NaCl, molar mass M = 58 g mol-1, the osmotic pressure increases as a result of dissociation as the number of moles increases (Rautenbach and Albrecht 1981). For complete dissociation of NaCl p = 2 follows, we obtain from Eq. (12.24b):

Glucose, molar mass M = 181 g mol 1. At the cut-off of nanofiltration membranes, we obtain from Eq. (12.24a):

Considering concentration polarization and increasing concentration of the feed in the direction of flow, the osmotic pressure increases. For particles like bacteria or colloids >10000 g mol-1, the influence of osmotic pressure is negligible.

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