Nutrients

Special attention is given to nitrogen and phosphorus compounds which cause the growth of cyanobacteria and microalgae in lakes, rivers and the sea (eutrophica-tion; see Chapter 10). The main dissolved components and their concentrations in municipal wastewater are presented in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3 Typical content of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus compounds in municipal wastewater (in mg L_1; Henze et al. 2002).

Nutrient

Concentration

Strong

Medium

Weak

Nitrogen

Snh, NH3 + NH4

50

25

12

SND, organic N.

35

15

8

Phosphorus

SPO4, orthophosphate

8

4

2

SorgP, organic

5

3

1

SPP, inorganic

10

5

3

Dissolved NH3 + NH4 values for industry and agriculture are given in Table 2.4 (Dombrowski et al. 1989). These concentrations are considerably higher than those for municipal wastewater, resulting in more difficult processing and higher costs.

Higher phosphorus concentrations are observed most frequently in effluents of the fertilizer industry, with up to SPO4 = 50 mg L-1 P.

Table 2.4 Typical content of nitrogen (NH3-N + NH4-N) in wastewater from industry and agriculture (Dombrowski et al. 1989).

Industry

SNH

Agriculture

SNH

(mg L-1)

(mg L-1)

Coke ovens

800-1000

Slaughter houses

80

Coal gasification

5-1000

Intensive livestock farming

Oil refineries

23.8-752.0

Swine

2300

Fertilizer

200-940

Cattle

500-2300

Glass

196

Utilization of animal carcasses

807

Cellulose and paper

264

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