Membrane Technology in Biological Wastewater Treatment 291

12.1 Introduction 291

12.2 Mass Transport Mechanism 293

12.2.1 Membrane Characteristics and Definitions 293

12.2.2 Mass Transport Through Non-porous Membranes 296

12.2.3 Mass Transport Through Porous Membranes 300

12.3 Mass Transfer Resistance Mechanisms 301

12.3.1 Preface 301

12.3.2 Mass Transfer Resistances 302

12.3.3 Concentration Polarization Model 303

12.3.4 Solution-diffusion Model and Concentration Polarization 306

12.3.5 The Pore Model and Concentration Polarization 308

12.4 Performance and Module Design 308

12.4.1 Membrane Materials 308

12.4.2 Design and Configuration of Membrane Modules 309

12.4.2.1 Preliminary Remarks 309

12.4.2.2 Dead-end Configuration 313

12.4.2.3 Submerged Configuration 314

12.4.2.4 Cross-flow Configuration 314

12.4.3 Membrane Fouling and Cleaning Management 315

12.4.3.1 Types of Fouling Processes 315

12.4.3.2 Membrane Cleaning Strategies 316

12.5 Membrane Bioreactors 318

12.5.1 Final Treatment (Behind the Secondary Clarifier) 318

12.5.2 Membrane Bioreactors in Aerobic Wastewater Treatment 319

12.5.3 Membrane Bioreactors and Nutrient Removal 323 Problems 324

References 327

0 0

Post a comment