Physical Setting And Hydrology

The Connecticut River forms the border between Vermont and New Hampshire and bisects west-central Massachusetts and central Connecticut. The topography of the Connecticut River's 11,250-square-mile watershed varies from the rugged terrain of Figure 5-2 Location map for Lower Connecticut River Basin. (River miles shown are distances from Long Island Sound.) Figure 5-2 Location map for Lower Connecticut River Basin. (River miles shown are distances from Long Island Sound.) the White Mountains in...

Hudson Raritan Estuary Case Study

The Mid-Atlantic Basin (Hydrologic Region 2), covering a drainage area of 111,417 square miles, includes some of the major rivers in the continental United States. Figure 6-1 highlights the location of the basin and the Hudson-Raritan estuary, the case study watershed profiled in this chapter. With a length of 306 miles and a drainage area of 13,370 square miles, the Hudson River ranks seventy-first among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length. On the basis of mean annual...

Delaware Estuary Case Study

The Mid-Atlantic Basin (Hydrologic Region 2), covering a drainage area of 111,417 square miles, includes some of the major rivers in the continental United States. Figure 7-1 highlights the location of the basin and the Delaware estuary, the case study watershed profiled in this chapter. With a length of 390 miles and a drainage area of 11,440 square miles, the Delaware River ranks seventeenth among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length. On the basis of mean annual...

Upper Mississippi River Case Study

The upper and lower watersheds of the Mississippi River extend 2,340 miles from the headwaters in Lake Itasca, Minnesota, to the Gulf of Mexico. With a drainage basin of 1.15 million square miles, the Mississippi River, known as the Father of Waters, drains 40 percent of the continental United States and discharges an annual average flow of 640,000 cfs into the Gulf of Mexico. On the basis of drainage area and mean annual discharge, the Mississippi is the largest river in the United States...

Potomac Estuary Case Study

The Mid-Atlantic Basin (Hydrologic Region 2), covering a drainage area of 111,417 square miles, includes some of the major rivers in the continental United States. Figure 8-1 highlights the location of the basin and the Potomac estuary, the case study watershed profiled in this chapter. With a length of 340 miles and a drainage area of 14,670 square miles, the Potomac River ranks forty-eighth among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 8-2...

Legislative And Regulatory History

The Minnesota State Legislature passed an act in 1885 to prevent the pollution of rivers and other water supply sources. For the next 60 years, the Minnesota Board of Health had responsibility for water pollution problems. By 1907, the State Board of Health realized that consumption of drinking water contaminated by raw sewage discharges posed a serious public health threat. Without any authority, the Board of Health attempted to pressure the Twin Cities communities to install wastewater...

History Of Water Supply And Its Effects On Public Health

The urban water cycle can be divided into a water supply side and a wastewater disposal side (see Figure 1-1). The basic technological framework for the water supply side began as far back as 5,000 years ago when people from the Nippur of Sumeria, a region of the Middle East, built a centralized system to deliver water into populated areas (Viessman and Hammer, 1985). The Minoans at Knossos, some 1,000 years later, improved on the concept with the installation of a system of cisterns and stone...

Impacts on Water Resources Users

Sewer is an Old English word meaning seaward. As the name suggests, from the 1500s through mid-1800s, London's sewers were nothing more than open ditches draining wastewater seaward via the Thames River. The year 1858, also known as the year of The Great Stink, brought matters to a head. That summer, the stench from the Thames drove people out of the city by the thousands. The windows of the Par liament building had to be draped with curtains soaked in chloride of lime. By the end of the summer...

References

The AMSA financial survey. American Metropolitan Sewerage Association, Washington, DC. Arden, E. and W. T. Lockett. 1914. Experiments on the oxidation of sewage without the aid of filters. J. Soc. Chem. Ind., 33, 523, 1122 (1914). Barzilay, J. L., W. G. Weinberg, and J. W. Eley. 1999. The water we drink Water quality and its effects on health. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. Bondelid, T., S. Unger, and A. Stoddard. 2000. National water pollution control assessment model...

Summary And Conclusions

Results of legislation and regulations have been positive, due to active enforcement on all levels. Water quality monitoring by the EPD and under the NPDES program helps to evaluate progress and indicate violations. Water quality in the Upper Chattahoochee River, particularly in the vicinity of Atlanta, has improved dramatically with implementation of secondary waste treatment. Chemical, physical, and biological data all indicate a great improvement in water quality when compared to data from...

James River Estuary Case Study

Figure 9-1 highlights the location of the James estuary case study watershed (catalog units). The James River was identified as one of the urban-industrial waterways affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). The James River basin, at the southern boundary of the Mid-Atlantic Basin, is one of the most important water resources in the Commonwealth of Virginia (Figure 9-2). As the largest river in the state, the James River extends more than 400 miles...

Ohio River Case Study

The Ohio River Basin, covering a drainage area of 204,000 square miles, extends 1,306 miles from the headwaters of the Alleghany River in Potter County, Pennsylvania, to the confluence of the Ohio River with the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois. With a length of 981 miles from the confluence of the Alleghany and Monan-gahela rivers with the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, and a drainage area of 192,200 square miles, the Ohio River is the largest single tributary...