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Kindle Money Mastery

If you have ever wanted to be able to be an author for a living or as a side hobby, this is the online course for you! This course gives you access to all kinds of ebook and materials on how to make the most of the Amazon Kindle Store to make a huge amount of money! You don't need to be a creative genius, spend Hours on end writing, or even know how to use Kindle! All that you have to do is follow the instructions in this course by Stefan Pylarinos. Stefan built this course based on what he does for a living Every Single DAY. This is REAL information that has been perfected in a real business Why would this NOT work for you? This is how Stefan makes his money Why not you? Just think You can make living money writing Kindle books. And you can learn all about how to get started making money with K Money Mastery! Read more...

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Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of blog have asked me about this manual, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I decided to buy a copy myself to find out what all the fuss was about.

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Rune Palerud Bj0rn Gulliksen Torleiv Brattegard

A checklist of the known marine macro-organisms (larger than ca. 1 mm) in the waters off Svalbard has been compiled based on the data base of species records maintained by Akvaplan-niva, in Tromso, Norway, in collaboration with the Norwegian College of Fisheries at the University of Tromso. Currently accepted species names are cross-referenced to the list of 137 published and unpublished sources. The species list comprises a total of 1708 marine species from 18 phyla. The Crustacea have the greatest species diversity with 467 species, followed by the Mollusca with 252 species and the Annelida with 254 species. 1415 of the species are recorded only in the coastal region of the main cluster of islands in the Svalbard archipelago, 29 are recorded only at Bjornoya, and 264 species are recorded in both parts of the archipelago. A total of 1708 marine species (larger than ca. 1 mm) from 18 phyla have been extracted from 137 published and unpublished works. The Crustacea, numbering 467...

Introduction and background

Underwater light is similar in many coastal and freshwater environments. Figure 1 shows an example of underwater UVR and PAR spectra at several depths in a typical coastal ocean site (San Diego, California unpublished data provided by J.H. Morrow). Water absorbs strongly in the red and longer wavelengths (> 600 nm) with the result that the right side of the curves shows rapid attenuation with depth. Photosynthetic pigments in phytoplankton (such as chlorophyll a) absorb blue (450 nm) wavelengths most strongly but phyto- Figure 1. Typical coastal ocean underwater spectra of downwelling cosine irradiance with moderate levels of CDOM and algae. San Diego coastal waters, 5 miles offshore (5 January 2000), using Biospherical Instruments PRR-800 multichannel reflectance profiler (J.H. Morrow, unpublished data). This spectrum is plotted on a log scale to show similar percentage changes over the range of intensity that spans seven decades of magnitude. Except for the peak around 685 nm...

Unique Feature For Ecosystem Engineering

In this section I propose a specific ecological situation that might well be reserved for the term ecosystem engineering. There is a feedback aspect of the species-environment interaction, as expressed by Solomon (1949), that hasn't garnered much apparent attention by the main proponents of ecosystem engineering, and is completely distinct from the keystone species concept. However, Gurney and Lawton (1996), Wright et al. (2004), and Cuddington and Hastings (2004) address this feedback feature quite well, and it is this feature, or some general representation of it, that I propose be reserved for ecosystem engineering. The feedback idea has also been addressed quite well by Cuddington et al. (unpublished), and my aim here is to present an abbreviated and specific pedagogical version of that latter model. Once again, my goal is conceptual clarity, and I follow the approach of Cuddington et al. (unpublished), but for only a single exemplary case with an evolutionary extension. In...

Results and Discussion

Characterization of nodule cell cycle activity. To reveal cell cycle activity we have been studying the expression pattern of several cell cycle marker genes during nodule development by in situ hybridization, RT-PCR analysis and by construction of transgenic M. truncatula plants carrying cell cycle gene promoter -GUS fusions. We identified a set of genes that were induced during dedifferentiation reactivation of cortical cells (Figure 1). They included Medsa cycA2 whose cell cycle function was described recently (Roudier et al. 2000), eyeD3-I (F. Foucher, unpublished), two E2F transcription factors required for S phase entry and function (J. Gyorgyey, unpublished), the S-phase-specific histone H3 and Medsa cycB2 (Savoure et al 1995). All of these genes, except cycD3-I that was repressed when cell proliferation started, exhibited a constitutive expression during nodule development. Although the transcripts were present, their spatial distribution displayed differences. For...

Other Potential Climate Change Effects in the Oceans

Increasing storm intensity, including tropical storms (hurricanes, cyclones), will increase the frequency and severity of disturbance inflicted on coastal communities such as mangroves, coral reefs, and rocky shores. There is already evidence that a progressive decadal increase in deep-water wave heights and periods have increased breaker heights and elevated storm wave run-up levels on beaches in the US Pacific Northwest (Allan and Komar, 2006). This of course can have substantial effects on disturbance regimes on the shore that surely will affect the structure of coastal ecological communities (Dayton and Tegner, 1984 Underwood, 1998). Larger, stronger storms are also expected to increase beach erosion. The resultant increased erosion of the shore can also affect coastal geomorphology, increase sedimentation, and therefore affect the ecology of the shore. A study on the Oregon shore that looked at effects of a cliff collapse (and with it highway 101) and reconstruction showed how...

Annex 6A1 QC checklists

The checklist below indicates the types of checks and comparisons that can be performed and is not intended to be exhaustive. Supplemental Reports, Contact Reports, or other documents may be used to report detailed information on the checks conducted. For example, a Supplemental Report could provide information on the variables or sub-variables checked, comparisons made, conclusions that were drawn and rationale for conclusions, sources of information (published, unpublished, meetings, etc.) consulted, and corrective actions required.

Other sources of error in SADCP velocities

Now that the problem of heading error has been solved, and position fixes accurate to 10 m or better are widely available, other sources of error in SADCP-measured currents gain attention and significance. Alderson and Cunningham (1999) show that the hitherto ignored errors caused by pitch and roll bias (most systems do not use any pitch or roll estimates in vector-averaging the single-ping velocity profiles) are significant in applications such as the calculation of transport through Drake Passage. They also note that errors due to correlations among pitch, roll and heave (Kosro, 1985) may now be detectable. Firing (unpublished data), using pitch and roll measured by a 3DF and heave from the single-ping vertical velocity component measured by the ADCP, has estimated such errors as occasionally reaching 5cms-1 during rough weather on a North Atlantic WHP cruise of the RV Knorr. Another rough-weather error, a much larger bias in the direction of motion of the ship, was identified more...

Opportunities for mitigation

Reducing the application of inorganic N fertilizers has traditionally been considered as the most successful option for lowering net emission of N2O. However, source partitioning by Baggs et al (unpublished data) suggests that nitrifier denitrification may be increased under low-N conditions, and therefore lower N application may not necessarily be the most appropriate strategy in all systems. There are 'new' options being proposed for mitigation of greenhouse gases that may also hold the potential for enhancing C sequestration. One of these is application of biochar, which is a good example of where the ability to determine the N2O source becomes essential. Although the mechanism by which biochar can lower net emission of N2O is still open to debate (Renner, 2007 Gaunt and Lehmann, 2008), its chemical composition and structure suggest that it may be due to uptake of NH4+ into the char structure, and a change in pH, rather than by enhancing the reduction of N2O to N2. If this is the...

Atmospheric properties and feedbacks

Arid lands are significant determinants of the earth's albino and thus of its global radiation balance. Albedo and spectral characteristics of the surface are influenced not just by total plant cover, but also by the different properties of woody plants versus grass cover, so changes in plant functional group affect this global property. Arid lands are also significant contributors of dust (Pewe 1981 Pye 1987), which influences both the radiation balance of the atmosphere and the transport of N, S, Fe and other minerals over long distances. The extent to which changes in biota influence soil vulnerability to wind movement will determine the importance of these changes to those atmospheric properties. Desert soils, serving as possible sites for carbonate formation and having low organic matter content, represent important potential sinks for atmospheric carbon. It has also been suggested that deserts contribute significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere (due to termites), and...

A word about methodology

Although a number of reviews have examined how carbohydrate accumulation may modify genetic regulation of both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic genes (Sheen, 1994 Koch, 1996), the specific function of CO2 in the subsequent change in carbohydrate signaling has not been fully elucidated. Unpublished data for maize grown in SPAR (soil-plant-atmosphere research) units indicated that approximately 5 of the genome responded to elevated CO2 (750 ppm) (Soo-Hyung Kim, 2005 personal communication). However, it was difficult to link this result to physiological responses, partly because many of these genes encoded unknown or putative functional proteins. For Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to higher CO2 in a growth chamber experiment, transcription levels of some non-photosynthetic genes for growth, development, and stress were increased (Bae & Sicher, 2004). In contrast, a separate experiment on A. thaliana indicated that different environmental

Guatemala methodology

A bibliographical review of published literature and unpublished (grey) material on these species in Guatemala was carried out in the USAC, the UVG, various governmental institutions (CONAP, INAB), international organizations (World Bank, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) and NGOs such as Fundacion Defensores de la Naturaleza, CECON and TNC. Information about each species in Guatemala was compiled and organized under the following headings taxonomy, habitat, distribution, management, conservation, threats, threat category and references. These species files will be incorporated into the IUCN Red List database, to ensure the information gathered is as widely available as possible.

Effects of [CO2 on biomass and grain yield

It would be expected (see arguments above on photosynthetic capacity) that yield increases resulting from elevated CO2 are less with smaller N supply. While this was the direction of the interaction in both FACE and the multiple-site OTC experiments, it was not significant. Since CO2 stimulates root growth (Chaudhuri et al., 1990b Wall et al., 1996), it may enable plants to capture more N in the field. When the total amount of N is strictly controlled, however, there is a strong interaction for example, increased spring wheat grain yields resulting from elevated CO2 in controlled environment experiments were 5, 10 and 18 with N supplies of 4, 9 and 24 g m-2, respectively (Theobald et al., unpublished). Theory also predicts that the degree of stimulation will be less at lower light intensities, but this has not been explicitly tested in wheat. Interactions with temperature and water status are more complex and are discussed below.

Harnessing The Drilosphere To Restore Ecosystem Functions In Degraded Soils

Management of ecosystem engineers is an important option in ecosystem restoration (Byers et al. 2006). Reconstitution of drilospheres,2 particularly, is an action to consider when re-creating or restoring soils, and several options already have been proposed to achieve this purpose (Senapati et al. 1999). The FBO (Fertilisation Bio Organique) patented method3 used in tree plantations creates hot spots of high fertility where organic residues of different qualities are buried in a specific order in the soil and inoculated with appropriate earthworms. A recent application of this method in India and China has allowed biodiversity of invertebrate communities and soil aggregation to significantly improve, while the organic tea thus produced had a significantly improved gustative quality (Pradeep Panigrahi unpublished data Patrick Lavelle, Jun Dai, Nuria Ruiz-Camacho, Elena Velasquez unpublished data).

Gas Hydrate at the Reservoir and Accumulation Scale

Gas Hydrate Accumulations In-Place Natural Gas Resources Estimates of the amount of gas within known and inferred gas hydrate accumulations. * Includes associated free-gas. ** Unpublished industry reports Table 2. Gas Hydrate Accumulations In-Place Natural Gas Resources Estimates of the amount of gas within known and inferred gas hydrate accumulations. * Includes associated free-gas. ** Unpublished industry reports

Scaling effects of shelterbuilders

If shelter-building has a compounding effect on plant damage by attracting more herbivores, which has been shown in some systems (Marquis et al. 2002, Marquis and Lill unpublished data), and damage influences plant fitness, then shelter-builders have the potential to alter plant community structure. If plant damage is concentrated on a dominant competitor, engineers could indirectly increase plant community diversity (or decrease diversity if focused on inferior competitors). A variety of studies have documented the strong engineering effects of herbivores on plant communities (e.g., Wilby et al. 2001), but most of these have focused on soil disturbance by animals and its influence on recruitment. Few shelter-builders appear to routinely defoliate plants (outbreaking species in Table 6.1 are exceptions), but the successive use of shelters by other herbivores has the potential to compound plant damage over the season.

Recovery of postLate Ordovician extinction graptolites a western North American perspective

In their discussions of the Late Ordovician graptolite near-extinction, both Melchin & Mitchell (1991) and Koren (1991) indicated a need to know precise patterns of graptoloid occurrences in the extinction interval on local and regional scales. Melchin & Mitchell (1991, p. 147) drew attention to different stratigraphic range patterns among Late Ordovician graptolites observed in different areas of the world. Recent field work in central Nevada by S. C. Finney and his students and by Finney and the author together has revealed new graptolite occurrences relevant to the pattern of near-extinction and reradiation after that biotic crisis in that area. The Late Ordovician biotic crisis observed in studies in the Selwyn Basin, northwestern Canada has been summarized by Wang et al. (1993). Melchin reported on graptolite occurrences before and after the near-extinction in the area covered by that study (see Melchin in Wang et al. 1993). This new information, some of it unpublished, and...

Lessons from other industries

Fig. 8.4 Cutting toughness (R) of plant tissues showing effects of (a) turgor and (b) boiling steaming. Boiling times are given in minutes (based in part on Parker et al. (2000), with unpublished data from A. J. Harvey, 1996). CWC, Chinese water Fig. 8.4 Cutting toughness (R) of plant tissues showing effects of (a) turgor and (b) boiling steaming. Boiling times are given in minutes (based in part on Parker et al. (2000), with unpublished data from A. J. Harvey, 1996). CWC, Chinese water

Classification of plant defences

Another classification of defences contrasts constitutive defences, which are always present, with inducible ones that are produced in response to attack. Most research on inducible defences has been conducted on species from outside the tropics. However, Agrawal & Rutter (1998) compiled published and unpublished data that provided support for ant-based defences sometimes being inducible. These are largely reports of increases in volume or sugar concentrations in secretions from extra-floral nectaries in response to real or simulated herbivory. Pubescence in Endospermum labios from New Guinea may be induced by attack from stem-boring insects (Letourneau & Barbosa 1999). The extra hairs on the plant's surface may interfere with oviposition by more borers. Other inducible defences, such as the production of proteinase inhibitors, seem likely to occur in at least some tropical tree species.

Climatic data and spatial approach

Rainfall and temperature monthly time series of the Italian hydrological service (Servizio Idrografico e Mareografico Nazionale, SIMN), have been considered (SIMN 1916-2000). A total of 126 rainfall gauges were finally selected from among 817 gauges (SIMN 1976) (Fig. 1). The gauges were selected to obtain a sufficient gauge density and spatial continuity mainly of rainfall and secondly of temperature, covering the maximum monitoring period with the minimum of data gaps 41 of the selected gauges were also temperature gauges. The unpublished data are available courtesy of the Naples, Bari and Catanzaro SIMN departments. Data before 1915 were collected by Eredia (1918). The time series can be considered almost complete only from 1921 to 2001, the so- called main study period (MSP). Climatic time series utilized by previous authors (Polemio & Casarano 2004 Polemio et al. 2004a) have been enlarged, reducing gap percentages, and have been improved afterwards by homogeneity evaluation.

Response to Nutrient Addition and Warming

As expected, addition of fertilizer has almost always led to increase in nutrient uptake, tissue nutrient mass, and net primary production. Tissue turnover rates generally have increased because of community changes toward increased proportion of species with short leaf-longevity. In several cases, fertilizer addition has also led to transient responses in biomass. For instance, while the biomass increased during the first two years of fertilizer addition to subarctic, northern Swedish forest-floor vegetation (Parsons et al, 1994), the response did not continue after five years (Press et al, 1998a) because the grass Calamagrostis lapponica expanded strongly and affected growth of dwarf shrubs and mosses negatively (Potter et al, 1995 Press et al, 1998a). Similarly, the canopy density and mass of the deciduous Betula nana increased in Alaskan tussock tundra over nine years of fertilizer application and reduced the biomass of most other species (Chapin et al, 1995). As a result of the...

Connecticut River Case Study

Figure 5-2 highlights the location of the Lower Connecticut River case study watersheds (catalog units) identified in this major river basin as a major urban-industrial area affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). In this chapter, information is presented to characterize long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Lower Connecticut River. Data sources include USEPA's national water quality database (STORET), published technical literature, and unpublished technical reports (grey literature) obtained from local agency sources.

Hudson Raritan Estuary Case Study

With a length of 306 miles and a drainage area of 13,370 square miles, the Hudson River ranks seventy-first among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length. On the basis of mean annual discharge (1941-1970), the Hudson ranks twenty-sixth (19,500 cfs) of large rivers in the United States (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 6-2 highlights the location of the Hudson-Raritan estuary case study catalog units identified by major urban-industrial areas affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). This chapter presents long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Hudson-Raritan estuary. Data sources include USEPA's national water quality database (STORET), published technical literature, and unpublished technical reports (grey literature) obtained from local agency sources.

Species specific differences and cell size aspects

It is generally believed that small organisms are more susceptible to DNA damage induction than larger cells. Garcia-Pichel 114 calculated that cells < 2 m cannot efficiently use UVR-absorbing compounds as sunscreens. In apparent support of this, Joux et al. 68 showed that CPD accumulation in four of five marine bacterial isolates was similar to damage accumulation in a DNA solution. Smaller organisms, therefore, would have less ability to protect themselves from UV-B induced damage. Karentz et al. 9 found a positive trend between the surface-to-volume ratio and photoproduct induction in cultures of Antarctic phytoplankton showing that smaller cells accumulated DNA damage faster than larger cells (Figure 1). If this is generally applicable, open ocean plankton would be highly vulnerable to DNA damage induction. Marine bacteria and tiny phototrophic plankton, such as prochlorophytes and Synechococ-cus spp., form the majority of the organisms in (oligotrophic) tropical marine waters,...

Livestock Production Systems

In arid rangelands, livestock mobility is key to successful maintenance of vibrant livestock and wildlife populations. These regions have tended to be the most controversial areas of livestock use. However, a series of studies does show that the extent of environmental degradation has been exaggerated. Three different works demonstrate this point. R. Mearns (unpublished data) concluded that abiotic factors such as rainfall, rather than livestock density, determine long-term primary plant production and vegetation cover. Tucker et al. (1991) demonstrated the resilience of arid lands using satellite imagery. Their work showed movement of the southern belt of the Sahara depends on rainfall and that the southern boundary of the Sahara is moving north. This movement is occurring after the long droughts which occurred in the 1970s and is contrary to how we normally view the resource base in this region. de Haan et al. (1997) demonstrated that, in the Sahel, livestock productivity in terms...

Sequestering Soil Carbon

The potential for carbon sequestration in SOM will likely be higher in the first few years than in succeeding years. Decomposition of SOM is rapid the first few years after cultivation is initiated, and then it slows as it reaches a new equilibrium. The reverse is likely to occur with sequestration. If tillage is reduced or eliminated, there will be some C sequestered, but the amounts sequestered in succeeding years will likely slow as N, P, and possibly other nutrients become less available. For instance, C.A. Robinson (West Texas A& M University, unpublished data, 1996) sampled four sites on Pullman silty clay loam, a fine, mixed thermic Torrertic Paleustoll, located in a semi-arid region near Claude, TX (Figure 14.2). One site had been cropped to dryland wheat for more than 50 years with occasional fallow years. Tillage was primarily performed with a tandem disk plow. During the last few years before sampling in 1993, anhydrous ammonia at the rate of 22 kg ha-1 was applied in...

Preliminary Field Trials

In seven-week-old barley and spring wheat plants in MB, tiller number per plant increased by 47 and 27 , respectively, compared with plants in the air-treated or control soils (Figure 3) (Kettlewell, Layzell, unpublished). Similarly, in eight-week-old barley in NS the number of heads was 48 higher when the seeds were sowed in a bed of H2 treated soil compared with plants that were germinated with air treated soil (data not shown Dong, Caldwell, unpublished). Figure 3. The effect of H2 treated soil on the growth and tiller number in spring wheat grown in the field in Minto, MB. Field soils were pretreated with air or H2 (peak exposure rate of 200 imoles L1 soil h1) for 5 weeks before being placed in a furrow (6.4 L m2) with wheat seeds. Note the larger number of tillers in these 7-week-old plants in H2 soil compared to soils exposed to air and the untreated control (UTC) soils (Kettlewell, Dong, Layzell, unpublished). Figure 3. The effect of H2 treated soil on the growth and tiller...

Delaware Estuary Case Study

With a length of 390 miles and a drainage area of 11,440 square miles, the Delaware River ranks seventeenth among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length. On the basis of mean annual discharge (1941-1970), the Delaware ranks twenty-eighth (17,200 cfs) of large rivers in the United States (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 7-2 highlights the location of the Delaware estuary case study catalog units identified by major urban-industrial areas affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). This chapter presents long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Delaware estuary. Data sources include USEPA's national water quality database (STORET), published technical literature, and unpublished technical reports (grey literature) obtained from local agency sources.

Eolian Records In The Northwestern United States

FIGURE 14 Map showing the distribution of eolian sand (stippled) in the central and southern Great Plains of the United States, modern potential drift directions, and inferred late Holocene paleo-winds based on dune orientations. Sand distribution data from Muhs and Holliday (1995) drift directions and paleowinds data from Madole (1995), Muhs et al. (1996, 1997a), Arbogast (1996), and unpublished data of D.R. Muhs and V.T. Holliday. FIGURE 14 Map showing the distribution of eolian sand (stippled) in the central and southern Great Plains of the United States, modern potential drift directions, and inferred late Holocene paleo-winds based on dune orientations. Sand distribution data from Muhs and Holliday (1995) drift directions and paleowinds data from Madole (1995), Muhs et al. (1996, 1997a), Arbogast (1996), and unpublished data of D.R. Muhs and V.T. Holliday.

Antarctic Peninsula Region

Gazdzicki et al. (1992) showed a 6 m decrease in d13C values in biogenic carbonates and Tatur et al. (2006) recorded an increase in the Cd Ca ratio in bivalve shells from the upper part of the La Meseta Formation. They interpreted these results as a change from stratified to vigorously mixed oceanic conditions related to the cryosphere development in the Southern Ocean by the end of the Eocene. Unpublished stable isotope (81SO and 813C) measurements (Feldmann and Marenssi) obtained from molluscan shells of the La Meseta Formation show a period of warmer seawater temperatures during 51-47 Ma and a drop of 1.5 C during 35-34 Ma. Further, Ivany et al. (2008), also undertaking isotopic analysis of bivalves from the La Meseta Formation, propose the possibility of winter sea-ice formation in this region during the late Middle Eocene (c. 37 Ma). They suggest mean ocean temperatures have approached freezing at this time by assuming a sea water 818O value of 3m as predicted...

Potomac Estuary Case Study

With a length of 340 miles and a drainage area of 14,670 square miles, the Potomac River ranks forty-eighth among the 135 U.S. rivers that are more than 100 miles in length (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 8-2 highlights the location of the Potomac estuary case study catalog units identified by major urban-industrial areas affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). This chapter presents long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Potomac estuary. Data sources include USEPA's national water quality database (STORET), published technical literature, and unpublished technical reports (grey literature) obtained from local agency sources.

On Antarctica And Thelarsenb Ice Shelf

To support his assertion that the Antarctic continent has cooled, Lomborg cited three sources, none of which had been published in a peer-reviewed journal as of Cool It's publication date. 2 Lomborg's first source was a draft paper, A Synthesis of Antarctic Temperatures, that, as the draft noted, was submitted for publication in 2005. Though the paper was published (Chapman and Walsh, 2007) too late for Lomborg to cite in Cool It, I will refer to both its unpublished and published versions. The published draft of the Chapman and Walsh paper thus did not say definitively that the Antarctic continent had cooled if anything, it reported that the continent had experienced a modest overall warming trend from 1958 to 2002. In addition, the unpublished draft the one that Lomborg did cite also reported a modest warming on the continent Trends calculated for the 1958-2002 period show modest warming over much of 50-90 S with maximum warming over the Antarctic Peninsula.4 Furthermore, the...

Modeled Ecosystem Carbon Discrimination

Model results for ae estimates display several important features reflecting global trends in vegetation composition and water status (Fig. 3). Generally, ecosystems in cool, wet environments exhibit the greatest ae values, whereas C4-dominated, tropical grasslands show the lowest ae estimates. However, within the area of C3-dominated vegetation, there is a wide range of ae values, representative of changing water status of the vegetation and plant adaptation to these environments. Dry deserts have characteristically low ae values due to the plants' water conserving strategy. High ratios of assimilation to stomatal conductance result in low C Ca ratios, and therefore in low foliar carbon discrimination (Farquhar et al, 1989). Ecosystems in Mediterranean-type winterrain climates show a higher ae because most of plant production takes place in the wet winter season (i.e., in the Mediterranean basin). A study of natural vegetation and unirrigated agriculture on Crete showed that...

Upper Chattahoochee River Case Study

The Southeast Basin (Hydrologic Region 3), covering a drainage area of 278,523 square miles, includes the Chattahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola River, which has a length of 524 miles and a drainage area of 19,600 square miles (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). On the basis of a mean annual discharge (1941-1970) of 24,700 cfs, the Chat-tahoochee-Flint-Apalachicola River ranks twenty-third of the large rivers of the United States (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 10-1 highlights the location of the Upper Chattahoochee River case study watersheds (catalog units), and the city of Atlanta, Georgia, identified in this river basin as one of the urban-industrial waterways affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). In this chapter, information is presented to characterize long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Upper Chattahoochee...

Strains of transgenic rice plants

By using the 3.7 kbp 5'-upstream region as a promoter for NADH-GOGAT, a chimeric gene construct having this promoter and the p-glucuronidase (GUS) structural gene as a reporter was introduced into rice calli that had been generated from germinating seeds, and transgenic rice plants were produced. Expression of the NADH-GOGAT gene is now monitored by GUS activity staining in various organs of the regenerated rice at the T0 generation. Preliminary results show that GUS activity is detected in vascular bundles of various organs of the T0 rice plants (Kojima et al, unpublished results). The 3.7 kbp upstream region from the translation start possesses the promoter activity for the NADH-GOGAT gene, with element(s) which determine the cell type specificity for gene expression in rice plants. Further transformation with a series of deletion clones of this region is now in progress to identify cis-elements related to the age-specific, cell-specific, and nitrogen-responsive expression of...

Variation in the Amounts of GS1 and Nadhgogat Protein in Rice Plants

Four cultivars out of a total of eight indica cultivars contained approximately twice as much GS1 protein as the japonica and javanica on the basis of total leaf nitrogen, although a regression line was not drawn for these indica cultivars. On the other hand, relative contents of NADH-GOGAT protein in unexpanded developing leaf blades of most indica cultivars were significantly lower than those of japonica and javanica. Cellular localization of GS1 and NADH-GOGAT proteins were identical among all cultivars tested. These results indicate that several indica cultivars possess an enhanced capacity to export leaf nitrogen, whereas japonica and javanica cultivars have an efficient system to utilize glutamine transported via vascular tissues.

Population Models Of Ecosystem Engineers The Simplest Cases

Cuddington et al. (unpublished see also Wilson, Ch 3) have analyzed what they consider to be the simplest version of this relationship between an engineer species and the environment. They present a model of the relationship between the relevant features of the environmental state, E, measured as a continuous variable, and the population level of the engineer species, N, also measured as a continuous variable. The environmental state, E, is some abiotic factor of interest. They suggest that this factor could be univariate, such as temperature, or multivariate, such as a combination of salinity and current flow. They divide the effect of the environment on population density into two components, density-independent effects determined by a, and density-dependent effects given by b. The effect of ecosystem engineering is to push the environment away from its normal state, E 0, while the environment tries to return back to that state at a rate p. So the full system is The model predicts...

Phase3 Enso Case Studies

In the mid-1990s through to early 2000, there were many case studies of El Nino documenting the impact of WWEs and excitation of oceanic Kelvin waves which were believed to have triggered the onset of El Nino (e.g., Kindle and Phoebus, 1995 Kessler et al, 1996 McPhaden, 1999 McPhaden et al, 1988 Yu and Reinecker, 1998 Kutsuwada and McPhadan, 2002). Nakazawa (2000) documented various atmospheric conditions associated with the MJO and tropical cyclone activities during the 1997 1998 El Nino. Indeed, definitive observations of atmospheric MJO signals, and oceanic Kelvin wave responses from satellites and the TOGA-TAO moorings, prior to the onset of the 1997 1998 El Nino re-invigorated the debate on the role of the MJO in possibly leading to the abrupt onset and termination of ENSO cycles (McPhaden and Yu, 1999 Takayabu et al, 1999).

Population Models Cases With An Evolutionary Focus

In this volume, Wilson (Ch 3) relates the simple population model of Cuddington et al. (unpublished) to evolutionary consequences. He illustrates how a mutant could increase in a population by responding positively to environmental changes that are made by the wild-type population activities. Given the feedback he describes, it is possible for selection to favor enhanced environmental modification.

Development and Habitus

Et al. 2003 Breznik et al. 2004, 2005) as a consequence of an effect during the early developmental stage of crops (Gao et al. 2003). It is likely that a disturbed elongation process results in plant stunting (Ballare et al. 1996), but the mechanism was not worked out. According to recent findings, photooxidative destruction of the phytohormone, indole acetic acid (IAA), and thus a loss of apical dominance, could contribute to interruptions in the elongation process (Mark and Tevini 1997 Meijkamp et al. 2001). In line with loss of apical dominance, many crops, including bean (Meijkamp et al. 2001) and Lolium sp. (Deckmyn and Impens 1999), exhibited increased tillering. On the other hand, our study revealed reduced tillering for common and tartary buckwheat, despite plant being stunted (Breznik et al. 2004 Breznik 2007, unpublished). Leaf area index (LAI) decreased because of the reduced leaf area in many crops, e.g. cotton (Gao et al. 2003), common and tartary buckwheat (Breznik et...

Impacts on Plant Productivity

Most forage species on rangelands have either the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Over 95 of the world's plant species, including most woody plants, utilize the C3 pathway. Photosynthesis in C3 plants is not CO2-saturated at the present atmospheric concentration, so increasing CO2 is predicted to stimulate carbon gain and productivity in these species (Drake et al., 1997). Plants with C4 photosynthetic pathways comprise fewer than 5 of the world's species, but are an important component of tropical and subtropical grasslands (Ehleringer et al., 1997). The final steps of photosynthesis in C4 plants occur in bundle sheath cells, where a highly efficient biochemical pump maintains CO2 at concentrations that nearly saturate photosynthesis when atmospheric CO2 is near the current 360 mmol mol-1 (Bowes, 1993). The C4 metabolism does not, however, preclude photosynthetic and growth responses to CO2 enrichment (Ghannoum et al., 1997 LeCain and Morgan, 1998). Wand and Midgley (1998,...

Management Implications

Simulated impact of global changes on profitability of a commercial cattle ranch in northern Australia (Campbell et al., 1997, supplemented with more recent unpublished simulations). Simulations ran for 100 years with realistic weather and with constant management strategy, costs and prices. Results are the change from a baseline simulation for an enterprise with annual turnover of Aus 450,000. Table 13.3. Simulated impact of global changes on profitability of a commercial cattle ranch in northern Australia (Campbell et al., 1997, supplemented with more recent unpublished simulations). Simulations ran for 100 years with realistic weather and with constant management strategy, costs and prices. Results are the change from a baseline simulation for an enterprise with annual turnover of Aus 450,000. Table 13.5. Issues raised by policy-makers for commercial rangelands of Australia and USA (unpublished data, Mark Stafford Smith, Jack Morgan).

Upper Mississippi River Case Study

In this chapter, data and information are presented to characterize long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality conditions, environmental resources, and uses of the Upper Mississippi River in the vicinity of the Twin Cities. Data sources included STORET, USEPA's national water quality database, USGS streamflow records (USGS, 1999a), published literature, unpublished data, newsletters, and technical reports obtained from the Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (MCES) in St. Paul and from other state, local, and federal agencies. Data have also been obtained from a validated water quality model of the Upper Mississippi River (Lung and Larson, 1995) to identify the progressive improvements in dissolved oxygen and other water quality parameters attributed to upgrades of the Metropolitan Wastewater Treatment Plant in St. Paul from primary to secondary and advanced secondary with nitrification (Lung,...

Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided By Oyster Reefs

50-year life span may seem extremely long given that oyster diseases have hampered many recent restoration efforts, reefs historically persisted for centuries prior to mechanical harvesting began and some recent reef sanctuaries in North Carolina that are currently intact were constructed over 2 decades ago (Powers et al. unpublished data). This difference illustrates that how a restored reef is managed (i.e., whether destructive harvesting of oysters is permitted or if the reef is protected) will largely influence the streamline of ecosystem goods and services that it provides.

Methods Approaches and Outcomes of Genetic Analyses

Historical and geographic patterns of migration can be inferred through genetic data when gene flow is expressed as a migration rate (m). The migration rate is measured as the proportion of haplotypes in a population that are of migrant origin in each generation. Patterns of mutation inheritance are reconstructed according to a phylogenetic gene tree of the haplotypes (one or more uniquely identified gene sequence(s)). Phylogenetics is the branch of science that deals with testing for the relatedness of individuals and heuristically seeks to identify the most parsimonious explanations of inheritance for genetic and morphological attributes we concentrate on the former. The genetic data are sorted as a parsimonious genealogy and allow exploration of populations that became structured through time by geographic proximity, gene flow, and common ancestry. Our selected markers express the molecular past according to their individual rates and modes of mutation. Cytochrome b codes for a...

Business as usual no climate change

Even without climate change, the expected increase in population will lead to an increase in domestic demand as well as changes in land use (i.e. increased urbanization) (J.D. Landis and M. Reilly, 2003, unpublished paper). This will intensify pressure on water resources in the Sacramento watershed. Bulletin 160-98 of the California Water Plan Update estimates that at 1995 levels of development, water shortages already exist and are in the order of 2000 million cubic metres (106 m3) in Model results show much higher shortfalls than the Department of Water Resources (DWR) Sacramento projections of deficit for an average year without climate change. Modelled shortfalls are 505 X 106 m3. One possible explanation is that the DWR water budget did not consider exports from the Sacramento region to other parts of the state. The export from the Sacramento delta to the SanJoaquin Valley and Los Angeles are currently modelled as major demands (i.e. with a combined urban and agricultural demand...

Difficulties Predicting Spread

Interestingly, in San Francisco Bay some hybrid genotypes exhibit high rates of self-fertilization. In this case, isolated individuals of these genotypes can produce abundant local seed shadows as well as localized habitat modification that could facilitate seedling establishment. Indeed, the lee sides of established clones appear to provide favorable microsites for recruitment in San Francisco Bay (Sloop and Ayres unpublished data). This suggests that species-specific life history traits can interact with the spatial patterning of engineering to drive spread patterns.

Relevant Patterns of Population Structure in Ambystoma macrodactylum in Space and Time

Seven glacial refugia resulting from glacial fragmentation are qualitatively identified from shallow history mtDNA divergence and are accentuated by haplotype distributions emanating from source areas along the coast (1) and interior (2). Refugia were identified (Thompson et al. unpublished) as 1a) Haida Gwaii 1b) Coastal Cascade Mountains 1c) Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California 2a) Blue Mountains 2b) Clearwater Mountains 2c) Montana's Rocky Mountains 2d) Salmon River Mountains. We use NCPA to describe the genealogy and spatial extent of post-glacial migration from these places for breeding salamander populations (Fig. 6). dispersal (Anderson 1960 Walker and Pellatt 2003).Deep genealogical sub-divisions are not expressed in areas further south of the glacial margins, unlike the situation for several other species. For example, there is a close genetic relationship between populations spanning the Klamath-Siskiyou biogeographic boundary (Bury and Pearl 1999), in contrast to...

Choice Of Control Strategies

Sediment conditions to small invaded patches within 6 years (Tyler et al. unpublished data). In contrast, large and long-established meadows are likely to be much more recalcitrant and require significant restoration investment. Incorporating these considerations into optimal control models for invasive ecosystem engineers is urgently needed. unpublished unpublished unpublished unpublished

Willamette River Case Study

The Pacific Northwest basin, covering a drainage area of 277,612 square miles, includes the mighty Columbia River. Based on its mean annual discharge (262,000 cfs, 1941-1970), the Columbia is the second largest river in the continental United States (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). With a length of 270 miles, a drainage area of 11,200 square miles, and a mean annual discharge of 35,660 cfs (1941-1970), the Willamette River is the fifteenth largest waterway in the United States ranked on the basis of annual discharge (Iseri and Langbein, 1974). Figure 13-1 highlights the location of the Willamette River case study watersheds (catalog units), identified in the Pacific Northwest basin as major urban-industrial areas affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). In this chapter, information is presented to characterize long-term trends in population, municipal waste-water infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality,...

Global Warming And Coasts At Latitudinal Extremes

FIGURE 6 An example of land loss due to coastal erosion in northern Alaska over 50 years (1955 1985 and 1985 2005) based on ground survey and satellite (Landsat) measurements (Source J.C. Mars and D.W. Houseknech, Unpublished work, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA, 2007) (see Ref. 60 ).

Occurrence of Zearalenone in Plants

Perpusilla and Fu and Meng (1994) in tobacco buds. Moreover, Meng et al. (1996) suggested the occurrence of this substance in more than 30 species of plants among others in onion, corn, rice, cotton, carrot, celery and apple. These data were not confirmed by other authors and the difficulty with their verification is connected with the fact that the majority of these articles are published in Chinese. However, our unpublished data indicate that small amounts of endogenous zearalenone can exist in winter wheat, soybean and spring rape. These measurements (high-performance liquid chromatography) were performed on plants cultured in vitro in sterile conditions.

Complexity Uncertainty And Their Role In Shaping Management Decisions

It was also clear though that the outcomes from the sheep eradication were more complex than anticipated and often depended on factors other than sheep. For example, relatively little attention had been given to outcomes from the cattle removal, but it was this action that contributed substantially to the expansion of fennel. Another example was pig abundance after the eradication. Densities were sometimes high, but dietary overlap between them and sheep is not extensive (Van Vuren 1981, Baber and Coblentz 1987) and variation in their abundance depended on factors other than sheep abundance (R. Klinger unpublished data). A final example was fire frequency. Plant biomass increased following the eradication of the sheep, but there was not an increase in fire frequency. The greater fuel loads certainly made this concern legitimate, but fire frequency on SCI appears to be related more to human ignition sources than fuel loads (Carroll et al. 1993, Keeley 2006, Klinger et al. 2006a), and...

The Arrangement of Grains

It remains unclear whether or not these effects also occur in coarser PRB media. Initial tests in the laboratory (Gore, unpublished data) show that the water-saturated bulk density of two types of clinoptilolite zeolite does not change with up to 50 freeze-thaw cycles, but the bulk density of a granular activated carbon (PicaCarb , Pica Inc.) tends to reduce with repeated reorganisation of the grains by flotation. No evidence of long-lived cracking or macropore development was observed in the sand-sized PRB media. However, it is possible that rearrangement of finer particles in the voids may occur following freezing, increasing permeability in some places but decreasing permeability in other places where finer particles enhance the formation of pore ice (Fourie et al. 2007). Alternatively, freeze-thaw shattering may increase the total amount of fine particles, leading to a reduced permeability. X-ray computed tomography, whereby hundreds of X-ray images are used to construct a...

Criteria for Evaluation and Selection of Parameters

Values for the carbon inventory parameters are required at as disaggregated a level as possible. Given the high variability due to various biophysical factors, the location specificity of these values is important. However, it is also important to state here that for many parameters the average values may indeed be adequate for different situations. For example, a review of 160 studies (Cairns et al. 1997) on root to shoot ratios showed that the values were within a small range of 0.18-0.30, and thus using a mean value of 0.26 may be adequate for most studies. The criteria for selecting the values from published or unpublished sources could be based on biophysical and management systems. Some potential stratification criteria are given in Table 17.10.

Lipochitooligosaccharides and Controls on Crop Production

Under field conditions, when compared to uninduced cultures of B. japonicum or genistein. This finding was made first in the field and is a classic example of serendipity in biological research. The stimulation of seed germination only by genistein induced B. japonicum cells suggests that the observed effects might be due to the LCO present in the induced cultures. We have recently shown that the major LCO of B. japonicum enhanced the germination and early growth of a variety of crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis (Prithiviraj et al. 2000c). Similar effects were observed with a number of synthetic LCOs (unpublished results). Presoaking of seeds in LCO solutions induced rapid emergence of soybean, maize and cotton under field conditions. LCO treatments also increased early growth of maize and soybean in pot and hydroponic experiments. Irrigation of maize seedlings with LCO solution doubled variables such as leaf area, plant height, and root and shoot dry weight. When...

The role of ethnobotany in pharmaceutical prospecting

The NCI recently re-embarked on medicinal plant research in the mid-1980s, initiating species collection in many different parts of the world. In a sample of NCI's latest screenings for activity against HIV, less than 2 of the random species collections showed in-vitro activity worth pursuing further in the laboratory, whereas over 15 of the ethnobotanical collections indicated preliminary chemical activity against the virus (M.J. Balick, unpublished data), later attributed to other compounds with previously known anti-viral effects such as tannins and polysaccharide. These were not pursued as this search was limited to 'novel' compounds.

Domestication of halophytes

Australia to provide fodder for sheep (Barrett-Lennard et al., 2003). Although these plants will withstand salt concentrations of more than seawater salinity in the root zone (Aslam et al., 1986), their optimal growth in the field occurs more in the 'moderately saline' to 'highly saline' range (ECe values 4-16 dS m E.G. Barrett-Lennard and M. Altman, unpublished results, 2008). Recent surveys suggest that more than 245,000 ha of salinized agricultural land are now managed in farming systems based around the use of these plants (Trewin, 2002).

Alternative Offsite Disposal and Waste Concentration Options

Unpublished data (1990-1991) Eastman Kodak Company Rochester, NY, 1990-1991. 78. Zimpro Passavant. Wet-air oxidation of three photographic developing solutions from Eastman Kodak, Unpublished report. November 9, Rothschild, WI, 1989. 82. Unpublished data. Eastman Kodak Company Rochester, NY, 1995. 83. Unpublished data. Eastman Kodak Company Rochester NY, 1997.

Archaeology Of The Arctic Canada And Greenland

Following earlier investigations by Graham Rowel, J0rgen Meldgaard conducted a series of investigations in the Foxe Basin region between 1954 and 1957. The excavations produced data spanning nearly 4000 years of Paleo-Eskimo activities in the Central Canadian Arctic. The style of cultural elements, particularly harpoon heads, provided a basis for establishing a cultural chronology that separated Dorset from earlier Pre-Dorset components. Regrettably, most of these data remain unpublished.

Ohio River Case Study

Figure 11-1 highlights the location of the Ohio River case study watersheds (catalog units) identified along the Ohio River as major urban-industrial areas (e.g., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky) affected by severe water pollution problems during the 1950s and 1960s (see Table 4-2). In this chapter, information is presented to characterize long-term trends in population, municipal wastewater infrastructure and effluent loading of pollutants, ambient water quality, environmental resources, and uses of the Ohio River. Data sources include USEPA's national water quality database (STORET), published technical literature, and unpublished technical reports (grey literature) obtained from the Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) and other local agency sources.

Contribution of the different components of the aquatic medium to absorption of PAR

Table 3.3 Calculated distribution of absorbed photosynthetic quanta between the particulate fraction, soluble fraction and water in Australian water bodies. The calculations have in each case been carried out for the euphotic zone of the water body in question. Data from Kirk (1980b), Kirk and Tyler (1986) and unpublished.

Posteradication Flora And Fauna Dynamics

Annual counts and systematic hunting were conducted from 19901999 to collect data on the density and population structure of the pigs. Estimates of their island-wide abundance ranged from 800-5400, with pronounced crashes following years with low rainfall and poor mast crops (Figure 18.3A R. Klinger unpublished data). A population model indicated that over the 150 years the pigs had been on SCI they were characterized by large fluctuations in population growth, with a long-term geometric mean X 1 (Figure 18.3B R. Klinger unpublished data). A rapid increase in vegetation cover occurred after a 5-year drought ended in 1991 (Klinger et al. 2002). Cover, density, and recruitment of trees and shrubs increased across the island, especially in chaparral and pine forests (Figure 18.4 Klinger, unpublished data). These were largely native species, including many endemics. However, non-native species comprised a significant proportion of the herbaceous layer in many vegetation types. Mean cover...

Methods of drug development

All medicinal preparations, from a historical vantage point, used to be derived from plants. With the advent of the search for 'magic bullets' in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the isolation and optimization of active chemical principles from plants became the dominant mode of drug discovery. Over the course of the twentieth century exploration of medicinal plants has no doubt resulted in the discovery of many important pharmaceuticals. N. Farnsworth (unpublished data) suggests that approximately three-quarters of the 121 useful prescription drugs developed from plants were discovered following their earlier use in indigenous medicine, that is with the aid of ethnobotanical knowledge about the plants' potential uses.

Interactions between vertical mixing and UVR effects

Schematic of the time vs. depth distribution of floats released at various times during a diel cycle of nocturnal mixing and diurnal stratification in the Labrador Sea E. D'Asaro and G. Dairiki unpublished data as shown in 2 , The heavy line (a composite of three separate float deployments) depicts a possible depth history of a non-motile plankton over the 24 h period. Note that trajectories are terminated once they enter the stable diurnal thermocline since they actually start to ascend due to very slight positive buoyancy of the floats. Figure 3. Schematic of the time vs. depth distribution of floats released at various times during a diel cycle of nocturnal mixing and diurnal stratification in the Labrador Sea E. D'Asaro and G. Dairiki unpublished data as shown in 2 , The heavy line (a composite of three separate float deployments) depicts a possible depth history of a non-motile plankton over the 24 h period. Note that trajectories are terminated once they enter the...

Research Agenda And Findings That Support The Model

Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L. L.) is a large C4 bunchgrass native from the southeastern U.S. and Great Plains southward to Bolivia and Paraguay (Great Plains Flora Association, 1986). A relative of maize (de Wet and Harlan, 1978), eastern gamagrass has long been recognized as a nutritious and highly productive forage. Because of its high-quality seed (27 to 30 protein and 7 fat, Bargman et al., 1989) and large seed size, however, gamagrass shows much promise also as a grain crop for consumption by people, livestock, or both. Ground seed has baking properties similar to those of cornmeal. The major hurdle facing eastern gamagrass as a grain crop is low seed yield (typically around 100 kg ha, but as high as 250 to 300 kg ha in some material at the Land Institute, Piper, unpublished data). Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM.) is a nitrogen-fixing legume that forms a deep taproot in its first year. It is native to the Great Plains, with a range...

The Choice of Discount Rate

10 The question for economists is not only to estimate the cost of future damages, but also how much the gains from, for example, saved species are worth. The benefits could be vaccines, or just the enjoyment of the existence of the species (Goulder and Stavins 2002, 674). As David Pearce said, 'A first step should be to improve the measurement of the value people put on the environment ( ). Put a proper value on an environmental good, and the balance between costs and benefits will start to look greener' (Heathfield and Russell 1992, 412, quoting an unpublished lecture by Pearce).

Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Animal Wastes and Lagoons

The annual release of CH4 from different manure storage systems associated with swine vary from 10 kg per animal for subconfinement pits within buildings to about 90 kg per animal in a lagoon system. This variation in CH4 production can be attributed to the amount of solids in the different manure systems and the bacterial populations present in the manure storage. Groenestein and Faassen (1996) found that deep-litter systems for swine reduced N2O emissions because of changes in the manure digestion systems within the manure. Changes in manure management have had a positive impact on emission rates. Prueger and Hatfield (unpublished data, 1997) positioned a trace gas analyser over a lagoon and found that there was variation in the CH4 fluxes throughout the day in response to diurnal changes in temperature. (Similar variation has been observed in rice fields Sass et al., 1991b Satpathy et al., 1997 Wang et al., 1997a.) Prueger and Hatfield also

The Telese area Southern Italy

The Sannio Unit is interpreted as a rootless thrust sheet originally deposited in a deep basin area located internally alongside the Latium-Abruzzo carbonate platform (Patacca et al., 1992). According to unpublished surface and subsurface data (Corrado et al., 1998) the entire thickness of the Sannio Unit is estimated to be about 3500 m.

Deformation of subglacial till

Relation between s and Ne obtained from a laboratory test on a sample of till from beneath Storglaciaren (Iverson, unpublished data). Inset shows, schematically, how s may actually vary with Ne at low effective pressures. Figure 7.13. Relation between s and Ne obtained from a laboratory test on a sample of till from beneath Storglaciaren (Iverson, unpublished data). Inset shows, schematically, how s may actually vary with Ne at low effective pressures. most of the clay-sized particles that are present in such clay-poor tills are not clay minerals. Thus, c may be small in such tills. For example, records from tiltmeters emplaced in till beneath Storglaciaren demonstrate that this till is deforming. However, only 5.4 (by weight) of the particles in samples collected through boreholes are less than 2 m, and these particles are largely quartz and hornblende (Iverson, unpublished data). Laboratory tests yield c 8 kPa for this till (Figure 7.13). Similar tests on till samples...

Ex Situ Treatment of Groundwater

Most methods for ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater at cold-climate sites are conventional methods of pump and treat that are commonly used by engineering firms at warmer sub-Arctic sites. For general information about these conventional pump and treat methods, the reader is referred to overviews provided by Nyer (1992), Eastern Research Group, Inc. (1996), and Cohen et al. (1997). Documentation of applications of pump and treat in cold regions has typically been in the form of unpublished, proprietary reports for clients.

Instrument deployment in the glacier substrate

An assessment of the extent to which the disturbed subglacial material affects the depth of instrument insertion was attempted at Trapridge Glacier by driving two steel rods with the same dimensions as a ploughmeter into the soft bed. Prior to insertion, the lower 50 cm of the rods had been coated with paint. Upon retrieval 10 days later, subhorizontal scratches in the paint suggested that the total insertion depth exceeded the measured depth by ca. 20-30mm (Fischer, unpublished data).

Identification Of Hydrate

Map showing hydrate deposits around Japan as revealed by presence of hydrate gas interface BSR. NT, Nankai Trough. Hydrate locations compiled by Mr. Mikio Satoh, Geological Survey of Japan. After Aoki et al. (1983), Arato et al. (1996), Ashi and Taira (1993), Ashi and Tokuyama (1997), Ashi et al. (1996), Ashi et al. (1999), Baba and Uchida (1998), Honza (1078), Hyndman et al. (1992), Nakamura et al. (1997), Okuda (1996), Sakai (1998), Satoh et al. (1996), Taira et al. (1991), Tamaki et al. (1990), Tsuji et al. (1998), Yamano et al. (1982, 1984, 1992), and unpublished data held by the Geological Survey of Japan. Figure 2. Map showing hydrate deposits around Japan as revealed by presence of hydrate gas interface BSR. NT, Nankai Trough. Hydrate locations compiled by Mr. Mikio Satoh, Geological Survey of Japan. After Aoki et al. (1983), Arato et al. (1996), Ashi and Taira (1993), Ashi and Tokuyama (1997), Ashi et al. (1996), Ashi et al. (1999), Baba and Uchida (1998), Honza...

Diversity of Viable Bacteria and Archaea

The description of viable Archaea in permafrost remains limited. Methanogenic Archaea, generally occur in low numbers (102-103 g-1) and not in all samples (Rivkina et al. 1998, 2002). Recovered isolates related to the genera Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium (Rivkina et al. 2007) and methanogenic activity detected in Siberian permafrost samples suggests that methanogenesis occurs at in situ permafrost temperatures (Rivkina et al. 2000, 2002). We recently detected halophilic Archaea in saline enrichment cultures from Canadian high Arctic permafrost, indicating that these organisms are members of a viable permafrost microbial community (unpublished data).

Patterns of DNA damage accumulation and repair in aquatic organisms

Dna Photorepair

As 6-4 PP showed a clear depth pattern in the Gulf of Mexico 12 (6-4 PP profile shown in Figure 5). Similar patterns of damage were observed in bacterio-plankton in the Southern Ocean (Jeffrey et al., unpublished results). In their study Weinbauer et al. 12 described the induction of both CPDs and 6-4 PPs in viral isolates, incubated at several water depths, but also in natural viral communities sampled at the end of the day (concentrated from specific depths). 6-4 PPs and CPDs showed a significantly similar distribution with depth. The percentage of the 6-4 PP relative to total measurable DNA damage averaged 3.1 in natural viral communities in the Gulf of Mexico. The generally higher damage levels in fixed isolates as compared with natural in situ samples indicated that mixing rates minimized photodamage accumulation in viral DNA. This conclusion was further supported by the CPD depth profiles of bacterioplankton from the Southern Ocean 86 and the Northern Gulf of Mexico 11,87...

Global water resources and ecosystems

In Fig. 4.1, the long-term average mean annual runoff (MAR) of rivers is shown. This is calculated using a global runoff model (Smakhtin, VU., Revenga, C. and Doll, P, unpublished). Between regions there is a large difference in runoff. The dark areas show high runoff and the light areas low runoff. As can be expected, high yearly runoff occurs in the tropics and the yearly runoff in the desert regions is very low. The centre of North America, Australia and central Asia are places in the world where the water resources are scarce. These are the potential hotspots when CC leads to a reduction in runoff. Ecosystems need a certain amount of water to subsist and this amount varies between regions and ecosystems. For the majority of the rivers in the world there is no recommendation on the environmental water requirement. To estimate the amount of water that ecosystems need worldwide, a modelling study is performed (Smakhtin, VU., Revenga, C. and Doll, P, unpublished). This study used the...

Direct damage and means of protection lines of defense

A heterogeneous category of UV-screening compounds are collectively labeled MAAs. These are widespread in shallow water organisms 23,24 absorb radiation primary in the 310-360 nm range and seem to be primarily associated with UV-stress. Probably most of the MAAs in heterotrophs are derived via food from autotrophs 25,26 . MAAs are also found in freshwater zooplankton, yet there may be conspicuous differences among taxa. Ethanol extracts from alpine copepods contained compounds absorbing in the range for MAA (peak absorb-ance at 330nm), while no such were found in Arctic or alpine populations of Daphnia (Figure 1, Borgeraas and Hessen, unpublished data). This is in support of Sommaruga and Garcia-Pichel 27 who reported frequently high concentrations of MAAs in alpine calanoid copepods, moderate levels in sympatric rotifers, while virtually no MAAs were detected in cladocera. This points to some important taxonomic differences in pigmentation strategies, at least between copepods and...

Preface to the third edition

I would like to thank Dr Susan Blackburn, Professor D. Branton, Dr M. Bristow, Mr S. Craig, Dr W. A. Hovis, Mr Ian Jameson, Dr S. Jeffrey, Dr D. Kiefer, Professor V. Klemas, Professor L. Legendre, Dr Y. Lipkin, Professor W. Nultsch, Mr D. Price, Professor R. C. Smith, Dr M. Vesk Biospherical Instruments Inc., who have provided original copies of figures for reproduction in this work and Mr F. X. Dunin and Dr P. A. Tyler for unpublished data. I would like to thank Mr K. Lyon of Orbital Sciences Corporation for providing illustrations of the SeaWiFS scanner and spacecraft, and the SeaWiFS Project NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, for remote sensing images of the ocean.

Responses of Soil CO2 Efflux and Carbon Dynamics to Fire

This enhanced soil CO2 efflux after burning lasted at least one week in the present study (Fig. 7a), and possibly longer considering that root respiration might greatly decrease at the slash-and-burn site (SA02) because old roots were killed by fire and new roots of the turnip crop were still under developing. On the other hand, root respiration may contribute a large proportion to total soil CO2 efflux in the unburned control CF site across the whole growing season. By direct measurements of root respiration, it is estimated that root respiration at the slash-and-burn (SA02) site accounted for 43 of total soil CO2 efflux for the pre-fire period (July 21 to August 10) and decreased to 14 for the post-fire period (August 25 to October 4) whileas soil respiration at the unburned control CF site contributed 43 to the total soil CO2 efflux for the pre-fire period (July 21 to August 10), and increased to 63 just after burning (August 11 to August 24), and contributed to 66 for the...

Plant Growth Promotion in H2Treated Soils

To test this hypothesis, plant growth was compared in soils that were previously exposed to air or to H2 in air at an H2 exposure rate that increased from 63 to 250 pinoles L1 soil h1 over a 9 week period. This H2 exposure rate was similar to that experienced by soils adjacent to legume nodules during plant growth (Dong, Layzell 2001). After 43 d, soybean plants grown in H2 treated soil had 14 more dry weight than plants grown in untreated soil (Figure 1) (Wu, Dong, Layzell, unpublished). A plant growth response was also observed in non-legumes. For example, 44 d old barley plants grown on H2 treated soils were 18 larger than plants grown on air treated soil (Figure 1). In similar studies with 35 d old canola, the H2 treated soil stimulated growth by 18 compared to untreated soil (Figure 1) (Wu, Dong, Layzell, unpublished). In spring wheat, soil pretreated with H2 for 30 d was found to enhance plant biomass of 29 d old plants by 32 compared with plants grown in air treated soil...

Restricted data and confidentiality

Data providers might restrict access to information because it is confidential, unpublished, or not yet finalised. Typically, this is a mechanism to prevent inappropriate use of the data, unauthorised commercial exploitation, or sensitivity to possible imperfections in the data. Sometimes, however, the organisation simply does not have the resources required to compile and check the data. It is advisable, where possible, to cooperate with data providers to find solutions to overcome their concerns by

Forecasting for a Purpose Contextualised Forecasting

As part of a research project we tested the APSIM-Wheat model (Keating et al., 2003) on data from 100 plant breeding experiments across 23 experimental sites and several years. We deemed the model's performance adequate (R2 0.6) to characterise the environmental component of G x E interactions (Figure 1a, unpublished data, Cooper, personal communication Chapman et al., 2000a). These experiments were not specifically conducted for model testing and while some information regarding soil type, soil water and nutrient status were available, the experimental data set still contained a considerable amount of parameter uncertainty. Using data from a long-term soil fertility trial (Strong et al., 1996), where all the necessary input parameters and starting conditions were measured and available, a R2 value of 0.8 was obtained (Figure 1b). Clearly, measured and simulated data were in better agreement when the input parameter uncertainty was reduced. However, the same data set also highlighted...

Food Security In Dryland Areas

Measure Primary Productivity 14c

Figure 14.3 Relationship of annual precipitation and wheat yields showing improved water use efficiency. (From Z. Wu, A.W. Colette, and B.A. Stewart, West Texas A& M University, unpublished data, 2002.) Figure 14.3 Relationship of annual precipitation and wheat yields showing improved water use efficiency. (From Z. Wu, A.W. Colette, and B.A. Stewart, West Texas A& M University, unpublished data, 2002.)

Characterization Of Biodiversity In Arid Lands

Studies of functional group diversity in arid lands have focussed on the convergent evolution of organisms in similarly hostile environments (e.g. Mooney 1977 Orians and Solbrig 1977 Cloudsicy-Thompson 1993). For plants, identification of guild or functional group membership seems relatively straightforward, as growth form (e.g. shrub, grass, annual forb) is quite highly correlated with phenology and physiology (e.g. photosynthetic pathway). Thus whether one uses physiology, timing of activity, or structure morphology, one is liable to end up with similar categories or groups of species. An analysis of the flora of the Jornada Long-Term Ecological Research site in the Chihuahuan desert, for example, showed a non-random association of life-form with photosynthetic pathway (L.F. Huenneke, unpublished data, 1995). On the other hand, relatively subtle differences in morphology or physiology wichin a growth form may have significant effects on the pattern of species coexistence. For...

Conclusions a strategy for plant improvement and management to exploit the plants drought response capacity

It is therefore appropriate to assay the interaction between these two hormones on leaf expansion using well-hydrated plants. Feeding ABA and ACC simultaneously via the xylem to detached shoots inhibits leaf growth additively (I.C. Dodd, unpublished results 2005), suggesting an important role for ethylene in the inhibition of leaf growth in drying soil, when shoot water status is maintained. In contrast, in plants at low water potential, ABA accumulation is necessary to minimise high rates of ethylene synthesis and ethylene-mediated root growth inhibition (LeNoble et al., 2004). Transgenic approaches to enhance drought tolerance may be effective but are not always socially acceptable. It may be important, therefore, that certain bacteria occurring on the root surface contain high levels of the enzyme ACC deaminase that will degrade the ethylene precursor ACC. Since a dynamic equilibrium of ACC concentration exists between root, rhizosphere and...

Acknowledgements

This book was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 08-05-00949a. The authors are grateful to N. Diansky, R. Ibrayev, V. Knysh, E. Ozsoy, T. Pohlmann, E. Semenov, and V. Zalesny for providing us with their unpublished materials that was helpful for keeping some sections of the book in state-of-the-art. Many interesting discussions in the institutions of both authors were very fruitful. We thank also to V. Arutyunyan and A. Schneehorst for their assistance in the preparation of the manuscript for publication, and to Nina Bennink and Rajasekar Subramaniam for their comments and corrections of the manuscript yet we ask a pardon from a careful reader who may still find some mistakes in the text.

Applications

Plowing in conventional agriculture incorporates crop residues into the soil profile to produce homogeneous soils that favor the bacteria, protozoa, and bac-tivorous nematode portions of the underground food web in contrast, minimal tillage leaves organic residues on the surface and a rich organic layer near the surface, enhancing the fungal, Collembola, and earthworm portions of the underground food web (Hendrix et al., 1986 Lee and Pankhurst, 1992). The protozoan communities differ between the two systems in the greater prominence of r-selected colpodid ciliates (reflecting less species diversity) in conventional fields (Foissner, 1992 Bamforth, unpublished data). The biomass of amoebae and flagellates, however, is greater in the surface layer of ecofarmed systems (DeRuiter et al., 1993) and is associated with increased nitrogen mineralization (DeRuiter et al., 1993). Using testacea as bioindicators, Wodarz et al. (1992) found organically farmed field and vineyard soils showed...

Nitrogen Sources

The cyanobacteria have Amt proteins that can mediate the uptake of ammonium (as well as of its structural analog methylammonium) when it is present at very low concentrations in the extracellular medium. We refer to these proteins as Amtl (Montesinos et al. 1998). Analysis of sequenced genomes has shown however that some cyanobacteria posses additional amt genes, like the amt2 and amt3 genes of the unicellular strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 whose function remains unknown. Nonetheless, mutation of the three amt genes of strain PCC 6803 renders a strain that can still incorporate some ammonium from the extracellular medium (J. Paz-Yepes, unpublished), probably through a mechanism which involves diffusion of unprotonated ammonia followed by trapping of ammonium by glutamine synthetase. As is the case for ammonia, urea can readily diffuse through biological membranes. However, in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and in the Infixing strain Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 an ABC-type transporter which...

Aa11111

Thus, if it is wished to determine the absolute amount of light available for photosynthesis at a given depth in a water body, a measurement of downward irradiance may seriously underestimate this, particularly in turbid waters. On the other hand, the vertical attenuation coefficient, Kd, for downward irradiance is close in value to the vertical attenuation coefficient, K0, for scalar irradiance. Monte Carlo calculations (Kirk, unpublished) show that for media with b a ranging from 0.3 to 30, Kd K0 varies only between about 1.01 and 1.06. The measured value of Kd can therefore be taken as a reasonable estimate of the value of K0, and used to predict the attenuation of scalar irradiance with depth.

Moderate

Abundance of Dudleya caespitosa along the partially invaded transect compared with either of the other dune transects. We cannot rule out a pre-existing difference between the sites but the sites are in very close proximity and have the same slope and aspect. Also D'Antonio (unpublished) found that heavy herbivory by deer occurred on Dudleya when C. edulis was removed from around it, suggesting a protective function offered by C. edulis. Despite the lack of rigorous data relevant to this issue, we feel that invasive species entering a range of abiotic environments offer the opportunity to explore when ecosystem engineers might act as facilitators via their effects on the harshness of the environment. In this case, the modulating effect of the invader on the soil surface was overridden by either the volume or chemistry of the accumulated litter material.

Marine Temperatures

A major challenge for determining ancient climate sensitivity is the need for robust estimates of ocean temperatures and latitudinal ocean temperature gradients. This need is particularly great for climate reconstructions of the pre-Cretaceous, for which we presently only have binary icehouse or greenhouse reconstructions (Figure 1.2) and highly interpretive and largely unpublished climate syntheses (e.g., see PALEOMAP Project6). Several proxies have been employed to reconstruct ancient sea surface and deep

Sources of data

Most of our analysis and inference is based on coal-ball data of two types, profile and random sample. Profiles of coal balls are collected in situ relative position of coal-ball layers within the coal bed is noted, which permits recovery of the original zonation of the plant litter (Fig. 1). Random samples of coal balls are collected from one locality without respect to the position of coal balls in the coal bed. Consequently, they represent the average composition of the per-mineralized peat at the collection site. A coal-bed summary can be obtained from a profile by averaging the composition of individual coal-ball zones. Palynological and compression fossil data are presented and discussed where appropriate, and in order to amplify coal-ball patterns. There are critical gaps in the coal-ball record, particularly in the early Stephanian, immediately following the extinctions at the end of the Westphalian, and palynological data are of particular importance in this interval. The...

Wastewater

Another possibility is the separation of domestic waste(water) streams at the source, with subsequent community-based on-site anaerobic treatment of the concentrated black water and kitchen waste at an elevated temperature for the production of energy (grey water is separately treated). Successful demonstrations have already been made in Germany and The Netherlands (Otterpohl et al, 1999 Zeeman et al, 2008). Worldwide, domestic on-site septic tanks are frequently applied for domestic sewage treatment, especially in rural areas. The CH4 that is produced is generally not recovered or used as an energy source. A greater number of septic tank systems could be improved and operated as UASB-septic tanks for increased efficiency and biogas production (Lettinga et al, 1993). Indeed, by feeding black water and kitchen waste to a UASB-septic tank, 60 per cent of the energy for cooking can be provided by the produced biogas (Zeeman and Kujawa, unpublished results).

Water deficits

Observed that WUE was not affected by water deficit. Under water-limiting conditions, the increased plant growth under elevated CO2 may compensate for the reduced water loss due to lower gs, resulting in the same (Casella et al., 1996) or a slightly reduced (Hebeisen et al., unpublished observations) level of soil moisture.

Respiration

On the other hand, some recent findings revealed depressed cell respiration resulting from enhanced UV-B radiation. Studies of respiratory potential for common buckwheat, tartary buckwheat and pumpkin under irradiation indicated lower terminal electron transport (ETS) activity and thus lower respiration (Germ et al. 2005 Breznik 2007, unpublished). The reason for the inhibitory effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on ETS activity is not clear. However, Lukaszek and Poskuta (1996) provided an evidence for damage of mitochondrial structures that might result in decreased respiration.

Scalar irradiance

Fig. 6.9 Attenuation of scalar irradiance with depth. The data for Burrinjuck Dam (an Australian inland impoundment) were obtained with a scalar quantum irradiance sensor measuring the full 400 to 700 nm waveband (Kirk, unpublished measurements). The data for the Danish Sound (Baltic Sea) are measurements by Hojerslev (1975) at 532 nm. Fig. 6.9 Attenuation of scalar irradiance with depth. The data for Burrinjuck Dam (an Australian inland impoundment) were obtained with a scalar quantum irradiance sensor measuring the full 400 to 700 nm waveband (Kirk, unpublished measurements). The data for the Danish Sound (Baltic Sea) are measurements by Hojerslev (1975) at 532 nm.

Invasion Percolation

Critically-limited non-linear flow phenomena. Invasion percolation (a) Drainage experiments conducted by Furuberg et al. (1996) on a bead array, (b) A dynamic invasion percolation model for gas migration though mudrocks (Impey et al. 1997). Fracture flow, (c) Injection of water into fractured unlithified mud (A.J. Bolton and M.B. Clennell, unpublished results), (d) Electrical circuit with a hysteric switch. Common features are evident Pulsatile flow, regular cycling of flow episodes, and period doubling whereby the interval between pulses reduces by half during an experiment. Higher flux would drive the system into chaos (see Acheson 1997). Figure 6. Critically-limited non-linear flow phenomena. Invasion percolation (a) Drainage experiments conducted by Furuberg et al. (1996) on a bead array, (b) A dynamic invasion percolation model for gas migration though mudrocks (Impey et al. 1997). Fracture flow, (c) Injection of water into fractured unlithified mud (A.J. Bolton and...

Ammonia Oxidation

A poorly quantified, but still potentially important source of NO, is the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). A major uncertainty regarding this source is the lack of information on the tropospheric distribution of NH3. NH3 is initially oxidized by OH to form NH2. NH2 may go on to form NO, through reaction with 03, however, it may also react with NO, to form N2 or N20. Based on differences in rate coefficients, NH3 oxidation should provide a net source of NO, when ambient NO, is less than 200 to 500 ppt, a condition that is prevalent in the remote troposphere. Recently, boundary layer NH3 mixing ratios in the 50 to 900 ppt range (median 250pptv) have been found over large stretches of the South Pacific and the Southern Ocean (J. Bradshaw, unpublished data). A reasonable estimate for this source is about 0.6TgN yr, assuming a background tropospheric NH3 value of 150pptv and a 4-month lifetime for oxidation via OH.

Wateruse efficiency

Reflecting roughly the impact of physiological controls, WUEe (or rain use efficiency) tends to be maximum under limiting water supply (Huxman et al., 2004), as suggested by Figure 6.2. The great variability in the data is mainly because of species differences and plant metabolism (e.g. C3 C4), differences in nutrition and soil properties and rainfall seasonality. The trend line shown for forests indicates that with high water supply the non-productive fluxes of water become more important. This trend was also shown in a eucalyptus plantation where irrigation and fertilisation treatments were applied (Table 6.1). The treatments were irrigation to satisfy the evapotranspiration demand in summer (I), irrigation as in I plus fertilisers added according to plant needs (IL), no irrigation but with fertilisers added (F) and control plots (C) (Madeira et al., 2002). WUEe decreased substantially (80 ) in well-watered as compared to rainfed plots in the normal rainfall year as shown in Table...

Phytoplankton

Fig. 3.8 Comparison of the spectral absorption properties of the different fractions in an estuarine water from southeast Australia - Lake King, Victoria (Kirk, unpublished data). Phytoplankton were present at a level corresponding to 3.6 mg chlorophyll am 3 and the turbidity of the water was 1.0 NTU. Fig. 3.8 Comparison of the spectral absorption properties of the different fractions in an estuarine water from southeast Australia - Lake King, Victoria (Kirk, unpublished data). Phytoplankton were present at a level corresponding to 3.6 mg chlorophyll am 3 and the turbidity of the water was 1.0 NTU.

Energy flow

Tropical trees differ markedly in tissue chemistry (Rodin and Basilevich 1967 Golley 983a,b), suggesting that they differ both in what they remove from the soil and in what they deposit on the soil surface. Soils under the legume Pentaclethra macroioba at La Selva, Costa Rica, have lower pH values than soils from areas away from individuals of this species, presumably because symbiotic microorganisms associated with P. macroioba trees fix nitrogen, which is then nitrified (Sollrns, unpublished data). Soils under female Tropins invol crala individuals have higher phosphorus concentrations than soils under males (Cox 1981). The meager evidence so far available suggests that trees of different species may generate significant differences in the soils in the area affected by their roots and litterfall, but whether these differences are important for regeneration, growth and species richness in tropical forests remains to be determined (Parker 1994). Several studies have failed to detect...

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