Dynamic Water Water In Motion

Compared to the study of fluid flow at rest, the study of fluid flow (water in motion) is much more complicated, but it is important to have an understanding of these principles because the water in a water treatment and distribution system is nearly always in motion. Discharge is the quantity of water passing a given point in a pipe or channel during a given period of time. It can be calculated by the formula:


Q = discharge in cubic feet per second (cfs).

V = water velocity in feet per second (fps or ft/s).

A = cross-section area of the pipe or channel in square feet (ft2).

The discharge can be converted from cfs to other units such as gallons per minute (gpm) or million gallons per day (MGD) by using the appropriate conversion factors.

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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