Biological Removal of Phosphorus

Biological Remediation Processes

Phosphorus is a constituent of wastewater, averaging around 10 mg liter in most cases. The principal form in food and agricultural wastewater is organically bound phosphorus. Organically bound phosphorus originates from body and food waste and, upon biological decomposition of these solids, is converted to orthophosphates. Biological phosphate removal is a relatively new technology dating back to the late 1950s it wasn't until the 1970s that there were full-scale processes developed for...

Land Treatment Systems

Waste Water Infiltration System Canada

Land application of wastewater is perhaps the oldest method for disposal and treatment of wastewaters. Early systems were used in England as Land Farms, which received untreated wastewater and night soil from nearby communities. Today, land application systems have included application to edible and nonedible crops, to rangelands, to forests and wood plantations, to recreational areas including parks and golf courses, and to disturbed lands such as mine spoil sites. Land application of...

Combined Aerobic Processes

Fluidized Bed Reactor

The combined aerobic processes are designed to sustain shock loads in activated sludge, aerobic contactor, and trickling filter (biofilter) processes. There are several possible combinations of these aerobic processes activated biofilter process, trickling filter solids-contact process, biofilter activated-sludge process, and trickling filter-activated sludge process. The activated biofilter process is a trickling filter with recycling of secondary sludge back to the trickling-filter to create...

Sludge Thickening Concentration

Thickener Diagram

Further sludge concentration is first accomplished by the use of thickening equipment that will increase the solids content to between 2 and 5 . Sludge thickening is achieved through one of two means flotation and settling to the bottom by gravity or centrifugal force. The thickening operation separates water from the sludge as much as possible and is cost-effective because the cost involved in the process is well offset by the savings gained through the reduction of sludge volume, which...

Advanced Wastewater Treatment Processes

Elutriator Diagramm

Biological treatment processes, in combination with primary sedimentation, typically remove 85 of the BOD5 and soluble solids originally present in the raw wastewater and some of the heavy metals. Activated sludge generally produces an effluent of slightly higher quality, in terms of these constituents, than trickling filters or RBCs. When coupled with a disinfection step, these processes can provide substantial but not complete removal of bacteria and virus. However, they remove very little...

Belt press filtration

Fresnel Lens Used For Drying Water

Belt filter presses employ single or double moving belts to continuously dewater sludges through one or more stages of dewatering. All belt press filtration processes include three basic operational stages chemical conditioning of the feed sludge gravity drainage to a nonfluid consistency shear and compression dewatering of the drained sludge. When dewater- Figure 7.5. A schematic diagram of a belt filter for sludge dewatering. (Courtesy of Falke Bruinsma at http photos.innersource.com) Figure...

Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater

Biological Oxygen Demand Test Flowcharts

Whenever and wherever food, in any form, is handled, processed, packed and stored, there will always be an unavoidable generation of wastewater. Wastewater is the most serious environmental problem in the manufacturing and processing of foods. Most of the volume of wastewater comes from cleaning operations at almost every stage of food processing and transportation operations. The quantity and general quality (i.e., pollutant strength, nature of constituents) of this processing wastewater...

Biological Removal of Nitrogen Nitrification and Denitrification

The goal of nitrogen removal, regardless of what exactly forms of nitrogen compounds in wastewater streams, has been the production of nitrogen gas, an inert, water-insoluble gas that is easily separated from liquid media. The necessity of producing nitrogen gas in the treatment processes of nitrogen removal is mainly due to high solubility of nitrogen compounds such as NO3 , NH4+, and NO2 present in the nitrogen removal. There is some indication that this old paradigm is being challenged....