Aerobic Treatment with Biofilm Systems 151

7.1 Biofilms 151

7.2 Biofilm Reactors for Wastewater Treatment 152

7.2.1 Trickling Filters 152

7.2.2 Submerged and Aerated Fixed Bed Reactors 154

7.2.3 Rotating Disc Reactors 156

7.3 Mechanisms for Oxygen Mass Transfer in Biofilm Systems 158

7.4 Models for Oxygen Mass Transfer Rates in Biofilm Systems 159

7.4.1 Assumptions 159

7.4.2 Mass Transfer Gas/Liquid is Rate-limiting 159

7.4.3 Mass Transfer Liquid/Solid is Rate-limiting 160

7.4.4 Biological Reaction is Rate-limiting 160

7.4.5 Diffusion and Reaction Inside the Biofilm 160

7.4.6 Influence of Diffusion and Reaction Inside the Biofilm and of Mass Transfer Liquid/Solid 163

7.4.7 Influence of Mass Transfer Rates at Gas Bubble and Biofilm Surfaces 164

Problems 164 References 166

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