Introduction

What is unsought will go undetected.

Sophocles

1.1 SETTING THE STAGE

In this second edition of Spellman's Standard Handbook for Wastewater Operators, Volume 1, Fundamental Level, the same successful and proven format used in the original is followed, but made better. Primarily designed to provide a readily accessible, user-friendly source of information for review in preparing for the first levels of licensure (i.e., for Class IV/III or Grade I/II state or local government-administered wastewater operator licensure examinations), this updated version of the handbook provides the necessary information to help the reader successfully study for and pass currently administered certification examinations. This volume also sets the stage for both Volumes 2 and 3 of the handbook, which are intended to prepare readers to sit for examinations for intermediate and advanced licensure (to Class II/I or Grade III/IV/V operator status).

As mentioned in the preface, each revised and updated volume has been expanded with additional information and example problems; for example, in Volume I we have added a chapter on basic microbiology. Moreover, whether you are an operator on the wet side, solid side, or maintenance side of treatment plant operations, a basic, but thorough, understanding of water hydraulics and pumping is necessary. In light of this, and based on user recommendations and other constructive criticism, we have not only upgraded but more than doubled the amount of water hydraulics and pumping information and real-world examples. Operational computation problems and examples in all major topic areas have been increased.

Every attempt has been made to format this presentation in a way that allows readers to build upon information presented, step by step and page by page, as they progress through the material. This handbook presents a basic summary of expert information available in many other sources (see Table 1.1). For additional information or more specific material on any of the topics presented, the user is advised to consult one or more of the references provided in Table 1.1. This fundamentallevel handbook assumes that the reader is an operator-in-training who is currently preparing to sit for his or her first or second level of licensure (i.e., Class IV/III or Grade I/II operator licensure examination).

Note: In this handbook, the term "fundamental level" is used to refer to those first two steps in licensure, which is the case in many states.

Those people with limited experience who do not qualify to sit for subject examinations may find the material helpful but should augment the content of this handbook with other, more in-depth training such as the various field-study programs available from state water control boards, short courses presented by various universities (e.g., Virginia Tech), or technical training provided by technical schools. It is important to point out that changes in technology and regulations occur frequently in the water pollution industry. Because of this, it is important for the licensure candidate to stay abreast of these changes.

The handbook is divided into chapters with sections covering specific topic areas. At the end of many chapters, a series of review question is included. Upon completion of these chapters, answer the review questions, and check your answers with those given in Appendix A. The final chapter of the handbook includes a comprehensive practice examination. The purpose of the comprehensive practice examination is to test the level of knowledge the reader has attained through study of this handbook, knowledge gained through on-the-job experience, and knowledge gained from other sources. A score of 75% or above is considered "good"—more importantly, any questions missed signal to the user the need to go back and reread and study again the applicable areas. By using the final examination as a measuring stick, readers can gauge their level of knowledge in all pertinent areas and determine strong and weak points. When you get right down to it, shouldn't that be the purpose of any examination? That is, the examination should measure one's level of knowledge in such a way as to point to the proper direction to take to attain an even greater level of knowledge. This seems like a worthwhile objective, and it is. Answers to the final review examination in Chapter 20 are provided in Appendix B. The formula sheet provided in Appendix C should be used for reference; it can and should be used when taking the final examination.

1.2 WASTEWATER TREATMENT: THE MODEL

Figure 1.1 shows a basic schematic or model of a wastewater treatment process that provides primary and secondary treatment using the activated sludge process. In secondary treatment, which provides biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal beyond what is achievable by

TABLE 1.1 RECOMMENDED REFERENCE MATERIAL

1. Small Water System Operation and Maintenance, 3rd ed., Kerri, K.D. et al., California State University, Sacramento, CA, 1995.

2. Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance, 4th ed., Kerri, K.D. et al., California State University, Sacramento, CA, 2002.

3. Water Treatment Plant Operation, Vols. I and II, Kerri, K.D. et al., California State University, Sacramento, CA, 2006 and 2008.

4. Basic Mathematics, Homestudy Course 3011-G, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, 1986.

5. Waterborne Disease Control, Homestudy Course 3014-G, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, 1981.

6. Water Fluoridation, Homestudy Course 3017-G, U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA, 1982.

7. Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Part 1. Water Sources, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 2003.

8. Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Part 2. Water Treatment, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 2003.

9. Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Part 3. Water Transmission and Distribution, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 2003.

10. Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations. Part 4. Water Quality, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 2003.

11. Reference Handbook: Basic Science Concepts and Applications, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 1980.

12. Handbook of Water Analysis, 2nd ed., HACH Chemical Company, P.O. Box 389, Loveland, CO, 1992.

13. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, EPA-6004-79-020, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, U.S. Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH, 1979, revised 1983.

14. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., current version.

15. Basic Math Concepts for Water and Wastewater Plant Operators, Price, J.K., Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, 1991.

16. Spellman's Standard Handbook for Wastewater Operators, Vols. 1-3, Spellman, F.R., Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 1999-2000.

17. The Handbookfor Waterworks Operator Certification, Vols. 1-3. Spellman, F.R. and Drinan, J., Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 2001.

18. Electricity, Electronics, Pumping, Water Hydraulics, Piping and Valves, and Blueprint Reading, Fundamentals for the Water and Wastewater Maintenance Operator Series, Spellman, F.R. and Drinan, J., Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 2000-2002.

19. Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning, Design, and Operation, 2nd ed., Qasim, S.R., Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 1999.

20. Simplified Wastewater Treatment Plant Operations, Haller, E., Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 1999.

21. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program, Vol. I, 5th ed., Kerri, K.D. et al., California State University, Sacramento, CA, 2006.

22. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program, Vol. II, 7th ed., Kerri, K.D. et al., California State University, Sacramento, CA, 2007.

Primary treatment

Secondary treatment

Biosolids disposal

Figure 1.1 Schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment process utilizing primary and secondary treatment with the activated sludge process.

Biosolids disposal

Figure 1.1 Schematic of a conventional wastewater treatment process utilizing primary and secondary treatment with the activated sludge process.

simple sedimentation, three approaches are commonly used: trickling filter, activated sludge, and oxidation ponds. We discuss these systems in detail later in the text. In Volume III of the series, we also discuss biological nutrient removal (BNR) and standard tertiary or advanced waste-water treatment.

The purpose of the model shown in Figure 1.1 is to allow readers to visually follow the wastewater treatment process step by step as it is presented in this text. The figure helps the reader understand how all the various unit processes sequentially follow and tie into each other. This format simply provides a pictorial presentation along with pertinent written information, enhancing the learning process.

The material in this handbook series is presented in a logical, step-by-step manner, which not only works to aid those who are studying to sit for licensure exams but is also helpful to those who use this handbook series as a ready reference or as a troubleshooting guide—that is, as an answer book. Speaking of answers, in reply to Sophocles' statement that opened this chapter, our counter response is that this handbook series makes information (answers) available; they only require detection. Detection is, of course, accomplished through use.

CHAPTER

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