Introduction

Microorganisms are significant in water and wastewater because of their roles in disease transmission and they are the primary agents of biological treatment in wastewater treatment. Thus, wastewater and other water practitioners must have considerable knowledge of the microbiological characteristics of water and wastewater. Simply put, wastewater operators cannot fully comprehend the principles of effective waste treatment without knowing the fundamental factors concerning microorganisms and their relationships to one another, their effect on the treatment process, and their impact on consumers, animals, and the environment.

Wastewater operators must know the principal groups of microorganisms found in water supplies (surface and groundwater) and waste-water, as well as those pathogenic organisms that must be treated, removed, or controlled during biological treatment processes. They must also be able to identify the organisms used as indicators of pollution and know their significance, as well as the methods used to enumerate the indicator organisms. This chapter provides microbiology fundamentals specifically targeting the needs of wastewater specialists.

Note: To have microbiological activity, the body of wastewater must have the appropriate environmental conditions. The majority of wastewater treatment processes, for example, are designed to operate as aerobic processes. The conditions required for aerobic operation include: (1) sufficient free, elemental oxygen; (2) sufficient organic matter (food); (3) sufficient water; (4) enough nitrogen and phosphorus (nutrients) to permit oxidation of the available carbon materials; (5) proper pH (6.5 to 9.0); and (6) lack of toxic materials.

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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