Legislative And Regulatory History

The Minnesota State Legislature passed an act in 1885 to prevent the pollution of rivers and other water supply sources. For the next 60 years, the Minnesota Board of Health had responsibility for water pollution problems. By 1907, the State Board of Health realized that consumption of drinking water contaminated by raw sewage discharges posed a serious public health threat. Without any authority, the Board of Health attempted to pressure the Twin Cities communities to install wastewater...

History Of Water Supply And Its Effects On Public Health

The urban water cycle can be divided into a water supply side and a wastewater disposal side (see Figure 1-1). The basic technological framework for the water supply side began as far back as 5,000 years ago when people from the Nippur of Sumeria, a region of the Middle East, built a centralized system to deliver water into populated areas (Viessman and Hammer, 1985). The Minoans at Knossos, some 1,000 years later, improved on the concept with the installation of a system of cisterns and stone...

Impacts on Water Resources Users

Sewer is an Old English word meaning seaward. As the name suggests, from the 1500s through mid-1800s, London's sewers were nothing more than open ditches draining wastewater seaward via the Thames River. The year 1858, also known as the year of The Great Stink, brought matters to a head. That summer, the stench from the Thames drove people out of the city by the thousands. The windows of the Par liament building had to be draped with curtains soaked in chloride of lime. By the end of the summer...

Physical Setting And Hydrology

New York Harbor is formed by a network of interconnected tidal waterways along the shores of New York and northern New Jersey bounded by the Hudson River to the north, Long Island Sound to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south (Figure 6-2). Freshwater tributaries discharging into the estuary drain an area of 16,290 square miles and contribute approximately 81 percent of the total freshwater inflow to the harbor. The remainder of the freshwater input is contributed by wastewater (15...

Ohio River Case Study

The Ohio River Basin, covering a drainage area of 204,000 square miles, extends 1,306 miles from the headwaters of the Alleghany River in Potter County, Pennsylvania, to the confluence of the Ohio River with the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois. With a length of 981 miles from the confluence of the Alleghany and Monan-gahela rivers with the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, and a drainage area of 192,200 square miles, the Ohio River is the largest single tributary...