PREFACE, 2ND EDITION xix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 SETTING THE STAGE 1

1.2 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: THE MODEL 2

CHAPTER 2 WASTEWATER TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 5

2.1 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 5

2.2 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 18

CHAPTER 3 BASIC MATHEMATICS 21

3.1 INTRODUCTION 21

3.2 BASIC MATH TERMINOLOGY, DEFINITIONS, AND CALCULATION STEPS 21

3.2.1 CALCULATION STEPS 23

3.2.2 KEY MATH WORDS 23

3.2.3 CALCULATORS 23

3.3 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS 24

3.3.1 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS RULES 25

3.3.2 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS EXAMPLES 26

3.4 PERCENT 26

3.5 SIGNIFICANT DIGITS 30

3.6 POWERS AND EXPONENTS 32

3.7 AVERAGES (ARITHMETIC MEAN) 33

3.8 RATIOS 36

3.9 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 38

3.9.1 BASIC OPERATION: DIVISION OF UNITS 39

3.9.2 BASIC OPERATION: DIVIDE BY A FRACTION 39

3.9.3 BASIC OPERATION: CANCEL OR DIVIDE NUMERATORS AND DENOMINATORS 40

3.10 GEOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS 44

3.10.1 DEFINITIONS 44

3.10.2 RELEVANT GEOMETRIC EQUATIONS 45

3.10.3 GEOMETRICAL CALCULATIONS 46

3.10.3.1 PERIMETER AND CIRCUMFERENCE 46

3.10.3.3 VOLUME 50

3.11 MASS BALANCE AND MEAS URING PLANT PERFORMANCE 53

3.11.1 MASS BALANCE FOR SETTLING TANKS 54

3.11.2 MASS BALANCE USING BOD REMOVAL 54

3.12 FORCE, PRESS URE, AND HEAD CALC ULATIONS 56

3.12.6 PRESS URE AND HEAD 58

3.13 MOVING AVERAGE 62

3.14 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 63

CHAPTER 4 CONVERSIONS 65

4.1 CONVERSION FACTORS 65

4.1.1 WEIGHT, CONCENTRATION, AND FLOW 66

4.1.2 TABLE CONVERSIONS 68

4.1.3 TEMPERATURE CONVERSIONS 75

4.1.5 SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DENSITY 77

4.2 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 78

CHAPTER 5 MEASURING PLANT PERFORMANCE 79

5.1 INTRODUCTION 79

5.2 PLANT PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY 80

5.3 UNIT PROCESS PERFORMANCE/EFFICIENCY 80

5.4 PERCENT VOLATILE MATTER REDUCTION IN SLUDGE 80

5.5 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 81

CHAPTER 6 HYDRAULIC DETENTION TIME 83

6.1 INTRODUCTION 83

6.2 DETENTION TIME IN DAYS 83

6.3 DETENTION TIME IN HOURS 84

6.4 DETENTION TIME IN MINUTES 84

6.5 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 85

CHAPTER 7 WASTEWATER SOURCES AND CHARACTERISTICS 87

7.1 INTRODUCTION 87

7.2 WASTEWATER SOURCES 88

7.3 PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER/WASTEWATER 90

7.3.1 SOLIDS 90

7.3.2 TURBIDITY 91

7.3.3 COLOR 91

7.3.4 TASTE AND ODOR 92

7.3.5 TEMPERATURE 93

7.4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTEWATER 94

7.4.1 ORGANIC SUBSTANCES 94

7.4.2 INORGANIC SUBSTANCES 96

7.5 BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER/WASTEWATER 98

7.5.1 BACTERIA 99

7.5.2 VIRUSES 99

7.5.3 PROTOZOA 100

7.5.4 WORMS (HELMINTHS) 100

7.6 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 100

CHAPTER 8 MICROBIOLOGY 103

8.1 INTRODUCTION 103

8.2 MICROBIOLOGY: WHAT IS IT? 104

8.3 WASTEWATER MICROORGANISMS 105

8.3.1 KEY TERMS 106

8.4 MICROORGANISMS (IN GENERAL) 106

8.4.1 CLASSIFICATION 107

8.4.2 DIFFERENTIATION 109

8.5 THE CELL 109

8.5.1 STRUCTURE OF THE BACTERIAL CELL 110

8.5.1.1 CAPSULES 111

8.5.1.2 FLAGELLA 112

8.5.1.3 CELL WALL 112

8.5.1.4 PLASMA MEMBRANE (CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE) 112

8.5.1.5 CYTOPLASM 113

8.5.1.6 MESOSOME 113

8.5.1.7 NUCLEOID (NUCLEAR BODY OR REGION) 113

8.5.1.8 RIBOSOMES 113

8.5.1.9 INCLUSIONS 114

8.6 BACTERIA 114

8.6.1 BACTERIAL GROWTH FACTORS 115

8.6.2 DESTRUCTION OF BACTERIA 116

8.6.3 WATERBORNE BACTERIA 116

8.7 PROTOZOA 117

8.8 MICROSCOPIC CRUSTACEANS 119

8.9 VIRUSES 119

8.10 ALGAE 120

8.11 FUNGI 121

8.12 NEMATODES AND FLATWORMS (WORMS) 122

8.13 HELMINTHS 123

8.14 BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESSES 124

8.14.1 AEROBIC PROCESS 124

8.14.2 ANAEROBIC PROCESS 124

8.14.3 ANOXIC PROCESS 125

8.14.4 PHOTOSYNTHESIS 125

8.15 GROWTH CYCLES 126

8.16 STREAM SELF- (NATURAL) PURIFICATION 126

8.17 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES 128

8.17.1 CARBON CYCLE 128

8.17.2 NITROGEN CYCLE 129

8.17.3 SULFUR CYCLE 131

8.17.4 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE 132

8.18 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 133

CHAPTER 9 WATER HYDRAULICS 137

9.1 INTRODUCTION 137

9.2 DEFINITIONS 137

9.3 PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS 138

9.4 STATIC WATER (WATER AT REST) 140

9.5 GAUGE PRESSURE 140

9.6 DYNAMIC WATER (WATER IN MOTION) 141

9.8 PRESS URE AND HEAD CALC ULATIONS 144

9.9 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 145

CHAPTER 10 PUMPS 147

10.1 INTRODUCTION 147

10.2 BASIC PUMPING CALCULATIONS 149

10.2.1 VELOCITY OF A FLUID THROUGH A PIPELINE 149

10.2.2 PRESSURE-VELOCITY RELATIONSHIP 150

10.2.3.2 STATIC SUCTION LIFT 151

10.2.7 CONVERSION OF PRESSURE HEAD 154

10.2.8 HORSEPOWER 155

10.2.8.1 HYDRAULIC (WATER) HORSEPOWER 155

10.2.8.2 BRAKE HORSEPOWER 156

10.2.9 SPECIFIC SPEED 156

10.2.10 SUCTION SPECIFIC SPEED 157

10.2.11 AFFINITY LAWSâ€”CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 157

10.2.12 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD 158

10.2.12.1 CALCULATING NPSHA 159

10.2.13 PUMPS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL 161

10.3 CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 162

10.3.1 DESCRIPTION 162

10.3.2 TERMINOLOGY 163

10.3.3 PUMP THEORY 165

10.3.4 PUMP CHARACTERISTICS 166

10.3.4.2 EFFICIENCY 167

10.3.4.3 BRAKE HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENTS 167

10.3.6 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP APPLICATIONS 169

10.3.7 PUMP CONTROL SYSTEMS 170

10.3.7.1 FLOAT CONTROL SYSTEM 171

10.3.7.2 PNEUMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM 171

10.3.7.3 ELECTRODE CONTROL SYSTEM 173

10.3.7.4 OTHER CONTROL SYSTEMS 173

10.3.8 ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEMS 173

10.3.8.1 FLOW EQUALIZATION SYSTEM 174

10.3.8.2 SONAR OR OTHER TRANSMISSION TYPE CONTROLLERS 174

10.3.8.3 MOTOR CONTROLLERS 174

10.3.8.4 PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTATION 175

10.3.8.5 TEMPERATURE DETECTORS 175

10.3.8.6 VIBRATION SENSORS 176

10.3.8.7 SUPERVISORY INSTRUMENTATION 176

10.3.9 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP MODIFICATIONS 176

10.3.9.1 SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS 177

10.3.9.2 RECESSED IMPELLER OR VORTEX PUMPS 178

10.3.9.3 TURBINE PUMPS 179

10.4 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS 180

10.4.1 PISTON PUMP OR RECIPROCATING PUMP 180

10.4.2 DIAPHRAGM PUMP 180

10.4.3 PERISTALTIC PUMPS 181

10.5 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 181

CHAPTER 11 WASTEWATER COLLECTION 185

11.1 GRAVITY COLLECTION SYSTEM 185

11.2 FORCE MAIN COLLECTION SYSTEM 186

11.3 VACUUM COLLECTION SYSTEM 186

11.4 PUMPING STATIONS 186

11.4.1 WET-WELL/DRY-WELL PUMPING STATIONS 186

11.4.2 WET-WELL PUMPING STATIONS 187

11.4.3 pneumatic pumping STATioNS 187

11.4.4 pumping station WET-WELL calculations 187

11.5 chapter review question 189

CHAPTER 12 PRELIMINARYTREATMENT 191

12.1 introduction 191

12.2 SCREENING 192

12.2.1 manually CLEANED SCREENS 192

12.2.1.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 193

12.2.2 MECHANICALLY CLEANED SCREENS 193

12.2.2.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 193

12.2.3 SCREENING SAFETY 194

12.2.4 SCREENINGS REMovAL CoMPuTATioNS 194

12.3 SHREDDING 195

12.3.1 comminution 195

12.3.1.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 195

12.3.2 BARMINution 195

12.4 GRIT REMovAL 196

12.4.1 GRAviTY-/vELoCITY-CoNTRoLLED GRIT REMovAL 196

12.4.1.1 PRoCESS control CALCuLATioNS 196

12.4.1.2 CLEANING 198

12.4.1.3 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 198

12.4.2 GRIT REMovAL CALCuLATioNS 199

12.5 PREAERATioN 200

12.5.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 201

12.6.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 201

12.7 equalization 201

12.7.1 oPERATIoNAL CoNSIDERATioNS 201

12.8 AERATED SYSTEMS 202

12.9 CYCLoNE DEGRITTER 202

12.10 PRELIMINARY TREATMENT SAMPLING AND TESTING 202

12.10.1 other preliminary treatment process control calculations 202

12.11 CHAPTER REviEW QuESTioNS 204

chapter 13 sedimentation (primary treatment) 207

13.1 introduction 207

13.1.1 process description 207

13.1.1.1 overview of PRIMARY TREATMENT 208

13.1.1.2 CLARIFIER oPERATioN CALCuLATioNS 208

13.1.2 TYPES of SEDIMENTATioN TANKS 209

13.1.2.1 SEPTIC TANKS 209

13.1.2.2 TWo-SToRY (IMHoFF) TANK 209

13.1.2.3 PLAIN SETTLING TANKS (CLARIFIERS) 209

13.1.3 OPERATOR OBSERVATIONS 210

13.1.3.1 PRIMARY CLARIFICATION: NORMAL OPERATION 210

13.1.3.2 OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS FOR PRIMARY CLARIFICATION 211

13.1.4 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS 211

13.1.4.1 PERCENT REMOVAL 212

13.1.4.2 DETENTION TIME 212

AND SURFACE OVERFLOW RATE 212

13.1.4.4 WEIR OVERFLOW RATE 213

13.1.4.5 SLUDGE PUMPING 213

13.1.4.6 PERCENT TOTAL SOLIDS (%TS) 214

13.1.4.7 BOD AND SS REMOVAL (LB/DAY) 214

13.1.5 EFFLUENT FROM SETTLING TANKS 215

13.2 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 215

CHAPTER 14 SECONDARYTREATMENT 217

14.1 INTRODUCTION 217

14.2 TREATMENT PONDS 218

14.2.1 TYPES OF PONDS 219

14.2.1.1 PONDS BASED ON LOCATION AND TYPES OF WASTES THEY RECEIVE 220

14.2.1.2 PONDS BASED ON THE TYPE OF PROCESSES OCCURRING WITHIN 221

14.2.1.3 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS (STABILIZATION PONDS) 222

14.3 TRICKLING FILTERS 224

14.3.1 TRICKLING FILTER DEFINITIONS 226

14.3.2 TRICKLING FILTER EQUIPMENT 228

14.3.3 FILTER CLASSIFICATIONS 229

14.3.4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES 229

14.3.5 PROCESS CALCULATIONS 230

14.3.5.1 TOTAL FLOW 230

14.3.5.4 SETTLING TANKS 232

14.4 ROTATING BIOLOGICAL CONTACTORS 232

14.4.1 RBC EQUIPMENT 233

14.4.2 RBC OPERATION 234

14.4.3 RBC EXPECTED PERFORMANCE 234

14.4.4 RBC PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS 234

14.4.4.1 RBC SOLUBLE BOD 235

14.4.4.2 RBC TOTAL MEDIA AREA 235

14.5 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 236

CHAPTER 15 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 239

15.1 INTRODUCTION 239

15.1.1 ACTIVATED SLUDGE TERMINOLOGY 240

15.2 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS: EQUIPMENT 243

15.2.1 AERATION TANK 243

15.2.2 AERATION 243

15.2.3 SETTLING TANK 244

15.2.4 RETURN SLUDGE 244

15.2.5 WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE 244

15.3 OVERVIEW OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS 244

15.4 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS: FACTORS AFFECTING OPERATION 245

15.5 GROWTH CURVE 245

15.6 ACTIVATED SLUDGE FORMATION 246

15.7 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PERFORMANCE-CONTROLLING FACTORS 246

15.7.1 AERATION 246

15.7.2 ALKALINITY 247

15.7.3 NUTRIENTS 247

15.7.5 TEMPERATURE 247

15.7.6 TOXICITY 247

15.8 ACTIVATED SLUDGE MODIFICATIONS 248

15.8.1 CONVENTIONAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE 249

15.8.2 STEP AERATION 249

15.8.3 COMPLETE MIX 249

15.8.4 PURE OXYGEN 249

15.8.5 CONTACT STABILIZATION 250

15.8.6 EXTENDED AERATION 250

15.8.7 OXIDATION DITCH 250

15.9 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS CONTROL PARAMETERS 250

15.9.1 ALKALINITY 251

15.9.2 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 251

15.9.4 MIXED LIQUOR SUSPENDED SOLIDS, MIXED LIQUOR VOLATILE

SUSPENDED SOLIDS, AND MIXED LIQUOR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS 252

15.9.5 RETURN ACTIVATED SLUDGE RATE AND CONCENTRATION 252

15.9.6 WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE FLOW RATE 252

15.9.7 TEMPERATURE 252

15.9.8 SLUDGE BLANKET DEPTH 253

15.9.9 ACTIVATED SLUDGE OPERATIONAL CONTROL LEVELS 253

15.9.9.1 INFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS 253

15.9.9.2 INDUSTRIAL CONTRIBUTIONS 254

15.9.9.3 PROCESS SIDESTREAMS 254

15.9.9.4 SEASONAL VARIATIONS 254

15.9.9.5 CONTROL LEVELS AT STARTUP 255

15.10 VISUAL INDICATORS FOR INFLUENT OR AERATION TANKS 255

15.10.1 TURB ULENCE 255

15.10.2 SURFACE FOAM AND SCUM 255

15.10.3 SLUDGE COLOR AND ODOR 256

15.10.4 MIXED LIQ UOR COLOR 256

15.11 FINAL SETTLING TANK (CLARIFIER) OBSERVATIONS 256

15.12 PROCESS CONTROL TESTING AND SAMPLING 257

15.12.1 AERATION INFLUENT AND EFFLUENT SAMPLING 257

15.12.1.2 TEMPERATURE 257

15.12.1.3 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 258

15.12.1.4 SETTLED SLUDGE VOLUME (SETTLEABILITY) 258

15.12.1.5 CENTRIFUGE TESTING 258

15.12.1.6 ALKALINITY 258

15.12.1.7 BOD5 259

15.12.1.8 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS 259

15.12.1.9 TOTAL KJELDAHL NITROGEN 259

15.12.1.10 AMMONIA NITROGEN 259

15.12.1.11 METALS 259

15.12.2 AERATION TANK 259

15.12.2.2 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 259

15.12.2.3 DISSOLVED OXYGEN PROFILE 259

15.12.2.4 MIXED LIQUOR SUSPENDED SOLIDS 260

15.12.2.5 MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 260

15.12.3 INTERPRETATION 260

15.12.3.1 PROTOZOA 261

15.12.3.2 ROTIFERS 263

15.12.3.3 FILAMENTOUS ORGANISMS 263

15.12.4 SETTLING TANK INFLUENT 263

15.12.4.1 DISSOLVED OXYGEN 263

15.12.4.3 ALKALINITY 264

15.12.4.4 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS 264

15.12.4.5 SETTLED SLUDGE VOLUME (SETTLEABILITY) 264

15.12.4.6 FLOW 265

15.12.4.7 JAR TESTS 265

15.12.5 SETTLING TANK 265

15.12.5.1 SLUDGE BLANKET DEPTH 265

15.12.5.2 SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS 265

15.12.6 SETTLING TANK EFFLUENT 265

15.12.6.1 BOD5 AND TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS 265

15.12.6.2 TOTAL KJELDAHL NITROGEN 266

15.12.6.3 NITRATE NITROGEN 266

15.12.6.4 FLOW 266

15.12.7 RETURN ACTIVATED SLUDGE/WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE 266

15.12.7.1 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS 266

15.12.7.2 FLOW 266

15.12.8 PROCESS CONTROL CALC ULATIONS 266

15.12.8.1 SETTLED SLUDGE VOLUME 267

15.12.8.2 ESTIMATED RETURN RATE 267

15.12.8.3 SLUDGE VOLUME INDEX 268

15.12.8.4 WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE 270

15.12.8.5 FOOD-TO-MICROORGANISMS RATIO 270

15.12.8.6 MEAN CELL RESIDENCE TIME 274

15.12.8.7 MASS BALANCE 276

15.12.9 SOLIDS CONCENTRATION: SECONDARY CLARIFIER 281

15.12.10 ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS 281

15.13 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 281

CHAPTER 16 CHLORINATION 283

16.1 INTRODUCTION 283

16.2 CHLORINE DISINFECTION 283

16.2.1 CHLORINATION TERMINOLOGY 284

16.2.2 WASTEWATER CHLORINATION FACTS 284

16.2.2.1 CHLORINE FACTS 284

16.2.2.2 HYPOCHLORITE FACTS 285

16.2.3 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 285

16.2.4 CHLORINATION EQUIPMENT 286

16.2.4.1 HYPOCHLORITE SYSTEMS 286

16.2.4.2 CHLORINE SYSTEMS 286

16.2.5 CHLORINATION SYSTEM OPERATION 286

16.2.6 DECHLORINATION 287

16.2.7 CHLORINATION ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY 287

16.2.7.1 SAFE WORK PRACTICE FOR CHLORINE 287

16.2.8 CHLORINATION PROCESS CALCULATIONS 290

16.2.8.1 CHLORINE DEMAND 290

16.2.8.2 CHLORINE FEED RATE 290

16.2.8.3 CHLORINE DOSE 290

16.2.8.4 AVAILABLE CHLORINE 291

16.2.8.5 REQUIRED QUANTITY OF DRY HYPOCHLORITE 291

16.2.8.6 REQUIRED QUANTITY OF LIQUID HYPOCHLORITE 292

16.2.8.7 ORDERING CHLORINE 292

16.3 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 293

CHAPTER 17 SOLIDS HANDLING 295

17.1 INTRODUCTION 295

17.1.1 SLUDGE: BACKGROUND INFORMATION 295

17.2 SOURCES OF SLUDGE 296

17.3 SLUDGE CHARACTERISTICS 297

17.4 SLUDGE PUMPING CALCULATIONS 298

17.4.1 ESTIMATING DAILY SLUDGE PRODUCTION 299

17.4.2 SLUDGE PUMPING TIME 299

17.4.3 SLUDGE PUMPED PER DAY IN GALLONS 300

17.4.4 SLUDGE PUMPED PER DAY IN POUNDS 300

17.4.5 SOLIDS PUMPED PER DAY IN POUNDS 300

17.4.6 VOLATILE MATTER PUMPED PER DAY IN POUNDS 300

17.4.7 SLUDGE PRODUCTION IN POUNDS PER MILLION GALLONS 301

17.4.8 SLUDGE PRODUCTION IN WET TONS PER YEAR 301

17.5 SLUDGE THICKENING 302

17.5.1 GRAVITY THICKENING 303

17.5.2 FLOTATION THICKENING 303

17.5.3 SOLIDS CONCENTRATORS 304

17.5.4 PROCESS CALCULATIONS (GRAVITY/DISSOLVED AIR FLOTATION) 304

17.5.4.1 ESTIMATING DAILY SLUDGE PRODUCTION 305

17.5.4.4 CONCENTRATION FACTOR 306

17.5.4.5 AIR-TO-SOLIDS RATIO 306

17.5.4.6 RECYCLE FLOW IN PERCENT 307

17.6 SLUDGE STABILIZATION 307

17.6.1 AEROBIC DIGESTION 307

17.6.2 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS FOR AN AEROBIC DIGESTER 308

17.6.2.2 DIGESTION TIME (DAYS) 309

17.6.2.3 DIGESTER EFFICIENCY (PERCENT REDUCTION) 309

17.6.3 ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 311

17.6.3.2 SUPERNATANT WITHDRAWAL 312

17.6.3.3 SLUDGE WITHDRAWAL 312

17.6.3.4 pH CONTROL 312

17.6.3.5 TEMPERATURE CONTROL 312

17.6.3.6 MIXING 312

17.6.3.7 SAFETY 312

17.6.4 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS FOR AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER 313

17.6.4.1 REQUIRED SEED VOLUME IN GALLONS 313

17.6.4.2 VOLATILE ACIDS-TO-ALKALINITY RATIO 313

17.6.4.3 SLUDGE RETENTION TIME 314

17.6.4.4 ESTIMATED GAS PRODUCTION IN CUBIC FEET PER DAY 314

17.6.4.5 PERCENT VOLATILE MATTER REDUCTION 315

17.6.4.6 PERCENT MOISTURE REDUCTION IN DIGESTED SLUDGE 315

17.6.5 OTHER SLUDGE STABILIZATION PROCESSES 316

17.6.5.1 COMPOSTING 316

17.6.5.2 LIME STABILIZATION 316

17.6.5.3 THERMAL TREATMENT 316

17.6.5.4 CHLORINE OXIDATION 316

17.6.6 STABILIZATION OPERATION 317

17.6.6.1 SLUDGE DEWATERING 317

17.6.6.2 SAND DRYING BEDS 317

17.6.7 ROTARY VAC UUM FILTRATION 317

17.6.7.1 TYPES OF ROTARY VAC UUM FILTERS 318

17.6.7.2 CALCULATING VACUUM FILTER YIELD (LB/HR/FT2) 319

17.6.8 PRESSURE FILTRATION 319

17.6.8.1 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS FOR FILTER PRESSES 320

17.6.9 CENTRIFUGATION 321

17.6.10 SLUDGE INCINERATION 321

17.6.10.1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION 321

17.6.10.2 INCINERATION PROCESSES 322

17.6.11 LAND APPLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS 323

17.6.11.1 SAMPLING AND TESTING PROCESS CONTROL 323

17.6.11.2 PROCESS CONTROL CALCULATIONS FOR LAND APPLICATION OF BIOSOLIDS . . . 323 17.7 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 326

CHAPTER 18 WAsTEWATER sAMPLING AND TEsTING 329

18.1 INTRODUCTION 329

18.2 WASTEWATER SAMPLING 330

18.2.1 SAMPLING DEVICES AND CONTAINERS 330

18.2.2 SAMPLE TYPES 331

18.2.2.1 COMPOSITE SAMPLING PROCEDURE AND CALCULATION 331

18.3 WASTEWATER TEST METHODS 333

18.3.1 TITRIMETRIC METHODS 333

18.3.2 COLORIMETRIC METHODS 333

18.3.3 VISUAL METHODS 334

18.3.4 ELECTRONIC METHODS 334

18.3.5 pH MEASUREMENT 334

18.3.5.1 ANALYTICAL AND EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS 334

18.3.5.2 pH METERS 334

18.3.5.3 pH "POCKET PALS"AND COLOR COMPARATORS 335

18.3.6 CHLORINE RESIDUAL TESTING/ANALYSIS 335

18.3.6.1 DPD, SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC 336

18.3.6.2 DPD-FAS TITRATION 338

18.3.6.3 DIRECT AMPEROMETRIC TITRATION 339

18.3.6.4 DIRECTIODOMETRIC TITRATION 339

18.3.7 DISSOLVED OXYGEN TESTING 341

18.3.7.1 SAMPLING AND EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS 342

18.3.7.2 DISSOLVED OXYGEN TEST METHODS 343

18.3.7.3 METER AND PROBE 346

18.3.8 BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND TESTING 349

18.3.8.1 SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS 350

18.3.8.2 BOD5 SAMPLING, ANALYSIS, AND TESTING 351

18.3.8.3 BOD5 CALCULATION (UNSEEDED) 352

18.3.8.4 BOD5 CALCULATION (SEEDED) 353

18.3.9 SOLIDS MEASUREMENT 353

18.3.9.1 SOLIDS SAMPLING AND EQUIPMENT CONSIDERATIONS 354

18.3.9.2 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS 356

18.3.9.3 VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS TESTING 358

18.4 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 359

CHAPTER 19 PERMITS, RECORDS, AND REPORTS 361

19.1 INTRODUCTION 361

19.2 DEFINITIONS 361

19.3 NPDES PERMITS 362

19.3.1 MONITORING 363

19.3.2 REPORTING 363

19.4 SAMPLING AND TESTING 364

19.4.1 EFFLUENT LIMITATIONS 364

19.4.2 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES 365

19.4.3 SPECIAL CONDITIONS 365

19.4.5 CHLORINATION/DECHLORINATION REPORTING 365

19.5 REPORTING CALCULATIONS 365

19.5.1 AVERAGE MONTHLY CONCENTRATION 365

19.5.2 AVERAGE WEEKLY CONCENTRATION 366

19.5.3 AVERAGE HOURLY CONCENTRATION 366

19.5.4 DAILY QUANTITY 366

19.5.5 AVERAGE MONTHLY QUANTITY (AMQ) 366

19.5.6 AVERAGE WEEKLY QUANTITY 366

19.5.7 MINIMUM CONCENTRATION 367

19.5.8 MAXIMUM CONCENTRATION 367

19.5.9 BACTERIOLOGICAL REPORTING 367

19.6 CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 367

CHAPTER 20 FINAL REVIEW EXAM 369

20.1 INTRODUCTION 369

20.2 REVIEW EXAM 370

APPENDIX A ANSWERS TO CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS 379

CHAPTER 2 REVIEW QUESTIONS 379

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW QUESTIONS 380

CHAPTER 4 REVIEW QUESTIONS 380

CHAPTER 5 REVIEW QUESTIONS 381

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW QUESTIONS 381

CHAPTER 7 REVIEW QUESTIONS 381

CHAPTER 8 REVIEW QUESTIONS 382

CHAPTER 9 REVIEW QUESTIONS 383

CHAPTER 10 REVIEW QUESTIONS 383

CHAPTER 11 REVIEW QUESTION 384

CHAPTER 12 REVIEW QUESTIONS 384

CHAPTER 13 REVIEW QUESTIONS 384

CHAPTER 14 REVIEW QUESTIONS 385

CHAPTER 15 REVIEW QUESTIONS 387

CHAPTER 16 REVIEW QUESTIONS 387

CHAPTER 17 REVIEW QUESTIONS 388

CHAPTER 18 REVIEW QUESTIONS 389

CHAPTER 19 REVIEW QUESTIONS 389

APPENDIX B ANSWERS TO FINAL REVIEW EXAM (CHAPTER 20) 391

APPENDIX C FORMULAE 397

AREA (FT2) 397

RECTANGULAR TANK 397

CIRCULAR TANK 397

VOLUME (FT3) 397

RECTANGULAR TANK 397

CIRCULAR TANK 397

FLOW (CFS) 397

DOSE 398

EFFICIENCY (% REMOVAL) 398

SURFACE SETTLING RATE 398

DETENTION TIME (HOURS) 398

HORSEPOWER 398

INDEX 399

## Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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