Contents

Preface xi

About the Authors xii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction, 2

1.2 40 CFR Part 503 Regulation, 2

1.2.1 General Provisions, 3

1.2.2 Land Application, 5

1.2.3 Surface Disposal, 11

1.2.4 Pathogen and Vector Attraction Reduction, 18

1.2.5 Incineration, 27

2 Sludge Quantities and Characteristics 30

2.1 Types of Sludge, 31

2.1.1 Primary Sludge, 32

2.1.2 Secondary Sludge, 32

2.1.3 Chemical Sludge, 32

2.1.4 Other Wastewater Residuals, 33

2.2 Sludge Quantity, 34

2.2.1 Primary Sludge, 34

2.2.2 Secondary Sludge, 36

2.2.3 Activated Sludge, 36

2.2.4 Attached Growth System Sludge, 42

2.2.5 Chemical Sludge, 43

2.3 Sludge Characteristics, 44

2.3.1 Primary Sludge, 44

2.3.2 Activated Sludge, 46

2.3.3 Physical and Biological Properties, 47 2.4 Mass Balance, 49

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