Aerobic Wastewater Treatment in Activated Sludge Systems 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Kinetic and Reaction Engineering Models With and Without Oxygen Limitation 119

6.2.1 Batch Reactors 119

6.2.1.1 With High Initial Concentration of Bacteria 119

6.2.1.2 With Low Initial Concentration of Bacteria 122

6.2.2 Chemostat 122

6.2.3 Completely Mixed Activated Sludge Reactor 125

6.2.3.1 Preliminary Remarks 125

6.2.3.2 Mean Retention Time, Recycle Ratio and Thickening Ratio as Process Parameters 126

6.2.3.3 Sludge Age as Parameter 128

6.2.4 Plug Flow Reactor 130

6.2.5 Completely Mixed Tank Cascades With Sludge Recycle 132

6.2.6 Flow Reactor With Axial Dispersion 134

6.2.7 Stoichiometric and Kinetic Coefficients 136

6.2.8 Comparison of Reactors 137

6.3 Retention Time Distribution in Activated Sludge Reactors 138

6.3.1 Retention Time Distribution 138

6.3.2 Completely Mixed Tank 140

6.3.3 Completely Mixed Tank Cascade 140

6.3.4 Tube Flow Reactor With Axial Dispersion 141

6.3.5 Comparison Between Tank Cascades and Tube Flow Reactors 142

6.4 Technical Scale Activated Sludge Systems for Carbon Removal 144 Problems 146

References 149

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