In the 1900s growing amounts of trash required many industrialized societies to begin developing waste disposal systems. At first, cities simply hired workers to rake up trash from the streets on a regular basis and dump it anywhere they found convenient—in
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Categories (Before Recycling), 2007
rural areas, in wetlands, or in the ocean. Pig farms were also commonly used to dispose of cooked and uncooked food wastes, and people often burned the balance of their trash in their backyards.
The first public incinerators were built in the late 1800s in Great Britain and the United States, and in the next twenty years more of these were built. Many cities also established open-air dumps, where refuse was piled and sometimes burned. The incineration of garbage, however, produced prodigious amounts of smoke and soot, and the rotting garbage in open-air dumps smelled and attracted rats and other vermin. By 1945 many cities in the United States had replaced these open-air dumps and incinerators with more sanitary landfills, in which layers of garbage were covered with soil to prevent odors and avoid the ash and air pollution problems caused by burning. Small, private companies often performed the job of collecting and disposing of municipal garbage.
During this period, the U.S. government also began to regulate the disposal of municipal garbage. In 1934 the U.S. Supreme Court banned dumping garbage into the ocean. Beginning in the 1950s the United States passed a series of clean air acts, beginning with the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, which prohibited the open burning of garbage and sought to improve the quality of air in American cities. In 1965 Congress passed the Solid Waste Disposal Act to promote better management of solid wastes. The act authorized the U.S. Public Health Service to regulate solid waste disposal and recycling, provided financial assistance to states, and funded research on better methods of waste disposal. In 1970 President Richard Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which thereafter became the central federal agency regulating issues relating to waste management.
The 1970s and 1980s brought more federal regulation of waste disposal. The Resource Recovery Act of 1970 sought to encourage recycling and energy recovery from wastes and authorized an investigation into the disposal of hazardous wastes. A few years later Congress passed the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, which imposed various requirements on hazardous waste disposal. Additional restrictions were imposed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. Many existing landfills could not meet these new safety regulations, and by the end of the 1980s almost two-thirds of the nation's landfills had shut down. This led to a renaissance in recycling, as many cities and localities instituted curbside recycling programs to try to limit the amount of garbage that had to be discarded.
Was this article helpful?
This work on 2012 will attempt to note them allfrom the concepts andinvolvement by the authors of the Bible and its interpreters and theprophecies depicted in both the Hopi petroglyphs and the Mayan calendarto the prophetic uttering of such psychics, mediums, and prophets asNostradamus, Madame Blavatsky, Edgar Cayce, and Jean Dixon.