In Russia, long-term research and development of sludge treatment prior to land application was conducted with the principal author's participation and under his direct management (Turovskiy, 1999). The following organizations took part in that research: All-Union Research Institute of Water Supply and Sewage System, Russian Municipal Academy, Institute of Municipal Hygiene, Research Institute of Hygiene, Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Institute of Fertilizers and Agricultural Soil, Science Medicine Institutes, Agricultural Institutes of the Former Soviet Republics, and several wastewater treatment plants. The studies were performed with various types of sludge, such as raw sludge, aerobically digested sludge, anaerobic meso-philic and thermophilic digested sludge, mechanically dewatered sludge, and sludge dried on drying beds, from more than 100 wastewater treatment plants. Parameters analyzed included pathogenic bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, and helminth ova.
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