where V is the amount of the feed in volume and W is the weight of the adsorbent. The adsorption q is in equilibrium with the concentration of the depleted solution, y, and can be expressed by one of three isotherms. However, for a packed bed, Equation 3.18 is valid but q is in equilibrium with the feed concentration, y0, thus enabling much efficient mass transfer and requiring less adsorbent. This is the reason that packed bed adsorp-
tion units, which are close to idealized reactors with plug flow in terms of fluid dynamics and mass transfer, are commonly used.
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