Centrifugal Pumps

The centrifugal pump (and its modifications) is the most widely used type of pumping equipment in water/wastewater operations. This type of pump is capable of moving high volumes of water/wastewater (and other liquids) in a relatively efficient manner. The centrifugal pump is very dependable, has relatively low maintenance requirements, and can be constructed out of a wide variety of construction materials. It is considered one of the most dependable systems available for water transfer.

10.3.1 Description

The centrifugal pump consists of a rotating element (impeller) sealed in a casing (volute). The rotating element is connected to a drive unit (motor/engine) that supplies the energy to spin the rotating element. As the impeller spins inside the volute casing, an area of low pressure is created in the center of the impeller. This low pressure allows the atmospheric pressure on the liquid in the supply tank to force the liquid up to the impeller. Because the pump will not operate if no low-pressure zone is created at the center of the impeller, it is important that the casing be sealed to prevent air from entering the casing.

Key Point: A centrifugal pump is a pumping mechanism whose rapidly spinning impeller imparts a high velocity to the water that enters, then converts that velocity to pressure upon exit.

To ensure that the casing is airtight, the pump employs some type of seal (mechanical or conventional packing) assembly at the point where the shaft enters the casing. This seal also includes lubrication, provided by water, grease, or oil, to prevent excessive wear.

From a hydraulic standpoint, note the energy changes that occur in the moving water. As water enters the casing, the spinning action of the impeller imparts (transfers) energy to the water. This energy is transferred to the water in the form of increased speed or velocity. The liquid is thrown outward by the impeller into the volute casing where the design of the casing allows the velocity of the liquid to be reduced, which, in turn, converts the velocity energy (velocity head) to pressure energy (pressure head). The process by which this change occurs is described later. The liquid then travels out of the pump through the pump discharge. The major components of the centrifugal pump are shown in Figure 10.7.

Discharge

Discharge

Figure 10.7 Centrifugal pump, major components.
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