Thickening And Dewatering

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Conditioning

3.2.1 Factors affecting conditioning Source

Solids concentration Particle size and distribution pH and alkalinity

Surface charge and degree of hydration Physical factors

3.2.2 Chemical conditioning Tests for conditioner selection Sludge conditioning studies Inorganic chemical conditioning Organic polyelectrolytes

3.2.3 Other conditioning methods Nonchemical conditioning aids Thermal conditioning Freeze-thaw conditioning Elutriation

3.3 Thickening

3.3.1 Gravity thickening Design considerations Design criteria Operational considerations

3.3.2 Dissolved air flotation thickening Process design considerations

3.3.3 Centrifugal thickening

3.3.4 Gravity belt thickening

3.3.5 Rotary drum thickening

3.3.6 Miscellaneous thickening methods

Wastewater Sludge Processing, By Izrail S. Turovskiy and P. K. Mathai Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Combined thickening in primary clarifiers Lagoons

Emerging technologies 3.4 Dewatering

3.4.1 Centrifugal dewatering

3.4.2 Belt filter press

3.4.3 Pressure filter press Fixed-volume recessed plate filter press Variable-volume recessed plate filter press Performance

Design considerations

3.4.4 Drying beds Conventional sand drying beds Paved drying beds Artificial media drying beds Vacuum-assisted drying beds

3.4.5 Other dewatering methods Vacuum filters

Screw presses Reed beds Drying lagoons

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