Biodegradation of Special Organic Compounds 195

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Chlorinated Compounds 196

9.2.1 Chlorinated n-Alkanes, Particularly Dichloromethane and 1,2-Dichloroethane 196

9.2.1.1 Properties, Use, Environmental Problems and Kinetics 196

9.2.1.2 Treatment of Wastewater Containing DCM or DCA 198

9.2.2 Chlorobenzene 200

9.2.2.1 Properties, Use and Environmental Problems 200

9.2.2.2 Principles of Biological Degradation 200

9.2.2.3 Treatment of Wastewater Containing Chlorobenzenes 202

9.2.3 Chlorophenols 203

9.3 Nitroaromatics 204

9.3.1 Properties, Use, Environmental Problems and Kinetics 204

9.3.2 Treatment of Wastewater Containing 4-NP or 2,4-DNT 206

9.4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Mineral Oils 206

9.4.1 Properties, Use and Environmental Problems 206

9.4.2 Mineral Oils 207

9.4.3 Biodegradation of PAHs 209

9.4.3.1 PAHs Dissolved in Water 209

9.4.3.2 PAHs Dissolved in n-Dodecane Standard Emulsion 211

9.5 Azo Reactive Dyes 211

9.5.1 Properties, Use and Environmental Problems 211

9.5.2 Production of Azo Dyes in the Chemical Industry - Biodegradability of Naphthalene Sulfonic Acids 213

9.5.3 Biodegradation of Azo Dyes 215

9.5.3.1 Direct Aerobic Degradation 215

9.5.3.2 Anaerobic Reduction of Azo Dyes 215

9.5.3.3 Aerobic Degradation of Metabolites 216

9.5.4 Treatment of Wastewater Containing the Azo Dye Reactive

Black 5 216

9.6 Final Remarks 217 References 218

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