

Population Trends 314

Historical Water Quality Issues 315

Legislative and Regulatory History 316

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 317

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 317 Evaluation of Water Quality Benefits Following Treatment

Plant Upgrades 321

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 324

Summary and Conclusions 325

References 325

10. Upper Chattahoochee River Case Study 327

Physical Setting and Hydrology 328

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 331

Historical Water Quality Issues 333

Legislative and Regulatory History 335

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 336

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 336

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 340

Summary and Conclusions 342

References 342

11. Ohio River Case Study 345

Physical Setting and Hydrology 346

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 347

Historical Water Quality Issues 350

Legislative and Regulatory History 350

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 352

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 352

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 356

Summary and Conclusions 358

References 358

12. Upper Mississippi River Case Study 361

Physical Setting and Hydrology 362

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 366

Historical Water Quality Issues 367

Legislative and Regulatory History 372

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 373

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 373 Evaluation of Water Quality Benefits Following Treatment

Plant Upgrades 383

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 386

Summary and Conclusions 390

References 393

13. Willamette River Case Study 399

Physical Setting and Hydrology 400

Population, Water, and Land Use Trends 403

Historical Water Quality Issues 404

Legislative and Regulatory History 405

Impacts of Wastewater Treatment 406

Pollutant Loading and Water Quality Trends 406

Recreational and Living Resources Trends 408

Summary and Conclusions 410

References 412

Appendix A. United States Waterways Identified with Water Pollution

Problems Before the 1972 Clean Water Act 415

Appendix B. National Municipal Wastewater Inventory and Infrastructure, 1940-2016 449

Appendix C. National Public and Private Sector Investment in Water Pollution Control 501

Appendix D. Before and After CWA Changes in Tenth Percentile Dissolved Oxygen and Ninetieth Percentile BOD5 at the Catalog Unit Level 507

Appendix E. Before and After CWA Changes in Tenth Percentile

Dissolved Oxygen at the RF1 Reach Level 523

Appendix F. Hydrologic Conditions of the 48 Contiguous States,

Summer (July-September) from 1961 through 1995 537

Appendix G. Municipal and Industrial Wastewater Loads by Major River Basin Before and After the Clean Water Act: 1950, 1973, and ca. 1995 583

Appendix H. Municipal and Industrial Water Withdrawals by Major

River Basin: 1940-1995 593

Glossary 601

Index

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