Units Of Measure

A.1 Abbreviations for SI Units

Abbreviation

SI Unit

Abbreviation

SI Unit

°C

degree Celsius

kWh

kilowatthour

cal

calorie

L

liter

cm

centimeter

m

meter

cm2

square centimeter

m2

square meter

cm3

cubic centimeter

m3

cubic meter

d

day

mg

milligram

g

gram

Mg

megagram (1000 kg or

h

hour

metric ton)

ha

hectare

MJ

megajoule

J

joule

mL

milliliter

K

kelvin

mm

millimeter

kg

kilogram

MPa

megapascal

kJ

kilojoule

N

newton

km

kilometer

Pa

pascal

kN

kilonewton

s

second

kPa

kilopascal

W

watt

kW

kilowatt

Wastewater Sludge Processing, By Izrail S. Turovskiy and P. K. Mathai Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

A.2 Abbreviations for U.S. Customary Units

Abbreviation

U.S. Customary Unit Abbreviation

U.S. Customary Unit

ac

acre

gpm

gallons Per minute

Btu

British thermal unit

hr

hour

cfm

cubic foot Per minute

hp

horsepower

(ft3/min)

hp-hr

horsep ower-hour

cfs

cubic foot Per second

in.

inch

(ft3/sec)

lb

pound

cy

cubic yard (yd3)

MG

million gallons

d

day

mgd

million gallons per day

°F

degree Fahrenheit

min

minute

ft

foot

scfm

standard cubic foot per

ft2

square foot

minute

ft3

cubic foot

ton

2000 lb mass (short ton)

gal

gallon

wk

week

gPd

gallons Per day

yr

year

A.3 Conversion from SI Units" to U.S. Customary Units

Multiply SI Units

To Obtain U.S. Customary Units

Name

Symbol by

Symbol

Name

centimeter

cm 0.3937

in.

inch

cubic meter

m3 35.31

ft3

cubic foot

1.308

cy

cubic yard

264.2

gal

gallon

cubic meters Per

m3/d 0.1835

gPm

gallons per minute

day

264.2

gPd

gallons per day

2.642 x 10-4

mgd

million gallons per day

cubic meters Per

m3/s 22.83

mgd

million gallons per day

second

degree Celsius

°C °C x 1.82 + 32

°F

degree Fahrenheit

K K x 1.8 - 459.67

°F

degree Fahrenheit

gram

g 2.205 x 10-3

lb

pound

grams Per cubic

g/m3 8.34

lb/MG

pounds per million

meter

gallons

grams Per

g/kg 1.0 x 10-3

lb/lb

pounds per pound

kilogram

2.0

lb/ton

pounds per ton

hectare

ha 2.471

ac

acre

joule

J 0.2388

cal

calorie

1.0

W-sec

Watt-second

kelvin

2.777 x 10-4

W-hr

Watt-hour

kilogram

kg 2.2.5

lb

pound

kilograms Per

kg/m3 6.243 x 10-2

lb/ft3

pounds per cubic foot

cubic meter

1.686

lb/cy

pound per cubic yard

kilograms Per

kg/m3 • d 6.242 x 10-2

lb/ft3-d

pounds per cubic foot

cubic meter

per day

Per day

A.3 Continued

Multiply SI Units

To Obtain U.S. Customary Units

Name

Symbol

by

Symbol

Name

62.42

lb/103 ft3-d

pounds per thousand cubic foot per day

kilograms per

kg/d

2.205

lb/lb

pounds per pound

day

kilograms per

kg/ha

0.8922

lb/ac

pounds per acre

hectare

kilograms per

kg/m2

0.2049

lb/ft2

pounds per square foot

square meter

kilojoule

kJ

0.9478

Btu

British thermal unit

kilojoules per

kJ/kg

0.4303

Btu/lb

British thermal unit per

kilogram

pound

kilometer

km

0.6214

mile

mile

kilopascal

kPa

0.145

psi

pounds per square inch

(gage)

(gage)

kilowatt

kW

1.341

hp

horsepower

liter

L

3.532 x 10-2

ft3

cubic foot

0.2642

gal

gallons

liters per

L/s

15.85

gpm

gallons per minute

second

megagram

Mg

1.1.5

ton

ton (short)

(1000kg or

metric ton)

megajoule

MJ

0.3725

hp-hr

horsepower-hour

0.2777

kWh

kilowatthour

meter

m

3.281

ft

foot

1.094

yd

yard

meters per

m/s

3.281

fps

feet per second

second

milligrams per

mg/L

8.34

ll/MG

pounds per million gallons

liter

milliliters per

mL/m3

0.1337

ft3/MG

cubic feet per

cubic meter

million gallons

millimeter

mm

3.937 x 10-2

in.

inch

newton

N

0.2248

lb

pound force

pascal

Pa

1.450 x 10-4

psi

pounds per square inch

square

km2

247.1054

ac

acre

kilometer

0.3851

mi2

square mile

square meter

m2

10.764

ft2

square foot

1.196

yd2

square yard

watt

W

3.412

Btu/h

British thermal units per hour

0.738

ft-lb/sec

foot-pounds per second

" Some of the units listed are metric units commonly used in environmental engineering.

" Some of the units listed are metric units commonly used in environmental engineering.

A.4 Conversion from U.S. Customary Units to SI Units"

Multiply U.S. Customary Units To Obtain SI Units

Name

Symbol

by

Symbol

Name

acre

ac

0.4047

ha

hectare

bar

bar

100.0

kPa

kilopascal

British thermal

Btu

1.055

kJ

kilojoule

units

British thermal

Btu/lb

2.326

kJ/kg

kilojoules per

units per

kilogram

pound

calorie

cal

4.187

J

joule

cubic feet per

ft3/MG

7.482

mL/m3

milliliters per cubic

million

meter

gallons

cubic feet per

cfs (ft3/s)

2.832 x 10-2

m3/s

cubic meters per

second

second

cubic foot

ft3

2.832 x 10-2

m3

cubic meter

28.32

L

liter

cubic yard

cy

0.7646

m3

cubic meter

degree

°F

0.5556(°F - 32)

°C

degree Celsius

Fahrenheit

(°F + 459.67)

K

Kelvin

degree Rankin

°R

0.5556

K

Kelvin

feet per second

fps

0.3048

m/s

meters per second

foot

ft

0.3048

m

meter

gallon

gal

3.785 x 10-3

m3

cubic meter

3.785

L

liter

gallons per day

gPd

3.785 x 10-3

m3/d

cubic meters per day

gallons per

gPm

5.451

m3/d

cubic meters per day

minute

horsepower

hp

7.457

kW

kilowatt

horsepower-

hp-hr

2.685

MJ

megajoule

hour

kiowatthour

kWh

3.60

MJ

megajoule

mile

mile

1.609

km

kilometer

million gallons

MG

3.785 x 103

m3

cubic meter

million gallons

mgd

3.785 x 103

m3/d

cubic meters per day

per day

4.383

m3/s

cubic meters per second

pound (force)

lbf

4.448

N

newton

pound (mass)

lb

0.4536

kg

kilogram

pounds per

lb/ac-d

1.121

kg/ha • d

kilograms per hectare

acre per day

per day

pounds per

lb/gal

0.1198

kg/L

kilograms per liter

gallon

pounds per

lb/MG

0.1198

g/m3

grams per cubic mete

million

0.1198

mg/L

milligrams per liter

gallons

UNITS OF MEASURE A.4 Continued

Multiply U.S. Customary Units To Obtain SI Units

UNITS OF MEASURE A.4 Continued

Multiply U.S. Customary Units To Obtain SI Units

Name

Symbol

by

Symbol

Name

pounds per

psi

6895

Pa

pascal

square

inch (force)

pounds per

lb/103 ft3

16.02 x 10-3

kg/m3

kilograms per cubic

thousand

meter

cubic feet

square foot

ft2

9.290 x 10-2

m2

square meter

square inch

in2

645.2

mm2

square millimeter

square mile

mi2

2.590

km2

square kilometer

square yard

yd2

0.8361

m2

square meter

ton (short)

ton

907.2

kg

kilogram

tons per acre

tons/ac

0.2242

kg/m2

kilograms per square meter

2.242

Mg/ha

megagrams per hectare

yard

yd

0.9144

m

meter

a Some of the units listed are metric units commonly used in environmental engineering.

a Some of the units listed are metric units commonly used in environmental engineering.

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  • adaldrida
    What units of measure are used in the wastewater industry?
    3 months ago

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