The word bacteria (singular: bacterium) comes from the Greek word for "rod" or "staff," a shape characteristic of many bacteria. Recall that bacteria are single-celled microscopic organisms that multiply by splitting in two (binary fission). To multiply, autotrophs require carbon dioxide, and heterotrophs require organic compounds (dead vegetation, meat, sewage). Their energy comes from either sunlight, if they are pho-tosynthetic, or chemical reactions, if they are chemosynthetic. Bacteria are present in air, water, earth, rotting vegetation, and the intestines of animals. Human and animal wastes are the primary source of bacteria in water. These sources of bacterial contamination include runoff from feedlots, pastures, dog runs, and other land areas where animal wastes are deposited. Additional sources include seepage or discharge from septic tanks and sewage treatment facilities. Bacteria from these sources can enter wells that are either open at the land surface or do not have watertight casings or caps. Gastrointestinal disorders are common symptoms of most diseases transmitted by waterborne pathogenic bacteria. In wastewater treatment processes, bacteria are fundamental, especially in the degradation of organic matter, which takes place in trickling filters, activated biosolids processes, and biosolids digestion.

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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